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Full text of "A history of painting in north Italy, Venice, Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Ferrara, Milan, Friuli, Brescia from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century; by J.A. Crowe and G.B. Cavalcaselle"

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V , 








MANTEGNA AT MANTUA . . . . . . 80 

THE VICENTLNES . . . . . . ...121 


THE VERONESE . . . . . . .154 








THE MILANESE . , . . . . , . 316 






rich Museum . . . . . . Frontispiece 



Civico 8 


Friedrich Museum. . . . . . . . .10 



FRESCO (detail). Padua, Eremitani . . . . .16 


CHRIST. Padua, Eremitani . . . ; . . . .16 


Eremitani . . . . . . . . . .18 


Eremitani ...... . , . . .IS 

9. LORENZO CANOZZI (?). ST. GREGORY. Padua, Eremitani . .22 

10. NICCOLO PIZZOLO. THE ASSUMPTION (detail). Padua, Eremitani. 24 


Brera ....!...... 28 


Eremitani 30 


Eremitani .......... 32 


Padua, Eremitani ........ 40 



Kaiser Friedrich Museum ....... 50 

17. DARIO. THE VIRGIN OF MERCY. Bassano, Museo Civico . . 54 



18. PAINTED HOUSE- FRONT. Bassano ...... 56 


Friedrich Museum. (6) CONCERT. Berlin, Kaiser Friedrich 
Museum .......... 62 


From an engraving by M. TOLLER, reproducing a fresco formerly 

in the Hall of Council at Belluno ...... 66 


22. BARTOLOMMEO BONASCIA. PIET!. Modena Gallery ... 76 


SAINTS. Modena, San Pietro. ...... 76 


Verona, San Zeno 82 


Gallery . . . 84 


Downton Castle, Mr. C. A. Rouse-Boughton-Knight . .84 


CARDINAL FRANCESCO GONZAGA. Mantua, Castello . . 92 


ton Court (fourth picture) . . . . . . .106 


ton Court (fifth picture) . . . . . . .106 


Carrara 108 



Vicenza, Museo Civico . . . . . . . .126 


Milan, Brera 132 

34. GIOVANNI BUONCONSIGLIO. PIETA. Vicenza, Museo Civico . .140 


Museo Civico ......... 146 



Verona, San Paolo 182 


SAINTS. Verona, San Fermo. . . . . . .192 




THE BONACCOLSI. Milan, Signer B. Crespi . . . .196 


Verona, Museo Civico . . . . . . . .198 

41. GIROLAMO DAI LiBRi. PiETA. Malcesine ..... 200 

42. PAOLO MORANDO. PIETA. Verona, Museo Civico . . . 208 



45. GALASSO (?). PIET!. Ferrara Gallery ..... 222 


Kaiser Friedrich Museum 228 


Gallery 232 


Cook 236 


Friedrich Museum 240 


Schifanoia 248 


52. FRANCESCO FRANCIA. THE NATIVITY. Glasgow Gallery . .270 

53. FRANCESCO FRANCIA. THE NATIVITY. Bologna Gallery . .274 


Milan, Brera 290- 



SAINTS. Parma Gallery 300 


Ravenna Gallery . . .306 


CHILD WITH SAINTS. Milan, Brera. . . . . 308 


Gallery 324 


Layard 342' 

61. BERNARDINO ZENALE. THREE SAINTS (left panel in lower course 

of polyptych). Treviglio, San Martino 352 

VOL. II. b 



62. BERNARDINO BUTINONE. THREE SAINTS (right panel in lower 

course of polyptych). Treviglio, San Martino . . . .352 


School of Painting . . . . . . . .364 

<54. ANDREA SOLARIO. THE HOLY FAMILY. Milan, Museo Poldi- 

Pezzoli .... .382 

65. NEAPOLITAN SCHOOL. ST. JEROME. Naples Museum . . .412 



triptych). Messina, Museo Civico 418 


Gallery 422 


70. ANTONELLO DA MESSINA. ST. SEBASTIAN. Dresden Gallery . 430 


Pinakothek 432 


San Severino . . . . ... . . . 436 


Museo Civico ..... . 448 


The editor's notes are marked with an asterisk. 




THE birth and growth of the Venetian school have been 
treated in these pages as an independent part of the 
history of Italian painting ; but constant reference was made to 
the principles and teaching of the Paduans as affecting the 
progress of their more insular neighbours. We shall find it 
necessary to devote considerable attention to these Paduans ; 
first of all for the sake of reconstructing their lives in a manner 
agreeable to historic truth, and next to strip their earliest masters 
of a fictitious importance. 

During the fourteenth century Paduan art was a mere exotic. 
The men who throve were Altichiero, Avanzi of Verona, and 
Giusto of Florence ; Guariento being in practice a Venetian. 
Wherever remains of local craftsmen are found they exhibit an 
humble and unpresuming mediocrity ; l and as the fourteenth 
century closes, Giottesque is supplanted by Umbrian feeling. 

1 Amongst the older works about Padua, there are some which, having previously 
escaped notice in these pages, may now be mentioned. (1) Roncaiete, near 
Padua (church of). Small altarpiece, wood, gold ground, in two courses. Below, 
the Virgin and Child between SS. James and Lawrence presenting a kneeling 
patron, Fidenzio and Bartholomew ; above, the crucified Saviour bewailed by 
the Virgin and evangelist between an archangel and St. John the Baptist, 
St. Lucy and another female saint. This is a coarse work of the middle of the 
fifteenth century. (2) Piove, church of San Niccol6. Virgin and Child, on gold 
ground between SS. Martin, John the Baptist, Nicholas, and Francis, an altar- 
piece of five pointed gables, inscribed : "Gisielmus de Veneci pinxit hoc opus." 
The figures are lean, of poor shape, and defective in nude form ; the colour is 
of greenish olive, and the author a man of the stamp of Lorenzo of Venice. 
(3) Same place, church dei Penitenti. Fresco of the Assumption with the kneeling 
VOL. II 1 


Here, as at Venice and Verona, the influence of Gentile da 
Fabriano and Pisano for a time prevailed ; but that influence was 
faint and dubiously extended to the works of Jacopo di Nerito. 1 
It was fortunate under these circumstances that a study was at 
last founded by Squarcione, in which the rudiments of education 
might be attained. At the time when we may suppose this novel 
institution to have been started, the fervent religious spirit of an 
earlier age had begun to fade, and classics were about to revive 
cinder the patronage of the Universities. A man like Squarcione, 
whom we may credit with intelligence and a spirit of enterprise, 
might and probably did gather a number of youths together for 
the purpose of teaching them an art in which he was himself but 

apostles below, by a feeble Giottesque of the rank of those whose works we see 
about Ravenna. A lunette with the Eternal and angels is of the eighteenth 
century. (4) In the sacristy of the same church, an altarpiece of the Virgin and 
Child adored by two donors, with six saints, two of which are St. Francis 
and Santa Chiara, in trefoil niches at the sides, and five pinnacles, with the 
Ecce Homo between the Virgin and St. John, and the angel and Virgin annunciate. 
This is a greatly injured piece with figures one-third of life-size, of sombre flesh- 
colours, and remarkable for the sharp contrasts and staring eye of the period of 
Semitecolo and Lorenzo. It is a work of the close of the fourteenth or rise 
of the fifteenth century. [* This polyptych is now in the sacristy of the Chiesa 
Matrice at Piove. Signer Pinton thought he had deciphered on it the signature 
of Paolo da Venezia and the date 1332 (Nuovo archivio veneto, ser. i. vol. i. 
pp. 108 sqq.)-, but he seems to have been mistaken (cf. Testi, La storia della 
pittura veneziana, i. 204).] 

Amongst local Paduans we may also notice one of whom nothing else in known 
but the following. (5) Venice, belonging to a dealer, Giacomo Cassetti, living at the 
Campo Santa Marina. Two lunettes with busts of bishops, one of tiiem reading 
a book, in the thickness of which we read the words : " Ops Campagnola 
pa. 1474." These two pieces are stated to have been in the church of the 
convent de' Miracoli at Venice. They are painted in the coarse manner of a 
contemporary of Guariento, and have no relation to the Paduan style of the 
Squarcionesque school, though the name, which appears genuine, seems to be that 
of a Paduan artistic family. [* The present owner of these paintings is unknown.] 

1 Of Jacopo di Nerito it is said in Moschini ( Vicende della Pittura in Padua, 
8vo, Pad. 1826, pp. 19-20) that he painted a picture once in San Michele of 
St. Michael in gigantic proportions, trampling Lucifer under his feet. On this 
picture was the inscription : " Jacobus de Neritus discipulus Gentili de 
Fabriano." There are pictures in Padua which have the stamp of Gentile, and 
may for want of a better name be called by that of Nerito : e.g. (1) Padua, 
Marchese Galeazzo Dondi-Orologio. St. Michael enthroned with the dragon under 
his feet, natural in pose, round-headed, with crisp locks and a jewelled diadem. 
His dress is that of an ecclesiastic with much embossment. The manner of the 
artist is a mixture of Guariento and Michele Giambono, perhaps a little better 
than that of the pictures by the latter. Were not our attention called to Nerito, 


a slight adept. That there was a large demand for pictorial 
creations is proved by the employment of strangers as well 
as by the constant increase in number of the members of 
the Paduan guild. But the steady obscurity in which the 
masters of this guild remained is as remarkable as the dis- 
appearance of their labours. The regulations under which 
members were affiliated were exceptionally liberal, enabling 
Italians of southern and northern birth and even Germans to 
compete, yet the result as regards Paduan painting was not the 
less infinitesimal ; l and if we take Squarcione as the representa- 
tive of the Paduan standard of his time, he was neither better 
nor worse than local men of poor talents in Italy or Germany. 

we should say this was a work by Giambono. It may, however, be the missing 
piece mentioned by Moschini. [* The picture seen by the authors in the Dondi- 
Orologio collection appears to be identical with one which now belongs to Mr. B. 
Berenson of Settignano, and which may be confidently ascribed to Giambono. As 
shown by Mr. Kushf orth (in The Burlington Magazine, xx. 106 sq.~) it probably 
does not represent bt. Michael, but a representative of the angelic order of 
Thrones.] But, in addition to this, we have (2) a standing figure of St. Michael 
trampling on the dragon and piercing it with his lance in the parish-house of the 
church del Torresino, near Padua. [* It is now in the Communal Gallery at Padua, 
No. 1893.] Of this piece we are told that it was once in San Michele of Padua. Its 
style is tnat of a man of later date than we can assign to Nerito, a pupil of 
Gentile da Fabriano, and would more properly be ascribed to Lazzaro Bastiani had 
he lived long enough. This, however, may be an old copy extensively repainted of 
JSerito's original. Of the same stamp as the immediately foregoing is ('6) an angel 
Gabriel, part of an Annunciation, a canvas (No. 613) in the Communal Gallery 
of Padua under Nerito's name. It is injured, and almost, entirely repainted in 
oil, yet in better condition than the St. Michael of the church del Torresino. 
The figure is heavy in frame and head, with a high forehead and large hands and 
feet little, in fact, to remind us of Gentile da Fabriano. [* For additional 
information concerning the two last-mentioned pictures, see antea, i. 221, n. 4.] 
(4) Further, St. John the Baptist, St. Peter, and a bishop, oblong panels, in possession 
of Marchese Galeazzo Dondi-Orologio, St. Gregory, and a Franciscan bishop, once 
in the Capo di Lista collection, now in the Communal Gallery at Padua, all 
forming part of one picture; small slender figures with coarse feet, clad in 
tortuous drapery with heavy embossments. These panels reveal something of the 
style of Giambono, the tempera being treated in the fashion of Gentile da 
b'abriano. Here the name of Nerito would be more just than in the foregoing, 
the work being like Gentile's, and only a little below his powers. [* Of the last- 
mentioned pictures those which once belonged to the Marchese Dondi-Orologio 
can no longer be traced.] 

1 Moschini, Victnde, ub. sup., pp. 20 sqq., publishes the names of most of the 
artists registered in the guild of Padua, and of others who practised as painters. 
The list is too uninteresting for repetition. 


In dealing with Francesco Squarcione, however, it will be 
necessary to remember that the produce of his atelier was 
probably seldom absolutely his, but rather that of his numerous 
disciples. There is nothing more curious, indeed, than that 
a man himself unskilled should have acquired a name as the 
founder of a school. It appears that he was born in 1394, 1 and 
in 1422 inherited from his father Giovanni, a notary of Padua, 
so much as enabled him to pursue the trade of a tailor and 
embroiderer. 2 At a period when guilds were large and com- 
prised many branches, the business of the embroiderer was 
naturally allied, especially in the north, to that of the designer ; 
and we may yet have occasion to describe the rise of Giovanni 
da Udine, one of Raphael's journeymen, from a family in which 
embroidery was hereditary. " Before he came to manhood " (we 
quote Scardeone's Antiquities of Padua) " Squarcione had been 
attracted to the study of painting ; and he had scarcely left the 
school forms, as he himself has written, than he determined to 
see the world and visit distant countries. In this wise he 
became acquainted with the provinces of Greece, from whence 
he brought back useful reminiscences and memoranda. 3 He also 

1 Scardeone (De Antiq. Urbis Pat., 4to, Basilese) says he died, aged 80, in 
1474. [* Prof. Vittorio Lazzarini has lately unearthed a considerable number of 
documents which throw much light on the history of Paduan painting and 
correct several of the accepted ideas concerning this school. The greater part of 
the records found by Prof. Lazzarini have been published by Prof. Andrea 
Moschetti in the Nuovo archivio veneto, ser. ii. vols. xv. and xvi. In one of 
these documents, dated August 23, 1419, Francesco Squarcione is stated to be 
twenty-two years old ; he must therefore have been born in 1397 or 1396 
(Lazzarini and Moschetti, loc. cit., xv. 251). He died between 1468 and 1472 ; 
see postea, p. 7, n. 5.] 

2 Selvatico, Scritti d'arte, 8vo, Flor. 1859, p. 34, speaks of records in which 
it is proved that Squarcione on the death of his father in 1422 bought a house 
and five fields in the contrada di Ponte Corvo. In the later document of Dec. 
29, 1422 (more patavino 1423), a paragraph is said by Moschini ( Vic., p. 27) 
to run thus : " M. Franciscus Squarzonus sartor et recamator filius q. s. Joannis 
Squarzoni, Notarii civis et abitator Padue in contracta Pontis Corvi." [* Squar- 
cione's father was dead as far back as 1414 ; see Lazzarini and Moschetti, loc. 
oit., xv. 86, 249. The house and the landed property Squarcione acquired in 
1422 were situated at Castelnuovo, near Padua. Ibid., pp. 87 sq., 252.] 

3 Verbatim as follows : " Quo circa annavigavit in Grecia, et totam illam 
provinciam pervagatus est : unde multa notatu digna turn mente, turn chartis, quae 
ad ejus artis peritiam facere visa sunt, inde domum secum detulit " (Scardeone, 
lib. sup., p. 370). Out of this passage, and none other, Selvatico and many others 
extract more than can reasonably be conceded. The former says, for instance : 


went the circuit of Italy, making friends of noble persons chiefly 
by affability and honesty. Once settled at home, and widower 
of a first wife, who died childless, he married a second, who bore 
him two sons, and he gained the reputation of being the best 
teacher of his time. Not content with the acquirement of know- 
ledge for himself, he delighted to communicate what he knew to 
others, and in the course of his career he taught no less (as he 
tells us) than 137 pupils, and won the name of father of painters. 
The practical result to him, however, was not so much wealth as 
fame ; he lived with fair means in his own house at Padua, 
in the neighbourhood of the Santo, hiring lodgings when he 
visited Venice ; he was a man of great judgment in art but 
of small practice, 1 instructing youths not so much by his own 
example as by placing before them models and panels." 2 From 
whence these models came we learn distinctly from Yasari, who 
says they were casts from the antique or pictures imported from 
various places, but chiefly from Tuscany and Rome. 3 Squarcione, 
in fact, was an impresario, who formed a collection for the 
benefit of persons desirous to follow the artistic profession, 4 
and then chose the most promising to carry out his commissions. 
He was clever enough to discern the precocious talents of 
Mantegna, and, having adopted him, to register him at a tender 
age in the Paduan guild. He numbered amongst the attendants 
of his study Niccolo Pizzolo, Matteo Pozzo, Marco Zoppo, Dario 
of Treviso, Bono of Ferrara, and Ansuino, and gave them work to 
do on his account ; but, says Scardeone, what he painted is quite 

" C'e ragione, di credere che in questo atnore (the love of the classic) lo 
rasodassero i viaggi che in virile et egli intraprese per 1'Italia e per la Grecia, 
e le molte pitture marmi e disegni che da quelle regioni egli trasport6 in patria " 
(Scritti, ub. sup., p. 8). 

Kidolfi (Marav., i. 110) follows Scardeone more closely, saying: " Passo in 
Grecia disegnando in carte le piu curiose cose vedute." 

1 Vasari is still stronger. He says : " Si conosceva lo Squarcione non esser il 
piu valente dipintor del mondo " (iii. 385). 

2 Here too not a word is said of statues or marbles. The words are : " Signa 
aut pictasq tabellas plurimas habuit, quaru magisterio et Andrea et reliquos 
condiscipulos instruxerat, magis quam editis a se archetypis, aut ditatis seu novis 
exemplis ad imitandum prsebitis " (Scardeone, ub. sup., p. 371). 

3 Vasari, iii. 385 sq. 

* * It appears, moreover, that Squarcione had a special method of teaching 
his pupils the theory and practice of perspective. See the document published 
by Lazzarini and Moschetti, loo. oit. xv. 292 sq. 


uncertain, unless we should say (though we dare not affirm) that 
his are the monochromes inside the western portal of the Santo. 1 
What Scardeone did not know in 1559, has been revealed to us by 
the archives of Padua. It may be true, though we doubt it, that 
Squarcione went to Greece. 2 He was certainly settled in 1423 
at Padua, keeping shop as a tailor and embroiderer after the 
death of his father. In the spring of 1439 he finished a Crucifix 
for Fantino Bragadini, a Venetian noble, in the detached chapel 
on his estate of Terrassa, near Padua. 3 In 1441 he was employed 
at the organ of the Santo, and his name first appears in the lists 
of the Paduan guild. 4 He contracted, as Vasari informs us, to 
decorate the chapel of San Cristoforo at the Eremitani, and 
entrusted the execution to Pizzolo, Mantegna, and others. 5 In 
1444 he laid in with plain colours several ceilings at the Santo. 6 
There is a payment to him in the cathedral registers of 1445 
at Padua, for a figure " by the Corpus Christi in the sacristy." 7 

1 Scardeone, ub. sup., p. 371. 

* 2 Eecent research having confirmed most of the statements of Scardeone, it 
seems likely that his account of Squarcione's travels may also be relied upon, the 
more so as in giving it he refers to a (now lost) autobiography of the painter. 
Prof. Moschetti suggests that these travels took place between the years 1423 and 
1428, as there are no records of him dating from that period (loc. cit., xv. 110). 
The first available document concerning Squarcione dates from 1414 and relates 
to the purchase of a piece of land near Padua (ibid., pp. 86, 249). He married for 
the first time in 1418 (ibid., pp. 87, 265), and was in 1419 staying at Bassano (ibid., 
pp. 87, 251), from where he, however, soon returned to Padua (cf. antea, p. 4, 
n. 2). He is mentioned as a painter for the first time in 1429 (Lazzarini and 
Moschetti, loo. cit., xv. 87, 256). In 1433 he received payment for having 
adorned a tabernacle in Santa Sofia at Padua (ibid., pp. 102, 258 sq.). 

9 The record at length is in Campori, Lettere art. ined. pub. di G. Campari, 
Mod. 8vo, 1866, p. 348. It is dated May 19. [* See also Lazzarini and Moschetti, 
loc. cit., xv. 102 sq., 261 sq.} 

4 Moschini, Vicende, ub. sup., p. 27. Gonzati, La Basilica di 8. Antonio 
di Padova, ub. sup., i. doc. xxxiv. [ * Moschini states that Squarcione is 
repeatedly mentioned in the statute of the painters' guild during the period 
1441-63. In the statute itself, as published by Odorici in the Archivio veneto, 
vols. vii. and viii., there are, however, only two records of him, one without 
a date and the other dated 1459. The document concerning the painting of the 
organ of the Santo is published in full by Lazzarini and Moschetti, loc. cit., xv. 267.] 
5 This statement of Vasari is now proved to be incorrect. See postea, 
p. 13, n. 2. 

6 lb. [* The date should be 1445. See Lazzarini and Moschetti, loc. oit., 
xv. 271.] 

7 Moschini, Vicende, ub. sup., p. 27. [* See also Lazzarini and Moschetti, 
loo. cit., xv. 103 sq., 270.] 


In 1446-49 he was constantly engaged in the commonest house 
work at the Santo, and delivered a subject piece for an altar in 
the choir. 1 An agreement exists in which Squarcione, on the 
2nd of January, 1449, promises to Leone de Lazzara an altar- 
piece for his oratory at the Carmine of Padua ; and an entry in 
the accounts of the house of Lazzara, dated March 28, 1452, 
determines the date of its completion. 2 In 1449 the fore cloth 
of the high altar of the Santo was furnished by him for five lire 
and a fraction; and in 1462 he delivered a series of designs for 
tarsias carried out twelve or fifteen years later by Lorenzo of 
Lendinara. 3 In 1465 he received a formal exemption from 
taxation from the Great Council of Padua, in consideration of 
his casting a model of the city and territory of Padua ; 4 and in 
1474 he died, a respected citizen of his native place. 5 At un- 
certain dates he accepted orders to paint the cloisters of San 

1 La Basilica, ub. sup., doc. xxxiv. [* Of. Lazzarini and Moschetti, loc. cit., 
xv. 102, 271 sq.~] 

2 Soritti darte, by Selvatico, ub. sup., p. 34 ; and see the facsimile in Gaye, 
Cart., i. [* See also Lazzarini and Moschetti, loc. cit., xv. 104, 273 sq.~] 

3 La Basilica, ub. sup., doc. xxxiv., cxxxiv, and cxxxiii. The tarsie done by 
Lorenzo of Lendinara on Squarcione's design in the sacristy of the Santo were 
taken down shortly before 1871, after cartoons had been made of them ; they were 
all but destroyed and manufactured anew. Hence these works have now lost 
all historical and artistic value. Yet we may still discern in a St. Jerome a 
Squarcionesque character, and the outlines taken from the tarsie have also the 
general character of Squarcione's work in 1452. [* Cf. Lazzarini and Moschetti, 
loc. cit., xv. 102, 272; 106 sq., 285 sq. In 1454 Squarcione lost his first wife 
(ibid., pp. 94*#.). He married again the following year (ibid., pp. 95, 281 sq.). 
By his second wife he had a son Bernardino, who in 1466 went to live in 
the monastery of Sant' Antonio at Padua, whereupon Squarcione adopted one 
Giovanni, the son of the beadle Vendramino, as his own child (ibid., pp. 98 sq., 290 
sqq.) It is proved by records that Squarcione in 1456 and 1463 was at Venice 
(ibid., pp. 107, 283 sqq., and Lazzarini in Bollettino del Museo Civico di Padova, 
i. 116). An inventory of the objects contained in the Scuola Grande di San 
Marco at Venice, dated 1466, mentions two paintings by Squarcione (cf. C. Eicci, 
Jacopo Bellini, i. 48, and L. Venturi, in L'Arte, xi. 154). 

4 The record in full is in Campori, Lett, ined., ub. sup., pp. 348-9. [* See also 
Lazzarini in Bollettino del Museo Civico di Padova, i. 116.] In 1466 Squarcione 
witnessed Calzetta's contract to paint the chapel of Corpus Domini at the Santo. 
Moschini, Vic., p. 66, n. 1. [* Cf. De Kunert, in L'Arte, ix. 55.] 

5 He was buried at San Francesco (Scardeone, ub. sup., p. 371). [* On May 
21, 1468, Francesco Squarcione made his second and last will, in which he 
is stated to be ill; he stipulated that he should be buried in the monastery 
of Santa Giustina at Padua (Lazzarini and Moschetti, loc. cit., xv. 99, 293 sq.). 
For the first time, in 1472 he is mentioned as dead (ibid., pp. 100, 294 sq.).] 


Francesco of Padua, in green earth or monochrome, 1 and a 
Madonna for the Lazzara family. Of all these creations the 
majority have perished, the altarpiece and Madonna of the 
Lazzara being alone preserved. From these and from the chapel 
of the Bremitani, we judge of Squarcione's style, rejecting as a 
falsification of the sixteenth century the Virgin, Child, and 
Patron with his signature in the Manfrini Palace at Venice. 2 

The first thing to be noticed in these two works is their utter 
dissimilarity ; that of 1452, now in the Communal Gallery of 
Padua, exhibiting defects unpardonable in a second-rate Muranese, 
the second revealing talents such as Mantegna would respect. 
Assuming both these pieces to issue from the same hands, they 
baffle our comprehension; nor can we conceive how Squarcione 
could pass them both for his own, unless we suppose the public 
to have known that he was in no case the author, the real name 
concealed under his being that of some disciple in his atelier. 
The subject in the first instance is a Glory of St. Jerome between 
SS. Lucy and John the Baptist, Anthony the Abbot and Giustina, 
each of the saints standing on a pedestal in a niche with a frilled 
border. A heavy frame with twisted pillars resting on a panelled 
skirting encases the whole. For a long time this important 
work lay forgotten in a corner of a dormitory at the Carmine, 
a melancholy instance of carelessness and neglect ; 3 and now 
that it hangs in the Paduan Gallery we observe with regret 
the injuries which it has received. The nimbs have all been 
repainted in red and yellow ; the face of St. Lucy and portions 
of her figure are scaled away, and large pieces in each niche 

1 Eidolfi, Marav., i. 110. There were some remnants of these frescoes in 
Brandolese's time. See Pitture di Padova, note to p. 247.) 

2 Venice, Manfrini Palace. Canvas, with figures half the life-size, of the Virgin 
seated, and the Child on her knee blessing a friar in prayer to the right (half- 
lengths). This canvas, inscribed " F. Squarcione 1442" (? 7), exhibits a style of 
coquetry and affectation in the Virgin's pose and character that betrays a painter 
of the sixteenth century, and of Raphael's following. It is a work of the time 
when artists of many climes, and amongst them the Flemings, imitated Sanzio ; 
when, in fact, there was a general blending of Italian and foreign schools. The 
medium is oil, and the colour reminds us by its texture of the Veronese workshop 
of Giolfino. The signature is a forgery. [* The editor has no knowledge of the 
present owner of this picture.] 

3 It was re-discovered by Brandolese in 1789. (See Pitture di Padova, note 
top. 187.) 


have suffered in a similar manner, showing the bare canvas 
glued to the wood beneath the gesso. It is no light task to 
reproduce in fancy the original condition of these panels. 
St. Lucy, a slender female apparition holding with curious 
daintiness a couple of eyes in a plate, is minutely drawn with the 
tenuous outline which distinguishes Marco Zoppo ; the wrists 
and fingers being affectedly bent in the fashion of Crivelli or 
Quiricio ; a thick crop of uncurled hair covers her high rounded 
skull, her dress is cast in soft and simple folds, and the flesh is 
of a dull yellow, coldly modelled with fine hatching. St. John 
in his camel's hair stands quaintly with the left hand in his 
waistcloth. A strange jumble of lines assuming various resolute 
forms, as horse-shoes, discs, and the like, serve to designate the 
depressions and projections of flesh in a face grimacing with 
coarse passion, as if the artist had tried to generalize the features 
like a Chinese, with a traditional abhorrence of nature. The 
frame displays an equal contempt of the reality, and the drapery 
is tortuous and confused. Here again, the person whose name 
is most suggested is Zoppo. Much apparent seeking is shown in 
the pose of St. Jerome resting his head on his wrist ; but the 
drawing and the flatness of the coffee -coloured flesh are alike 
repulsive. St. Anthony in profile holds a book and looks a 
meditative hunchback. St. Giustina, with Byzantine almond- 
shaped eye and pouting lips, has the brow of a person diseased 
in brain, and a projecting head copiously covered with thorny 
locks ; and her movements have the coquetry of those peculiar to 
Quiricio's females. 1 The painter of such a picture as this would 
never have struck us as a traveller familiar with Greek examples. 
The architecture which he depicts is as childish as that of 
fifteenth-century miniatures. Unselect types, false shapes, 
deformed heads, exaggerated details of muscle and veins may 
abound in the work of one bred in the confined circle of the 
antiquated schools, but would hardly be found in that of a man 
who studied the classic. Squarcione, if he be the author, is a 

1 Padua, Communal Gallery, No. 399, originally at the Carmine. The pillars 
and their bases are renewed, as well as the frieze above the capitals. The pieces 
scaled are, in the St. Lucy, nose and forehead, right hand and arm, skirt of blue 
tunic and part of the pedestal ; in the Baptist, two large pieces of the torso, the 
right leg below the knee, and the left leg ; St. Jerome, the face ; St. Anthony, the 
black mantle and its white cape. Many parts of drapery are newly repainted. 


poorer draughtsman than any of the contemporary Venetians ; 
he is far below Jacopo Bellini, inferior even to Quiricio. His 
colour has the dullness which marks the Paduans, the melancholy 
hardness of Zoppo, Schiavone, Bono, Ansuino, and Dario. 
Painters such as these might issue from an atelier capable of 
producing the Lazzara altarpiece ; a purer source must be 
discovered for the art of Pizzolo, Mantegna, and the Canozzi. 
At the very time when the disciples of Sqnarcione were producing 
this paltry example, Mantegna was giving to the world the 
St. Luke and attendant saints at the Brera, and the St. Euphemia 
of the Naples Gallery, both remarkable emanations of a spirit 
nurtured in the love of the genuine classic. It was not under 
Squarcione that Mantegna could acquire this superiority, but 
rather in contemplating the masterpieces of Fra Filippo, who 
had left great frescoes in Paduan churches ; l of Uccelli, whose 
scientific creations decorated Paduan edifices ; of Donatello, long 
a resident at Padua. We shall have to inquire, not whether 
Squarcione taught Mantegna, but whether Mantegna did not 
teach at last in the atelier of Squarcione. Nor must we omit 
to observe that a constant intimacy united Mantegna with 
Jacopo Bellini and his sons, who were then living at Padua, 2 
and that they too would be inclined to promote the reform 
of old and worn-out styles by means of the Florentines of the 

That Squarcione, in his polyglot workshop, watched the 
growing change in Paduan art, and took advantage of it, is 
proved by the Virgin and Child still preserved in the house 
of the Lazzara family at Padua. Without stopping to examine 
dubious examples related to the earlier productions of 1452, 3 

1 Fra Filippo, it is now proved beyond a doubt, worked at Padua in 1434. 
See the records in Gonzati, La Basilica, ub. sup., i. note to doc. xxxv. 

* 2 It is not known when the Bellini stayed at Padua ; cf. antea, i., 115, 
n. 3. 

3 In the class of Squarcionesque art peculiar to the altarpiece of 1452, we may 
register the following : (1) Villa di Villa, near Padua (curacy). St. Jerome kneeling 
before the Crucifix, on gold ground, tempera. (2) Padua, Via del Vescovado, No. 1648. 
House front with distempers, the name of Christ between two female saints in 
niches. The drawing and painting of these much-injured remains are quite those 
of Squarcione's altarpiece. (3) Of a ruder style on a house in the Via Kialto, corner 
of Via San Luca, a Trinity, SS. Margaret, Catherine, Barnabas (legs only pre- 
served), Andrew, John the Baptist, Bartholomew, Jerome,, and Nicholas. 


Hanfstaengl photo.'] 

[Berlin, Kaiser Friedrich Museum. 



we shall find in this new creation of the Squarcionesque work- 
shop ample reason for believing that the Florentines had not 
come to Padua in vain. Behind a screen of stone, but in front of 
a red curtain with a rich festoon of leaves, of figs, and of pears, 
the Virgin in profile presses to her bosom the Infant Christ. 
Some outer object has struck the Child, for he looks back and 
springs with a running action into his mother's arms. The 
thought is happy and well carried out, the distribution good, and 
the drapery of simple cast. The Virgin's eye is clear and open. 
Form is rendered with softness and regularity, with a plump 
and pleasing fleshiness. The hands are delicate, and indicate 
a gentle birth and blood ; the colour was once no doubt solid, 
and of a fair transparence. On the screen are the words : "Opus 
Squarcioni pictoris." l But for this we should say the artist 
is Mantegna, and even in the face of this we might incline to 
the opinion that Mantegna had a share in the work as journey- 
man to Squarcione. We thus explain the contradiction so 
eloquently suggested by two pictures proved to have been 
executed in Squarcione's atelier. We do so by supposing that 
the first was due to the feebler class of Squarcionesques to which 
Marco Zoppo belongs ; the second to Mantegna, Pizzolo, or one 
of similar fibre, to whom the lessons of great masters imparted 

1 Padua, Casa Lazzara. Panel, tempera, a little warped ; to the left of the red 
curtain a repainted sky, with a landscape and a leafless tree. The Virgin's blue 
mantle is repainted in oil. also the border hanging over the left arm. There are 
repainted spots beneath the Virgin's eye and on the Child's left cheek, mouth, and 
breast ; in fact, the whole work has suffered from restoring and varnishing, 
and most of the outlines have been done over afresh. [ * This picture is now in 
the Kaiser Friedrich Museum at Berlin, No. 27 A.] 

There is an interesting panel tempera of the Virgin and Child in possession 
of Signer Malaman, a photographer of Padua, which has been assigned to 
Squarcione. It is a kneepiece representing the standing Virgin with the Infant 
Christ in her arms, on gold ground. The Virgin's frame is full, the head firmly 
outlined, and of very marked aquiline features. The drapery seeks the form, and 
is looped up so as to gain a double fall. The Child is a good nude. This seems 
the work of a man who has studied bas-reliefs, and chiefly those of Donatello. 
The olive flesh tone is broadly hatched with red in the old Venetian manner, 
producing a brownish shadow. The lights are hatched up also, the modelling 
being suggested by the hatchings. The work is different from that in Conte 
Lazzara's Madonna, but of the same date, and might be by one of the Bellini 
under the superintendence of their father. [ * The present whereabouts of this, 
picture is not known to the editor.] 


a novel power. 1 The public exhibition of the Madonna of the 
Conte Lazzara would alone account for Squarcione's celebrity; 
and it is easy to conceive that a man who claimed by virtue of 
his signature to possess talents borrowed from Mantegna, should 
have been angered when Mantegna determined to exhibit under 
his own name. That he did this at some period of his career is 
very obvious, but from that hour he incurred the enmity of the 
impresario ; and this we believe is the secret of the sworn 
hostility which divided Squarcione and Mantegna, and which 
Yasari has attributed to another cause. Before they parted, 
more than one creation worthy of comparison with that we have 
described may have been furnished by the industry of Mantegna 
and swelled the triumph of Squarcione ; 2 but the youthful 
Paduan soon became an independent master, and whilst 
Squarcione on the strength of his acquired fame received the 
visits of emperors and patriarchs, Mantegaa laid the corner- 
stone of a wide renown. 

Before addressing ourselves to the task of examining the 
great Paduari's career, we shall find it convenient to cast a 

1 That Squarcione commonly used the work of his pupils is perfectly evident 
from a contract of the year 1466, in which Piero Calzetta agrees to paint an altar- 
piece for Bernardo de' Lazzara of Padua, promising to work on a design not his 
own, and to imitate a sketch annexed to the contract, taken from a "drawing of 
Squarcione's done by Pizzolo." See the contract in Moschini, Fie., p. 66: "In 
la dicta tavola de depenzer el dicto maistro Piero una historia simile al Squizo, 
ch' e suso questo f oglio el quale e ritratto da un disegno de Maestro Francesco 
Squarcion el quale fo de man de Niccolo Pizzolo." 

2 We know, unhappily, of none at present, unless the Madonna in possession 
of Signor Malaman at Padua should be counted among the number. 

We may, however, here mention without impropriety a few productions bear- 
ing Squarcione's name : (1) Bologna, Galleria Ercolani, formerly in Mr. Malvezzi's 
collection. St. Dominic and his Brethren fed by Angels. This small panel is 
part of a predella in the manner of Zoppo, very careful in outline and filled with 
small slender figures. The colour is raw, reddish, and like that in Zoppo's 
authentic pieces. [* See postea, p. 52, n. 5.] (2) Kovigo Gallery, No. 83. Small 
panel, with six figures representing the dead Christ on the Virgin's lap, attended 
by four figures, three of which are Faith, Hope, and Charity. The treatment is 
tempera of a rude kind, by a German hand, and the initials " I. M." on the back 
of the panel suggest Israel Meckenen. (3) Padua, Casa Papafava. St. Peter 
in benediction, adored by a kneeling monk, with a dog kneeling near him, holding 
in its mouth a scroll inscribed "Esto fidelis." This is clearly in the style of Jacopo 
Montagnana. (4) Casa Maldura, No. 22. Small panel of the Crucifixion, a 
picture of the time under notice, but of little value and not entitled to the name 
of Squarcione. [* The Maldura collection is now dispersed.] (5) Dresden Gallery, 


glance at the chapel of San Cristoforo in the church of 
Sant' Agostino degli Eremitani at Padua, in order to test the 
exact meaning of Vasari's statement that Squarcione, having the 
order to decorate that chapel, deputed Pizzolo and Mantegna to 
carry it out. 

The oratory of San Cristoforo is not less important as illus- 
trating North Italian art than the Brancacci as the cradle of the 
Florentine cinquecentisti. The character of its pictorial adorn- 
ments is essentially Paduan, but it is clear that here, as in Assisi, 
more than one or two hands contribute to create the general impres- 
sion. The foundation of the building may be traced to the middle 
of the fourteenth century, at which time it belonged to the family 
of the Ovetarii of Cittadella. 1 Antonio Ovetari made provision 
in his will, dated Jan. 5, 1443, that a sum of 700 ducats of gold 
should be spent in painting the walls of the chapel with scenes 
from the lives of St. James and St. Christopher. In obedience to 
this bequest the services of Squarcione were engaged ; and though 
we are ignorant of the exact time in which the scaffoldings were 
first erected, there is reason to believe that the last touches were 
given in 1459-60. 2 

No. 149A. Wood, the Marys and Magdalen mourning over the dead body of Christ. 
See postea, in the Bolognese and Ferrarese school, a notice of the painter 
Coltellini. (6) Verona, Communal Gallery, No. 358. The Tiburtine Sibyl: see 
postea in Falconetto. Missing or unknown to us are the following : (7) Padua, 
chapter-house of San Giuseppe (a small church no longer in existence). The 
genuineness of the painting here was doubted (see Selvatico, Scritti, ub. mp. 
p. 27). (8) Marchese O. Buzzaccherini. Virgin inscribed : " Ms r Squarzoni Fransisci 
opus " (Moschini, Vic., p. 29). (9) Scuola di San Giovanni Evangelista, later in 
possession of Bishop Dondi-Orologio. Virgin, Child, and Angels (Brandolese, 
Guida, p. 62 ; Moschini, Vie., p. 29). 

1 See in Moschini ( Vicende, p. 37) a record of 1372, which proves the existence 
of the chapel at that date. On a stone inserted into the apse behind the altar we 
read : " Sepulcrum Liberti Boni q. Dni Johais de Ovetaris de Citadella et suorum 
heredium, hie eciam jacet nobilis vir Blaxisis. q da Dm Nicolai de Ovetariis de 
citadela q. obiit anno dm MCCC.LXXXXI die lune xvi Oct." Beneath is a shield 
with three helms divided horizontally by a pale with three stars. 

* 2 The documents discovered by Prof. Lazzarini compel us to revise entirely 
the hitherto accepted theories as to the paintings in the Ovetari chapel. The 
orders for the frescoes were given on May 16, 1448 ; one half of the work (consist- 
ing chiefly of the paintings on the ceiling and the right wall) was entrusted to 
Giovanni d'Alamagna and Antonio Vivarini; the other to Niccolb Pizzolo and 
Andrea Mantegna (Lazzarini and Moschetti, loc, oit., xv. pp. 152-6, 317 *##.) 
It appears that the painters set to work in July of the same year (ibid., p. 154). 
Giovanni d'Alamagna and Antonio Vivarini were very slow in fulfilling their task, 


The chapel opens into the right transept of the Eremitani 
a high rectangle, with lunettes and a vaulted roof in four sections, 
lighted by windows and a rosette in the faces of a pentagonal 
tribune ; 1 through the whitewashed entrance, one sees the apsidal 
arch covered, in front, soffit, and sides, with remnants of painting ; 
a skirting of six feet separates the lowest course of subjects from 
the floor ; and each of these is enclosed in a monochrome ornament 
chiefly representing festoons pinned down by scutcheons and 
carried by boy angels ; these and the moulded ribs of the ceilings 
are variegated with colour ; and though some parts are feebler 
than others, and great injury has been done by age and restoring 
even to Mantegna's greatest masterpieces, the whole has a grand 
and imposing effect. It seems probable that the decorations 
were completed in the following order : 

1. Vaulted ceiling of the chapel in four sections. In each 
section a framed medallion in a garland of leaves and fruit 
containing an Evangelist, and an angel on a cloud at each of the 
lower angles (a, , c, d in plan). 

2. Soiti& of apsidal arch. Fourteen seraphim in red and 
yellow monochrome with gilt nimbs on blue ground (e in plan). 2 

3. Frescoes on the right side of the rectangle in three courses, 
the upper ones divided into two. Of these iirst St. Christopher 
erect in a landscape (j ), next St. Christopher before the king 
who was afraid of the devil (y), St. Christopher before the 
devil on horseback (^), and St. Cnristopher addressing a crowd 
of kneeling soldiers (i). 

4. Front face of the apsidal arch. Representing a human 

head looking out above the capital of each pilaster, and an 

so that when Giovanni died in 1450 they had only executed a portion of the 
paintings of the ceiling. It seems very likely that Antonio Vivarini took no part 
in the decoration of the chapel after Giovanni's death (ibid., pp. 160 sq.) ; the 
remainder of the work with which these two had been entrusted was carried out 
by Pizzolo, Mantegna, Ansuino, Bono, and others. All the frescoes seem to have 
been completed in 1452, as the final payment for these was made on May 15 of 
that year (ibid., xv. 160 ; xvi. 73). Contrary to what Vasari affirms, Pizzolo 
did notj die while engaged in his work at the Eremitani ; he was still living 
in 1453 (seepostea, p. 21, n. 1). 

1 The rosette is filled with a glass window representing St. Christopher. The 
windows of the pentagon are plain, the walls themselves being, with the exception 
of that immediately behind the altar, bare of painting. 

* The sides of the pilasters of the apsidal arch have little left of the paintings 
which once adorned them. On the inner face of the arch there is but a scutcheon 
of the Leoni family recording the date of one of the restorations of the chapel. 




antique monochrome border of fruit and leaves binding a -string 
of bulls' skulls (/,/). 

5. Semidome of the tribune. Triangular sections representing 
the Eternal between St. James, St. Peter, St. Paul, and 
St. Christopher (^, ^, /, >). 

6. Four rounds in the upper frieze of the pentagon of the 
apsis. Representing four Doctors of the Church (i, m, n, 0). 

7. The Assumption in the centre face of the pentagonal 
apsis (p). 

8. Left side of the rectangle of the chapel. St. James com- 
muning with devils (<?), St. James and St. John called to the 
apostleship (r), St. James baptizing Hermogenes (s), St. James 
before Herod Agrippa (), St. James going to martyrdom (&), 
St. James martyred (#). 

9. Lowest course on the right side of the rectangle of 
the chapel. Martyrdom of St. Christopher (x) and removal of his 
body (y). 1 

The Squarcionesque element in this series is modified in degree 
according as the person employed is more or less imbued with 
the lessons of Donatello. A coarse and characteristic ugliness 
pervades the principal figures in the ceilings ; and with all 
respect for the opinion of Vasari, who assigns them to Mantegna, 
they are clearly by another hand. We are accustomed to see in 
the trial-pieces of a young beginner the traits that subsequently 
cling to his style. The Evangelists, far from revealing the period 
of a youth's striving, are, on the contrary, mature efforts akin to 
those ascribed to Squarcione's early time. The artist is a man 
of doubtful taste in decoration, surrounding the circular frames 
of his subjects with the heaviest class of vegetable and fruit 
ornament. He is acquainted with perspective, and correctly 
suggests the thickness of the openings through which his figures 
appear ; but his adaptation of nature to the figures themselves is 
surprisingly imperfect. It would be difficult to find in any school 
a more grotesque representation than that of St. Luke, with his 
ox at his side, painting a panel of the Virgin and Child. An art 
like that of Jacobello and Giambono, altered by the serious 
childishness of Zoppo, is apparent in the saint's hooked eye- 

1 The chapel has suffered in all its parts from damp ; the plaster is scaled in 
many places ; more than once repairs have taken place, the latest in 1865, when 
the frescoes were isolated by the care of the civil engineer, Gradenigo. [* They 
have subsequently been restored by Signer A. Bertolli.] 


brows, staring eyes, and bony hands, in the tortuous drapery and 
earthy tones. Squarcione probably employed the painter on the 
rudest labours of his workshop. 1 

If St. Luke and his companions embody the results of 
Squarcione's local teaching, the angels at the angles of the same 
ceiling offer new and interesting peculiarities. They are all plain, 
and derive their plainness chiefly from the blackness of their 
eyes ; but their attitudes aud motion, their proportion and shape, 
are derived from Donatello, whose models young Mantegna 
followed and reproduced. 2 We revert to the normal character of 
the Evangelists in the vaulting of the apsidal arch, where un- 
natural types and defective heads purposely tinted in red and 
yellow remind us of Schiavone. 3 Wherever colour is applied 
it is of the dark and disagreeable tone conspicuous in the pictures 
of the artists we have named. 

We may thus observe that amongst the journeymen of 
Squarcione's atelier there were men of low powers, unacquainted 

1 The four Evangelists are represented with their symbols. The St. Luke has 
been described. St. Mark reads in a book with the lion at his side (gold ground). 
St. John, an old Byzantine type with deformed head and quaint prominences, 
keeps in its place a scroll in which he is writing, by means of a style. The 
nimbus is embossed the hands are long, thin, and out of drawing. St. Matthew 
turns the leaves of a book a diminutive and not ill-done angel near him. Half 
his head is gone. The ornament of the rounds in which the Evangelists are por- 
trayed is better than that of the moulded ribs of the vaulting, which is complicated 
in detail, and raw in the contrasts of its colours. [* There are two different 
kinds of design noticeable in the ornaments along the ribs. One is very rich and 
strongly gothic, the other simpler and more classic. The former design is very 
nearly paralleled in the work of Giovanni d'Alamagna and Antonio Vivarini ; 
we may therefore safely ascribe the ornaments in question to these painters, who 
are recorded to have executed some paintings on the ceiling of the chapel (see 
antea, p. 13, n. 2). Of. Lazzarini and Moschetti, loc. ctt., xv. 161.] 

* 2 These figures are strongly reminiscent of the style of Giovanni d'Alamagna 
and Antonio Vivarini. They and part of the ornaments of the ribs are probably 
all that the two painters did in the Ovetari chapel. See Lazzarini and Moschetti, 
loo. cit. 

3 These seraphs are very defective in drawing and shape, and have the heavy 
jaw of Scbiavone (e.g.) in his picture No. 1162 in the Berlin Museum. Six 
with double wings and red flesh carry torches ; eight with yellow wings, an 
orb and lily, and yellow flesh are dressed in white shirts ; but several of these 
figures are almost invisible, being injured by damp. [* As Schiavone, who was 
born in 1435 or 1436, did not become a pupil of Squarcione until 1456, it seems 
impossible that he had any share in the decoration of the Ovetari chapel, the 
paintings in which were finished by 1452.] 


Alinari photo.] [Padua, Eremitani. 


II. 1661 


with the antique, educated under old traditions, yet willing to 
improve when chance brought talented strangers to their vicinity. 
No doubt, when Uccelli and Donatello visited Padua between 
the years 1443 and 1453, Squarcione, whose study was open, hoped 
to derive some advantage from their superior talents, and advised 
his pupils to seize a favourable opportunity for acquiring know- 
ledge otherwise difficult to attain ; he perhaps frequented the 
workshops of the Florentines in person. Certain it is that 
the poorest of the Squarcionesques visited Donatello or studied 
his masterpieces, and this is proved as clearly by the Evangelists 
at the Eremitani chapel as by the subjects on its walls, whether 
these be by Bono, Ansuino, Pizzolo, or Mantegna. 

Bono is, without exception, the feeblest of all the Squar- 
cionesques. He stands on the level of the painter of the ceilings ; 
but is, if possible, more strangely and seriously grotesque. His 
St. Christopher halts in the attitude of a porter on the brink of 
a stream, in a broken landscape, a scanty jerkin covering his 
frame, leaving the arms, breast, and legs completely bare. His 
head is monstrous; and he carries on his shoulders a hideous 
dwarf intended for the infant Saviour. A ruder display of false 
anatomy, rawer contrasts of bricky lights and inky shadows, 
a more repulsive exhibition of muscular rigidity, are not to be 
found in the Paduan school ; yet Bono here is not independent, 
he works to order ; and the framing of snakes and cornucopias 
parting his fresco from that immediately above it, as well as the 
festoon on which angels play, are executed on the design of an 
abler man. Had Squarcione's study been furnished with a 
company of such painters, they would have done the master little 
credit ; yet mediocrity has its vanities, and Bono signs his fresco 
in letters of uncommon size. 1 

Above him, in the left-hand section of the lunette, an artist 

1 On the right foreground one reads "Opus Bonii," in large letters, and 
though we are not sure that the signature has not been retouched, it may be 
genuine, as the Anonimo (ed. Morelli, p. 33) tells us that the fresco is by Bono 
" Ferrarese ovver Bolognese." There is a long split in the wall to the left of the 
figure of St. Christopher ; the landscape is of dull and dirty tone. Some study of 
nature is shown in the reflection of the saint's legs in the water which he is about 
to wade into. The best part by Bono is the ornament from the pendentive to the 
left, where an angel dances with one foot on the capital, to the scutcheon at the 
upper corner (right). 

VOL. II 2 


of the same genus but of higher powers represents St. Christopher 
taking leave of the king who was afraid of the devil. Fairly 
arranged and appropriate in action, the figures are outlined with 
unusual sharpness and curious inaccuracy. Exaggerated tension 
is given to straining muscle, extraordinary development to ex- 
tremities and articulations ; the faces are chalky and wooden, 
mapped out in blocks without sufficient contrast or blending of 
lights into shadows. 1 Yet this journeyman's work is less dis- 
agreeable than that of Bono. It particularly reminds us indeed 
of frescoes in the Schifanoia at Ferrara; and as Zoppo, who 
painted there, calls himself occasionally Zoppo di Squarcione, 
he may well be the author of this fresco. The next subject in 
the lunette is still more in Zoppo's style, representing the devil 
as a crowned prince on horseback in converse with St. Christopher, 
and attended by two falconers. It is surprising what slight 
feeling for colour is displayed in this piece, and we shall rarely 
find tones so dull or so sharply contrasted allied to shapes so 
wooden and outline so coarse. Yet with all this poverty of 
talent we . trace the influence of Donatello in the sit of the 
draperies ; and notice the medley of unattractive features so 
repellent in Zoppo's Virgin and Saints of 1471 in the Museum 
of Berlin. 2 

The Adoration of St. Christopher introduces us to Ansuino 
of Forll, a painter but little known in history, who represents 
the holy giant erect in a palace, with the palm-tree in his hand, 
adored by a band of armed captains. It is characteristic of this 
example that it has the same general aspect as those of Bono 
or Zoppo, but that the scene is more animated. A purer taste 
rules the selection of architectural details ; perspective is applied 
with some approach to correctness, even in the foreshortening 
of parts ; form assumes a more satisfactory proportion and a 

1 The colour here is not so inky as in the St. Christopher by Bono, but the 
effect is a little flat. The face of the king is ugly, but not so repulsive as that 
of the page in profile to the right. The outline of the saint before the king 
seems cut out of paper, and the bulging calves are as unnatural as the thin ankles 
and large feet. 

* 2 There is no proof that Zoppo painted in the Schifanoia Palace (see posted, 
p. 250, n. 2). Moreover, it was not until 1454 that he became an apprentice to 
Squarcione, so that it seems highly improbable that any of the paintings in the 
Eremitani chapel are by him. The two frescoes dealt with above have in fact 
a very close likeness to that signed by Ansuino da Forli. 


Anderson photo.'] [Padwa, Eremitani. 


H. I8a] 


Alinari photo. ,] 

[Padua, Eremitani. 


I IH. 186 j 


more finished surface, though still cast in a rough and ill- 
favoured mould, and the figures gain some of the dignity of 
statuary without absolute starkness or rigidity. Colour too 
is treated with less harshness than before, and is of a lighter 
tinge. It is clear that a struggle is going on between old and 
inveterate conventionalisms and the novel claims of sculpture ; 
Paduan art, in fact, begins to present the character afterwards 
known as Mantegnesque, without showing much progress in 
the blending of light and shade, or feeling in the production 
of tone. 1 

It has been customary to accept the teaching of Squarcione 
as a sufficient cause for a change due, some said, to the effect 
produced by the Greek antiques which he had gathered in his 
studio, yet it is difficult to see how the mere act of setting a 
draughtsman to copy from the antique could have produced 
that change. The laws of sculpture attracted indeed the at- 
tention of painters, but the sculpture which formed the basis 
of study was that which adorns the Santo at Padua ; it was the 
bronze work of Donatello. Such was the prestige and the 
power of that great master that he simultaneously reformed 
carving and painting in the north. What he gradually achieved 
as regards the latter we find in Zoppo, Bono, and Ansuino, 
and shall observe in Pizzolo and Mantegna; what he did for 
the former is curiously enough illustrated in the chapel of San 
Cristoforo by the terra-cottas of his scholar Giovanni of Pisa. 
In the altar fronting Pizzolo's Assumption of the Virgin, we 
see a high relief of the Madonna between Six Saints, the Eternal 
above in an ornament of cornucopias, the Adoration of the Kings 
in a predella. In a frieze are gambols of children. It is 
surprising how nearly allied this monument is in ornament and 
in style to that of some frescoes on the walls. The Virgin is 
a long bony figure of a lean shape, with strongly marked linea- 
ments, grimacing and unpleasant as Donatello's Penitent 
Magdalen. The borders of cornucopias and festoons are also 
Donatello's, and when transferred to panel or fresco form a 

1 This fresco is signed " Opus Ansoini," an inscription which, like that of 
Bono, is not free from suspicion ; but the Anonimo (p. 23) says one of the frescoes 
of this side of the chapel is by " Ansuino da Forli." The contrasts of light and 
shade, though still sharp, are less so than in the parts previously examined. 


strong feature in the Mantegnesques. The draperies are looped 
up with girdles, and surcharged by Giovanni's inferior taste 
with hanging folds. It was a natural consequence of the great 
Florentine's teaching that, being himself unselect and coarse 
in the choice of his models and in the rendering of form, his 
less gifted pupils should exaggerate his defects. 1 To no other 
source can we trace the marked unattractiveness of Giovanni 
of Pisa, Zoppo, Bono, and Ansuino. But whilst in respect of 
the latter proofs are wanting to establish a direct connection 
with Donatello, no such difficulty meets us in dealing with 
Pizzolo, the next painter at the Eremitani to whom our attention 
is directed. 2 

Pizzolo, who, according to the oldest authorities, finished 
the Eternal amidst Saints in the semidome of the Eremitani 
chapel, and the Assumption beneath it, is the only disciple of 
Squarcione to whom Vasari makes a particular allusion in 
treating of the Eremitani. 3 He says of this artist that his 
works were few in number but good in quality, and that his 
example was of great value to Mantegna. He states further 
that he knew of nothing else that he had done except an Eternal 
in the house of the prefetto Urbano at Padua, and concludes 

1 Giovanni of Pisa is noted as the modeller of these terra-cottas by the 
Anonimo (p. 23), who calls him the companion and pupil of Donatello. The 
latter statement is confirmed by the account-books of the Santo, in which we 
find several entries containing his name. He is called " Zuan compagno" in 
the accounts relative to the Crucifix, executed by Donatello in 1444-9, and Zuan 
da Pixa in the memoranda of payments for statues and reliefs of the high altar 
of the Santo done in 1447 by Donatello. (See Gonzati, La Basilica, ub. sup., i. 
doc. Ixxxi.) He was therefore the assistant of the great Florentine sculptor. 

* It was stipulated in the agreement of May 16, 1448 (see antea, p. 13, n. 2), 
that Pizzolo and Mantegna should themselves execute an altarpiece " de medio 
relievo" for the Ovetari chapel, in conformity to a sketch which had been 
approved on that day. The ancona was, however, modelled in 1448 by Giovanni 
da Pisa (Lazzarini and Moschetti, loc. cit., xv. 156 ; xvi. 70, 73). 

2 But before proceeding to examine his share in the decoration of the chapel 
we have still to follow the traces of Ansuino, whose hand is apparent in the 
garlands and borders above and at the left side of the Adoration of St. Christopher, 
and in the heads and bulls' skulls on the front face of the apsidal arch. In the 
former the children supporting the garlands have the general character of Bono's 
without his squareness and angularity ; in the latter the heads looking over, and 
the dolphins on the capitals, are an imitation of the antique in Ansuino's 

8 Anonimo, p. 23 ; Vasari, iii. 387. 


with an expression of regret that so good a painter should 
have perished in his prime. 1 Confirmatory of Vasari we have 
first the Anonimo, who says that Pizzolo laboured with Fra 
Filippo and Ansuino in the chapel of the Podesta, 2 and next 
the account-books of the Santo, from which it appears that 
" Niccolo depentor " was one of Donatello's journeymen there 
in 1446-7 and 1448. 3 The figures assigned to him are five in 
number. The Eternal sits enthroned on clouds in an almond- 
shaped glory, his head surrounded by a cruciform nimbus, and 
his feet resting on a cluster of cherubs' heads. His aged face, 
with its marked features and small eyes, has the wild stamp 
peculiar to the creations of the middle-age Christian period, 
and recalls the types familiar to Jacopo Bellini. The hands 
are large and incorrect ; but there is an undoubted compactness 
in the arrangement of the parts. St. Paul, to the right, stands 
on a cloud with the traditional sword and book in his grasp, 
and distantly resembles a statue by Donatello. St. Christopher 
in a similar attitude is coarser, with a vulgar face not un- 
scientifically drawn. St. Peter and St. James to the left are 
also solemn and grave apparitions. 4 Of the nude we may say 
that it is dry and coarse, but it is better proportioned and 
reveals a more conscientious study of nature than that of Bono, 
Zoppo, or Ansuino. The masks too are more cleverly imitated 
from the reality or from stone than we have hitherto seen them. 

1 In some street-riot, ibid. 

* Niccol6 was the son of Pietro di Giovanni di Villa Ganzerla, a herald of the 
city of Padua. He was born in 1420 or 1421. " Pizzolo " (pronounced pizzolo, i.e. 
piccolo) was a sobriquet of the artist, not his family name. He was still living 
in 1453, but died probably shortly afterwards. See Lazzarini and Moschetti, 
loc. cit., xv. 138-46, 306-12. 

2 Anonimo, p. 28. It is probable the Podesta and prefetto Urbano were one 

3 He contracts to paint the Angels and Evangelists of the altar of the Santo 
by Donatello, April 27, 1446. [* This is not what the document in question states ; 
Niccolo is merely mentioned in it among Donatello's assistants, and, further, the 
document dates from 1447 : see Lazzarini, in Nuovo arckivio veneto, ser. ii. vol. xii. 
p. 161.] There are also entries of payments to him in 1447, as "garzon" of 
Donatello at the Santo; and he paints a carved Crucifix by the same in 1448. 
(Gonzati, La Basilica, ub. sup., i. doc. Ixxxi.) 

4 The half of St. James remains, the whole length of the left side of the 
figure from the shoulder downwards being bare even of surface lines. The blue 
drapery of the Eternal is bleached by time, and vast spots disfigure the ground 
about St. Paul and St. Christopher. 


The attitudes are more satisfactory, and the action truer than 
before. The drapery is ample and copiously folded, and evi- 
dently imitated from clammy cloths wetted and dried to a 
certain stiffness, whence the papery tortuousness and sculptural 
character which it displays. In the flesh tone we may note a 
general warmth, produced by yellow light, and a brownish 
half-tint, the technical treatment of distemper being different 
from that of other workmen in the chapel, creating a lighter 
general surface, more blended modelling, and less inky shadows. 
Rich colours are used in preference to dull ones in drapery ; 
and the general harmony is better on that account. We can 
scarcely attribute this diversity to any other cause than that 
Pizzolo, who worked in the same chapel as Fra Filippo, learnt 
from that master of tempera some tricks unknown to his local 
brethren, 1 but he uses line hatchings to indicate the forms 
beneath the dresses, and betrays the use of carved models. 

Below the Eternal and Saints of the semidome are the 
four Doctors of the Church seen through circular openings in 
perspective. St. Jerome, behind his desk, bends to his task 
arid writes. St. Augustine, in the same position but looking 
to the right, turns the pages of a book with a coarse hand, 
and has a round reading-stand at his elbow. St. Gregory's 
desk is open and shows its shelves full of books ; he supports 
his head with his right hand while lost in the perusal of some 
sacred author. St. Ambrose, with a string of tallow candles 
hanging to the wall behind him, raises his pen, but pauses for 
a moment before beginning to write. Here again we see illus- 
trations of a novel kind in this chapel. The artist cannot be 
Pizzolo, nor Bono, nor Ansuino. His passion is perspective, 
to which he almost entirely sacrifices the figures. Desks, 
reading-stands of divers forms, doors ajar and half-open, book- 
shelves are introduced in such positions as to require the 
solution of difficult problems in each case. Projections of 
shadows are also scientifically outlined and correctly represented ; 
not even the frames and openings in which the saints appear 
are excepted from this general rule. It is unfortunate, on the 
other hand, that these busts of doctors should be as unattractive 
in features as they are incorrectly drawn. In ugliness and 

1 See antea, note to p. 10. 


Anderson photo."] 

[Padua, Eremitani. 


n. 22] 


coarseness as well as rigidity, in dullness of colour and sharp 
contrasts of light and shade, they rival the poorest creations 
in the chapel, yet the bold roughness of the contours and 
hatching, combined with true divisions of chiaroscuro and irre- 
proachable perspective, might lead us to believe that this is 
the work of Lorenzo of Lendinara, one of Mantegna's com- 
petitors at Padua, whose praise may be found in Vasari and 
Pacioli, 1 and whose tarsias exhibit character scarcely distin- 
guishable from that in the rounds before us. 2 

From the contemplation of the semidome and its pictorial 
adornment, we naturally turn to the Assumption in the apsis, 
where the art seems to differ in no perceptible manner from that 
of Mantegna. The Virgin, in an almond-shaped glory, supported 
by cherubs, ascends to heaven to the sound of trumpets, cymbals, 
and tabors played by angels. Her form is detached from the 
sky, seen through the opening of an arch of red porphyry. In 
the production of this accessory we note a tasteful application 
of carved ornament and a perfect application of perspective laws. 3 
The Paduan school seldom produces a better or more judicious 
distribution of space than this, not only in the glory, but in the 
angels who fly with playful action through the sky. A novel 
gaiety and a pretty variety of elastic movements animate the 
scene, and the old Paduans seem for a moment to relax their 
gloomy frown and condescend to mirth. The Virgin's light and 
easy movement is appropriate to her slender shape. Drapery 
is no longer cumbered with repeated folds, though still in 
straight and broken lines reminiscent of sculpture. The angels 
seem taken from a bas-relief, and the spirit of the whole is that 
derived from Donatello's bronzes at the Santo. On the fore- 
ground are the apostles witnessing the miracle, one with his arm 
thrown round a pillar, two in each other's embrace, a fourth 
shading his eyes with his hand, a fifth grasping his neighbour's 
shoulder, all looking up. No previous example of this school 
gives an illustration of momentary grouping better conceived 

1 Vasari, iii. 404, and Pacioli, De Proportions. 

2 It may be that the perspective was prepared by Lorenzo, and that the 
painting was executed by one of the Squarcionesques. Tn that case Zoppo's 
would be the hand. [* Cf. anted, p. 18, n. 2.] 

8 The same laws are well applied to form, and one sees the feet of the apostles 
on the edge of the picture as if from below. 


or carried out. Each figure is of natural and not unnoble propor- 
tion, free in motion, well foreshortened where foreshortening is 
required ; the draperies winding, and clinging, and falling after 
the fashion of the Florentine sculptors. The masks are coarse 
but manly, the hands and feet of strong working size. We are 
reminded by all this of Donatello and Mantegna, and we see the 
indelible impress of the teaching of a Tuscan carver. But that 
an early authority tells us the artist is Pizzolo, we should say 
here stands Mantegna. 1 Yasari indeed affirms that Pizzolo at 
the Eremitani was not inferior to his younger rival; but he corrects 
his judgment by adding that Pizzolo's is the Eternal of the 
semidome. No doubt a new phase is inaugurated in this portion 
of wall-painting; but Vasari's praise would be less applicable 
there than in the Assumption. It is in the latter especially that 
the progress of the Paduans is apparent. In the Virgin and 
angels an approach to Mantegna, in the apostles below a still 
closer relation to him. Between the Assumption as a whole and 
the frescoes in the lunette at the left side of the rectangle 
of the chapel, a marked connection also ; between these again 
and the more perfect specimens of Mantegna's art, no greater 
difference than might arise from the master's correction or 
improvement of his own style. Did Pizzolo assist Mantegna 
in the lunette frescoes on the left side of the Eremitani chapel, 
or did the very reverse occur ? Certain it is that the composition 
of these frescoes is of one stamp with that of those in the lower 
course, the treatment alone being that of a man of less experience. 
But the same difference is apparent in the upper and lower parts 
of the Assumption. Shall we again inquire here whether 
Mantegna was under the orders of Pizzolo ? It is to be con- 
sidered, under all circumstances, that were the Assumption by 
Pizzolo, we should be forced to deprive Mantegna of many of 
his works. 

1 The fresco is injured ; there are spots and discol orations ; some parts are 
scaled away, but the outlines remain, and enough is preserved to justify a distinct 
opinion. The blue ground or sky has been changed by time to a green hue, which 
spoils the harmony of the picture. 


Anderson photo.] 


[Padua, Eremitani. 

II. 24] 



A CCORDING to the evidence of almost contemporary writers, 
JLJL. Andrea Mantegna was born at Padua in 1431, 1 and 
painted a Virgin and Child for the high altar of Santa Sofia in 
his native place at the age of seventeen. Appropriate lines on 
the picture itself attested the precocious ripeness of the artist, 
and proclaimed his talent, age, and country. 2 Of his parentage 
but a vague tradition is preserved. We may believe it to have 
been humble and unpretending, for the boy was adopted by 
Squarcione, registered as his foster-child in the Paduan guild 
on the 6th of November, 1441, and brought up under the care of 

1 It has been a moot question whether he was of Padua or of Mantua, but the 
arguments pro and con prove conclusively in favour of Padua ; and this opinion is 
now so generally accepted that it would be waste of space to discuss it anew. 
We need only bear in mind the sources : Annot. Vasari (iii. 383, n. 1 Selvatico) ; 
Scardeone, ub. sup.-, Eidolfi, Marav., i. Ill; Brandolese, Testimonianza sulla 
Patavinita, etc., Pad. 8vo, 1805 ; Gennari, Notiz. intorno alia patria di A. M., 
8vo, Pad. 1829 ; Codd6, Pitt. Mantov., 8vo, 1837 ; D'Arco, Delle arti di Mantova, 
fol. Mant. 1857. 

* It is now proved by contemporary records that Andrea Mantegna was 
not a native of Padua. A document of 1456 describes him as " Andream 
Blasij Mantegna de Vincentia pictorem " (Stefani in Archivio veneto, xxix. 
192). His brother Tommaso is, on the other hand, stated to be of Isola di 
Carturo, a village situated between Padua and Vicenza and forming part of the 
Vicentine territory during the fifteenth century. This fact, coupled with Vasari's 
statement (iii. 384) that Andrea was born in the country, makes it seem very 
likely that Isola di Carturo is the birthplace of Andrea Mantegna. See Lazzarini 
and Moschetti, in Nuovo arckivio veneto, ser. ii. vol. xv. pp. 131 sqq. 

2 "Andreas Mantegna Pat. an. Septem. et decem natus, sua manu pinxit 
MCCCCXLVIII." Scardeone (Antiq. Pat., ub. sup., p. 372) so transcribes the inscrip- 
tion, which Vasari obviously read also (iii. 386 sq.}. [* Compare, moreover, G. B. 
Maganza, Rime, vol. iv. (1583), fol. 66 r.~\ 



strangers. 1 Mantegna's vanity or the adulation of contemporaries 
afterwards gave a fictitious rank to his father, whom we learn to 
call by the title of Ser Biagio. 2 That Squarcione gave Mantegna 
the first lessons is told by historians ; but he could not prevent 
his foster-child from visiting rival workshops; and nothing is 
clearer than that, with or without connivance, he studied the 
masterpieces of Donatello, Lippi, and Jacopo Bellini. One or 
two panels at Padua, purporting to be juvenile efforts, might 
indeed be considered to discountenance this belief; but one of 
them, an Ecce Homo bearing a signature, is a spurious remini- 
scence of Giambono or Nerito, 3 and the other, a bust portrait of a 
friar, would only prove that, in his tenderest years, Andrea was 
a realist of the stamp of Zoppo or Schiavone. 4 The earliest 

1 "Andrea fiuilo de M. Francesco Squarzon depentore" (Moschini, Vicende, 
ub. sup., p. 34; Giovanni de'Lazzara to Saverio Bettinelli, Jan. 31, 1795, in D'Arco, 
lib. swp. t ii. 224-5 ; Brandolese, Testim., ub. gup., note to p. 8). [* The above entry 
is really undated ; it was probably made between 1441 and 1445. Cf. Odorici, 
in Archivio veneto,viii. 121.] From this same source we learn that a record of Nov. 21, 
1461, contains.the conditions of sale of a house contiguous to that of " Andree Squar- 
coni pictoris," in the contrada di Santa Lucia at Padua ; on June 22, 1492, Mantegna 
sells his house in the contrada, calling himself " Spectabilis miles et comes magnificus 
dominus Andreas Mantegna quondam honorandi viri Ser Blasii habitator Mantue 
in contracta sancti S. Dominici." [* Cf. Lazzarini and Moschetti, in Nuovo 
archivio veneto, ser. ii. vol. xv. pp. 135, 304 sq.~] A contemporary sonnet also exists 
(Quadrio F. S., Indice universale delta storia e ragione di ogni poesia, Milan, 8vo, 
1752, p. 102) in which Mantegna is called "Andrea Mantegna, pictore dicto 
Squarzono." [* This sonnet has been published by Prof. A. Venturi in Der 
Kunstfreund, i. 292.] 

2 See the foregoing note. Vasari states that Mantegna herded cattle in his 
youth, from which we may infer that Biagio was an agricultural labourer or a 
small farmer. [* We now know that he was a carpenter. See Lazzarini and 
Moschetti, loc. cit., xv. 131, 299 sqq.] 

3 Padua, Communal Gallery, No. 6 ; bequeathed by one of the family of Capo 
di Lista. Small panel, tempera. The Saviour is in the tomb, seen to the middle, 
showing the stigmata. Behind him the cross. Cruciform nimbus, blue ground. 
The panel is split down the middle. On the edge of the tomb : " Opus Andreas 
Mantegna pat." The head is large, with bushy hair heightened in gold ; the 
features bony and aged ; the mouth grimacing and open ; the tempera is dull, 
grey, and altered by varnish. But for the signature, which however seems an old 
addition, we should say this picture is by Giambono or Nerito. [* It is now 
generally held to be a work of Giambono.] 

4 Padua, Dr. Fusaro; once in the Eremitani, afterwards in the hands of the Signori 
Caldani and Barbieri. Bust, tempera, on panel, of an Augustine monk in a black 
frock and cowl, holding with his large and very ugly hands a book on which are 
the words : " Preditus ingenio tenui que magistrum effigiat Paulum MANTINEA 


wall-painting to which his name is affixed is that of St. Bernardino 
and St. Anthony, bearing the initials of Christ, a lunette with 
life-size figures above the high portal of the Santo at Padua; 
but this fresco has been ruined by time and restoring, and affords 
no clue to his manner. 1 The Madonna of 1448 having perished 
in the seventeenth century, 2 the first work in which a genuine 
character is displayed is the altarpiece of St. Luke and saints 
completed for Santa Giustina of Padua in 1454, and now at the 
Brera. 3 The monumental style of distribution preserved in this 
piece, and the necessary repose of the saints in niches, give no 
scope for various artistic display. St. Luke, in a marble throne, 
sits writing at a round table ; at his sides St. Benedict with a 
scourge, St. Prosdocimus, and St. Justina, a Benedictine nun. In 

cernite quseso." The background, a wooden interior with a beam ceiling, book- 
shelves, an hour-glass, an inkstand, and a bell, is much too small for the figure ; 
the bony shape and dull colour, the mask and drawing recall Cranach. It is a 
wooden and inanimate portrait, solidly and minutely treated, with a very fine 
broken outline, in a flat dull flesh tone without relief. This may be an early 
Mantegna, as it may be an early Schiavone or Zoppo. It has the stamp of 
Squarcione's shop, but in the present state of our information can scarcely be 
traced back to the author of the altarpieces of 1454 the St. Luke of the Brera 
and the St. Euphemia of Naples. [* The present whereabouts of this picture is 
not known. Of. Kristeller, Andrea Mantegna, p. 175, n. 1.] 

1 Padua, Santo, inscribed : "Andreas Mantegna optumo favente numine perfecit 
MCCCCLII. XI. Kal. sextil." Gonzati, La Bas., ub. sup., i. 124 sq. 

2 Ridolfi, Le Marav., i. 111. 

* It is proved by a contemporary record that Mantegna in 1449 went to 
Ferrara to execute portraits of the Marquis Lionello d'Este and his favourite 
Folco da Villaf uora. See postea, p. 101, and A. Venturi, in Rivista storica italiana, 
i. 606 sq. These portraits are also lost. 

3 Milan, Brera, No. 200, in its complete state m. 1-71 high by 2-30, the figures 
about a third of the life-size. The condition of the picture is pretty good. The 
hand of St. Benedict, the shadows in the head of St. Euphemia are altered by 
restoring, and bits here and there have been stopped with colour. The surface 
is heavily varnished, which seems likely to produce scaling. Scardeone relates 
that this piece was on the altar of St. Luke in Santa Giustina at Padua, and that 
the painter's name was artificiose attached to it. The gildings, says Brandolese, 
were injured in the eighteenth century by lightning, and restored ; hence, perhaps, 
the disappearance of the signature (Brand., Pitt, di Padova, note to pp. 102-3). 
The contract signed 1453, and payments up to 1454, are in Moschini (Vicende, 
ub. sup., p. 34, n.). The price was 50 ducats of gold. 

We shall speak of an Annunciation in the Dresden Museum, No. 43, amongst 
the works of the Ferrarese school, premising that the signature of Mantegna and 
the date of 1450 on that picture being a forgery have been removed. (See postea, 
Baldassare Estense.) 


a second course, half-lengths of the Man of Sorrows, between the 
wailing Virgin and Evangelist ; St. Jerome penitent ; a bishop, 
and two others : all on gold ground, with carefully stamped and 
gilt nimbuses. In spite of the formality of this arrangement, 
we have a fine proof of Mantegna's talent. St. Luke bending 
over his desk a natural creation, not easily matched in the 
Paduan school is grave and meaning, without too much statuary 
coldness, the face a thoughtful and attractive one. The hands 
and feet are correct and drawn with perspective truth ; the pro- 
portions good, the transitions natural ; the harmonies well 
balanced and chosen ; the drapery minute, but not overladen. 
In no production of the Florentines or Paduans at this period is 
more science exhibited. To the lower class of Squarcionesques 
is left the unenviable quality of coarse and repulsive masks. 
Mantegna has seen and avoided the defects of his countrymen. 
The finely moulded head and pleasing figure of St. Benedict 
remind us of a Tuscan type such as Lippi might have produced ; 
the St. Justina, in her pose and classic shape, is a reminiscence of 
the antique ;the Saviour passive in his tomb, would be a counter- 
part of the Vivarini's at Bologna, but that it is bolder in 
conception and more powerfully executed. Grimace in some 
measure disfigures the Evangelist and the Virgin, who wrings 
her long and slender hands. St. Jerome penitent, though 
resolute in air, is affected in the vehemence of his movement, but 
the half-length bishop is a stern and solemn personage of grand 
mien. A peculiar feature in the drawing of the parts is the pure- 
ness and scrupulous polish of the outlines ; searching to a fault 
are the shadows and reflections. In this we observe a tendency 
which distinguishes the Paduan from the Florentine ; and 
Mantegna, whilst studying carved or painted models, preserves 
a northern realism. He is occasionally harsh and vulgar, but 
strong and muscular at the same time; so that he appears to 
unite the qualities of Michelangelo with those of Diirer. His 
tempera has none of the dullness of the common Paduan has 
brightness, transparence, and melody, but is not free from 
dryness ; its modelling is clean, and it is well relieved by ample 
light and shade ; of a pleasant yellowish tinge in the one, of a 
cool grey in the other, and perfectly finished. To whom this 
peculiarity is due, whether to the first Vivarini, whose pictures 


were known at Padua, or to Jacopo Bellini, or to Lippi, it is 
difficult to say. Mantegna's treatment differs from that of the 
Vivarini, as well as from that of Lippi, by greater solidity of 
substance, a finer system of hatching, and sharp touches produced 
by liquid siccatives. He is superior as a colourist in tempera to 
contemporary Venetians. 

A less important but not less characteristic specimen of his 
skill at this time is the St. Euphemia of the Naples Museum, 
almost an imitation of a marble statue, of a broader and more 
classical mould than the saint of the same name in the Milan 
altarpiece, fleshy, admirably drawn and foreshortened, but 
dimmed in colour by age and neglect. 1 It is the only production 
of the Paduan period, in addition to the St. Luke of the Brera, 
which has been preserved ; the Virgin and Child in the Casa 
Scotti at Milan, with its forged inscription, being by Liberale of 
Verona, and the St. Bernardino at the Brera, by Domenico 
Morone, or some old master of that stamp. 2 

Vasari's opinion seems to be that Mantegna only began to 
paint in the Eremitani of Padua after 1448. 3 He is probably 
right. We may conjecture that after Schiavone, Zoppo, Bono, 
and Ansuino had done their best, and Pizzolo had been removed 
by a violent death, it was thought expedient to try Mantegna. 4 We 
are unable, however, to discover exactly where Pizzolo ends and 

1 Naples Museum, Koom XV., No. 30, previously in the museum of Velletri. 
Canvas, tempera, inscribed on a cartello : " Opus Andreas Mantegnas MCCCCLiin." 
The saint stands in a niche with the knife in her bosom, a lily in her left hand, the 
right hand with a palm in the jaws of the lion ; above the niche a rich festoon. 
The forms are not imitated from nature but from marble ; the draperies classic, 
the feet very cleverly foreshortened. (See the engraving in D'Agincourt, 
PI. cxxxix., where the original picture is reversed.) 

2 Milan, Casa Scotti. (See^0se#,p.l73,n.3.) This Virginand Child waspreviously 
in Casa Melzi at Milan. It is supposed by Dr. Waagen (" Andrea Mantegna," in 
Kaumer's Taschenbuch,dritte Folge, erster Jahrgang, imp. 8vo, Leipzig, 1850, pp. 482, 
526, and 585) to be that done for the Abbot of Fiesole; though Vasari, who 
mentions the Fiesole Virgin, says it is a half-length. The signature on the step 
of the throne, "Andreas Mantinea, p. s. p. 1461," is a forgery. See also Selvatico's 
very proper doubts in notes to Vasari, iii. 417, and Vasari himself, iii. 394. 

Milan, Brera, No. 163, canvas, life-size, assigned by Hartzen to Piero della 
Francesca. See History of Italian Painting (1st ed.), vol. ii. note to p. 562, and 
posted in Domenico Morone. 

8 Vasari, iii. 387. 

4 See antea, p. 13, n. 2. 


where Mantegna begins. There is obviously some dovetailing of 
their work in the apse and semidome, and their joint labour perhaps 
continues in the lunette frescoes at the left side of the chapel, where 
St. James communes with the spirits and is called to the apostle- 
ship. In the first we see the saint in a stone pulpit exorcising 
three flying monsters, whilst the audience below expresses fear 
and wonder in various attitudes of stupor. The nude parts 
are coarse and unselect, but the action is good, the drawing 
correct, and the drapery, in spite of superabundant gathering, 
well adapted to the forms. The scene, too, is animated and well 
arranged, according to the best Tuscan laws of composition, with 
a high centre of vision. The colour, in feeling and tone akin to 
that of Pizzolo, is gayer in tint and less strongly relieved by 
shadow than that of Andrea. We find, in fact, a perfect medley 
of the art of Pizzolo and Mantegna. 

In the call of James and John to the apostleship, the fisher- 
men kneel in front of Christ, who welcomes them in presence of 
Peter and Andrew ; Zebedee in his boat still hauling at the nets. 
A fine landscape of the wild character peculiar to the Lombard- 
Venetian country appropriately enlivens the scene. 1 Peter with 
his back to the spectator is as grand a creation as any that 
Piero della Francesca ever produced noble in mask and in 
attitude. Form, movement, drapery, and colour are similar 
to previous ones, and only inferior in scientific rendering or in 
boldness and accuracy of outline to those of Mantegna's ascer- 
tained frescoes. The angels in the upper festoons are spirited 
and mirthful, like those of the Assumption. It is again a 
question whether the leading artist be Pizzolo or Mantegna. 
Here, however, doubt may be allowed to cease. We shall 
assume as a probable conjecture that St. James exorcising the 
devils, and St. James called from his nets, were designed by 
Mantegna, and partly executed by Pizzolo. The compositions 
which immediately follow these, St. James baptizing Her- 
mogenes, St. James before Herod Agrippa, and the rest of the 
chapel are all Mantegna's and his alone. 2 

1 A pretty garland of apples and leaves hangs over both frescoes, and children 
gracefully rest in them. The ornament round the frame is of beans and acorns 
in monochrome. 

2 It will be seen from the foregoing that we may consider the following 
passage from the Anonimo with regard to the artists employed in the chapel as 


II. 30] 


There are three distinct qnalities conspicuous in the subject 
of St. James performing the rite of baptism, which are not 
always found united in Mantegna. In a very earnest spirit and 
with studied thought he seeks to combine the stately composure 
of statuary, the momentary action of nature, and an excessive 
simplicity of realism. St. James in a quadrangular court, and in 
front of a portico, bends to his task, and pours a streamlet of 
water from a copper vessel on the head of the kneeling Her- 
mogenes. The books of the old and forbidden lore lie most of 
them scattered on the ground, but one of them is still intently 
read by a man who stands with his back to the spectator on the 
right foreground ; three or four persons are calm witnesses of the 
ceremony, a fifth communicates the circumstance to an eager 
stranger, whose garment is seen through the square pillars 
of the colonnade ; and two children, with curious awe, look on 
to the left. Buildings of classic architecture, though not quite 
pure in taste, are drawn with a perfect command of the simpler 
rules of perspective; the vanishing and measuring points being 
correct for a picture to be seen at the level of the beholder, but 
incorrect for one so near to the vaulting of the chapel. By a 
judicious and subtle use of garlands in the hands of angels, 
a pleasant filling is given to the upper corners of the fresco. 
More in the spirit of statuary is the reading man, a tall and 
well-built figure, whose long and ample cloak of yellow hue 
alternately falls in puffs or clings in broken puckers to his frame ; 
cleverly suggestive is the glance and gesture of the youth in the 
colonnade speaking and turning towards one whose form and 
face are concealed by the square pillar ; a true piece of realistic 
nature is that of the children a boy with a water-melon in his 
hand, restraining the infantine curiosity of his younger com- 
panion. Yet, in the midst of this variety, an undoubted unity is 
attained. There is no figure inappropriate or trivial in pose, in 
action or expression. Piety is as strongly marked in the face of 
the proselyte as confident power in that of St. James. Almost 
all the heads are portraits. What we may reprove is the 

in the main correct : " The left-hand face is all by Mantegna ; of the right hand, 
the lower part is by Mantegna also, the upper by Ansuino da Forli and Bono of 
Ferrara, or Bologna. The Assumption behind, and the figures in the cupola, are 
by Niccol6 Pizzol6, by whom also (?) are the Evangelists (Doctors) with the 
cupboards in perspective " (Anon., ub. sup., p. 23). 


artificial arrangement of the draperies, the multiplicity of their 
folds in under-garments of muslin texture, the clinging and pro- 
truding of the mantles of woollen stuff, peculiarities which give 
a very distinct impress to Mantegna's style, and were very 
closely imitated by Ferrarese artists of the stamp of Tura. We 
may admire, as worthy of the sixteeenth century, the flying 
angel at the upper corner of the colonnade, which recalls one of 
Donatello's children in the Santo of Padua. 

Mantegna from the first betrays a total absence of that feeling 
for tone which is so charming in Giovanni Bellini. He contrasts 
his tints on scientific principles, one colour being accurately 
balanced by another, in accordance with the laws of harmony ; 
but he has not the fibre of a colourist, nor does he know how to 
produce depth by imperceptible gradations ; and in his merciless 
severity he is the forerunner of Carpaccio, the Signorelli of the 
North, and Montagna, the Diirer of Vicenza. 1 

Turning from the scene of the baptism to that of St. James 
before Herod Agrippa, we are struck by an increase of sculptural 
attitude, antique costume, and classical architecture. The prefect 
in his chair, the soldiers in their armour and plaited skirts, the 
triumphal arch in the background, all illustrate a close and 
untiring study of a bygone period. In distribution, perspective, 
and treatment, the character of the artist remains the same. He 
is extremely and severely careful, but he hardly avoids affecta- 
tion in the pose of the officer near the saint, in that of a guard 
leaning against the stone balustrade fronting the throne, and the 
sentinel at the other side, who looks like a portrait of Mantegna, 
so closely does he resemble the bronze of the painter's tomb. 

Lower down the wall we come upon the procession to execu- 
tion ; St. James, between the two officers of his escort, stopping 
in his progress to bless a kneeling paralytic. Through the 
opening of a richly decorated arch we see the common habita- 

1 The monochome framing of these two frescoes is admirably carried out, and 
so well relieved by the throw of its shadows that it recalls the bronzes of 
the baptistery of Florence ; parting the subject is a fine combination of leaves, 
blossoms, vases, and medals. The effect of this monochrome on a dark ground, 
contrasting with the dark green festoons and playing angels, is one peculiarly 
characteristic of Mantegna. Purely imitative of the antique is the medallion of 
a horse, two nudes, and a breastplate in the wall of the right-hand fresco. The 
blues in the dress of St. James and others are bleached. 


[Padua, Eremitani. 


II. 32] 


tions of an Italian city. To the right a man thrusts back the 
crowd ; and in the distance between the principal groups are 
the legionaries halting at the mouth of a long and narrow lane. 1 
If in previous frescoes Mantegna dwells with complacency on the 
studies of the archaeologist and perspective draughtsman, he does 
so now with an obtrusive zeal. He considers the human form 
as a mere geometrical unit, subjecting it to the same maxims as 
the architecture; the lines of the frames vanish to a central 
point, and the attitudes are chosen as if to illustrate the diffi- 
culties of this novel practice. He carries to the same extreme 
the habit of statuesque action, and thus doubly violates the 
ordinary laws of nature. Nothing seems more probable than 
that before he laid in this fresco he set models of each figure at 
given distances, and worked out the drawing of each by a 
separate operation. The demonstration is no doubt clever, but 
has its obvious disadvantages. The cleverness is too apparent 
and is accompanied by an unnatural strain ; the flexibility of 
flesh is sacrificed unconditionally, and the scene is an exhibition 
of skill without being a representation of the truth. We may in 
part conceive under what circumstances this strange effort was 
made. In the previous subjects some critics no doubt observed 
that the centre of vision was ill chosen for the place in which the 

1 The sky of this fresco is altered by the dropping of the blues. Amongst 
peculiarities we note the cleverness with which the hard stone of the arch 
is grained to imitate nature. Examining one figure like that of St. James, we 
shall remark that the contours of the face and features and the hatchings 
are coal-black, and that the deep shadow in the drapery is also coal-black ; a red 
bricky flesh tone covers the surface, and the lights are produced by chalky 
streaks. Not content with the ordinary folds of garments, Mantegna turns 
up the sleeves of St. James's overcoat to get more drapery, a clear imitation 
of Donatello's artfulness. 

There is an old copy of this fresco of a small size on canvas in the house of 
the Marchese Galeazzo Dondi-Orologio at Padua. [* Selvatico mentions a series of 
copies of all Mantegna's frescoes in the Eremitani as belonging to the Marchese 
Dondi-Orologio ; these copies had formerly been in the Casa Scotti at Padua and 
are probably identical with those which the Anonimo (nb. sup., p. 26) saw in the 
Casa Stra in that town (see Selvatico, in Vasari, iii. 427). We may believe that 
three paintings of this series (viz. St. James going to Execution, the Martyrdom 
of St. Christopher, and the Removal of the Body of St. Christopher) are now 
in the collection of Mine. Edouard Andr6 of Paris. See Graff, in MonatsJiefte fur 
KunstwissenscJiaft, iii. 108 sq. An original drawing by Mantegna for the fresco 
of St. James led to Execution belongs to the Hon. A. E. Gathorne-Hardy of 
Donnington Priory, Newbury.] 

VOL. II 3 


picture is seen. Persons who might have had experience of 
Donatello's talent in adapting sculpture to its place, perhaps 
suggested the means of correcting this error. Some artist deep 
in the knowledge of perspective, such as Uccelli, for whose 
works Mantegna confessed the greatest respect, 1 might even 
have offered his assistance. Determined under these circum- 
stances to show his power, Mantegna possibly sets himself to his 
task with exaggerated ardour. He chooses at once a most 
difficult centre of vision, at a considerable distance beneath the 
plane of delineation. He precipitates the lines to such an 
extent that he conceals the lower parts of all the dramatis 
personae, except those which stand on the very edge of the fore- 
ground. More than this, having the necessary points for the 
retreat and measurement of the parts at right angles to the plane, 
he tries a view of a square tower presenting one of its angles 
to the spectator. In this we think he was unsuccessful ; for 
repeated tests made upon correct copies of the picture only lead 
to the conclusion that, if Mantegna intended his tower to be 
rectangular, he failed to make it so, 2 and was thus practically 
unacquainted with the secret of that intricate operation, the 
measurement of lines vanishing to accidental points on the 
horizon. Yet the mere attempt to solve this problem attracted 
considerable attention, not only in Mantegna's own time per- 
spective being taught by regular professors at Padua 3 but at a 
later period ; and Daniel Barbaro, in the preface to his work on 
this subject, singles out the fresco of St. James going to Martyr- 
dom as one which entitles its author to the highest praise. Yet 
Mantegna might have learnt from the example of Piero della 
Francesca, his contemporary, that true art consists in the 
judicious use of all the acquirements which serve to make it per- 
fect, and not by obtruding one of them to the sacrifice of the 
rest. 4 He had something to learn from that great artist, not 

1 Vasari, ii. 214. 

* 2 M. C. V. Nielsen holds a different opinion : see Filippo Brunellesco og 
Grundlaeggelsen av Theorienfor Perspektiven, pp. 46 sqq. 

3 Michele Savonarola, De Laud. Patav., ub. sup. Muratori, vol. xxiv. p. 1180 
of Script. Rer. Ital. 

4 Daniel Barbaro, in Anon., pp. 142 sq. Lomazzo also (Idea del Tempio, 8vo, 
Milano, 1590, pp. 17, 52-3, and 150) says : " II Mantegna e stato il primo 
eke in tal arte ci habbi aperti gli occhi, perche h compreso che 1'arte della 
pittura senza questo e nulla. Onde ci h fatto veder il modo di far corrispondere 


only in this respect, but in the choice of the purest standard 
of architectural beauty. But this was not the only fault which 
he committed in the blindness of his ardour. He was not 
content with exhibiting himself as the most skilful master of a 
science as yet uncertain in its rules. It was open to him to hold 
as Vasari says that he held that statues were more perfect 
and were better in their parts than the human figure, because 
they were created by sculptors who sought to combine from 
numerous examples the ideal of uncommon perfection ; l but it 
was not the office of a painter to take statues bodily into his 
pictures and present them to the spectator as models of the 
highest art. That he did this, especially in the frescoes before 
us, is very plain ; he not only introduced sculptural attitudes, 
but imitations of the modern classic of Donatello. In the figure 
of a soldier standing with his hands on an ancient shield, a steel 
cuirass seems cast in the mould of its wearer, and offers to the 
eye all the accidents of fleshy muscularity. Clinging dress is 
preferred to ample folds because it shows the character of the 
slender figures and the vanishing of the pectoral and other lines. 
Drapery, if necessary, is cast so as to strengthen the effect of 
curves directed concentrically to a given point ; the smallest 
details being searched out and rendered with prying minuteness. 
Palling and disappointing at last is the strictness with which 
every particle of work is found to have been calculated and 
carried out. Hands, wrists, knees, and feet are correctly 
rendered according as their perspective places change ; not a 
projection or a furrow in the human head is omitted, not an out- 
line of projected shadow neglected ; realism of detail, as in the 
worn shoes of the kneeling convert, is unnecessarily displayed ; 
but in the midst of this over-application, one element of life 
seems altogether lost or forgotten there is no pulsation of blood 
in any of the flesh. As for charms of colour, they too are 
necessarily incompatible with the system of delineation ; the 

ogni cosa al modo del vedere." But, he adds : " Se ben egli le (all the qualities) 
possedette tutte pur nella prospettiva, che f ft sua principale non pote levar con la 
sua maniera gl' intrichi di quella si che non paresse fatta con arte." The same 
author says Andrea Gallerato possessed drawings of Mantegna with the perspective 
rules illustrated and described on them. See also the just remarks of Selvatico 
on Mantegna's perspective in Comm. Vasari, iii. 448 and following. 
1 Vasari, iii. 389 sq. 


tempera is coarse and dry, yet high in surface, hatched with dark 
strokes as if the painter had become familiar with the technica 
of wood-engraving ; with correct harmony of neutral tone, but 
without the brilliancy of the colourists ; and we guess the im- 
portance attached by Mantegna to the attainment of a necessary 
quality, when, looking at certain heads which have been finished 
with anxious care, we find them covered with a lattice-work of 
black scratches invisible at a distance, and correcting an other- 
wise obvious dissonance. 

Were we but half as well informed by historians of the 
various turns and vicissitudes in Mantegna's life up to this time, 
as we are of his artistic progress by the pictures he produced, 
we should know much that would fetter our interest. We guess, 
however, that certain events must have accompanied certain 
changes in his art. It cannot be doubted that the constantly 
increasing tendency to see from the locus standi of a sculptor 
was due to the presence of Donatello at Padua, that the passion 
for testing perspective problems by their application to the human 
form was contagiously derived from Uccelli ; and that the 
simultaneous study of antique remains and familiar nature might 
be derived from Jacopo Bellini. About this period Mantegna's 
acquaintance with the latter became closer ; he married Niccolosia 
Bellini, and thus became a member of what may be called the 
Florentine faction at Padua ; x he may have been completely 
estranged by this act from Squarcione, his father by adoption, 
but we may well believe that the seeds of discord had been sown 
between them long before. 2 Is it not curious, indeed, that for 

1 See antea in Jacopo Bellini, i. 114. It is as well to correct at once an error 
made by Codde (Mem. Biogr., ub. sup., p. 97), who asserts that Mantegna declares 
himself in his will to have been married to a lady of the family of the " Nuvolosi." 
The will states that Mantegna's wife was called " Niccolosia," and we believe it to 
be correct that Niccolosia is the Christian name of Jacopo Bellini's daughter. 
The reading of Codde would oblige us either to disbelieve Vasari, or to suppose 
that Mantegna was twice married. But it is natural that a superficial examination 
should lead Codd6 to take a Christian for a family name. See the will of 
Mantegna in Gaye (ii. 80), and in D'Arco (ii. 50, 52), and Moschini ( Vicevide, p. 50). 

* 2 We have seen antea, i. 115, n. 2, that Mantegna married Niccolosia Bellini 
in 1453, that is to say about a year after the frescoes in the Eremitani chapel 
had been finished. As far back as 1448 there had arisen differences between 
Squarcione and Mantegna, which were, however, settled on January 26 of that 
year. The conciliation of 1448 was declared to be null in 1456. See Stefani, in 
Archivio veneto, xxix. 192. 


centuries opinion should have held that Squarcione was the 
master who directed the genius of Mantegna to the study of 
classic sculpture and the antique, but that when he quarrelled 
with Mantegna he found nothing to reprove in the frescoes of the 
Eremitani except their sculptural character and lack of nature? 
A truer and, we may think, a more logical cause for the es- 
trangement of Mantegna was his partiality for the rival work- 
shops of the Florentines and of Bellini. No doubt there were 
gibes and jeers exchanged between the students ; parties declared 
themselves for one side or the other, and private rancour was 
added to artistic rivalry. A welcome lever of attack was 
furnished to Squarcione by Mantegna's exaggerated zeal in 
straining art for a conventional purpose, but the attack would 
have lost its point if the very peculiarities which Squarcione 
censured had been due to Squarcione's teaching. The same 
perseverance with which Mantegna appropriated all that savoured 
of antiquity in sculpture, he applied to copying ancient architec- 
ture. He might in this respect have been animated by the 
example of Squarcione, who is said to have brought back draw- 
ings from various parts of Italy, but he would surely have derived 
a natural partiality for it from daily association with the artists 
who visited Padua, the professors of the Paduan University, and 
a select band of learned inquirers who devoted time and means 
to the discovery of local antiquities. The province of Padua 
and Verona was at that time perhaps one of the best fields for 
such researches that Italy possessed. Verona had her circus and 
remnants of other ancient buildings ; the neighbouring country 
had its classic remains ; all these Mantegna visited chiefly in 
company of Felice Feliciano, a famous collector of inscriptions ; 
and we see the fruits of his discoveries or observation in the 
chapel of the Eremitani, where classical edifices are revived with 
consummate skill. 1 On the arch of the fresco representing St. 
James before Herod Agrippa, a fragment of a Latin epigraph is 
introduced which may have been found in some old ruin. 2 On 

1 Felice Feliciano dedicated his Epigrammata MS. in the library of Verona to 
Mantegna, and there relates (1463) how he, Mantegna, and Samuele da Tradate 
visited the country about the lake of Garda, measuring monuments and copying 
inscriptions (Selvatico in Vasari C., iii. 452, 457). [* Of. postea, p. 87, n. 3.] 

* 2 T . PVLLIO | T L LINO," etc. This is a copy of an inscription on a tomb- 
stone once on the Monte Buso, near Este ; see Corpus Inscriptionun Latinarum, 


the far more florid and richly decorated one in the St. James 
going to Martyrdom is a medallion enclosing the name of 
L. Vitruvins Cerdo, an architect connected with some of the 
fallen buildings at Verona. 1 

That a constant intercourse took place with antiquaries and 
professors is proved by the fulsome eulogies of Mantegna in 
dedications of books, in elegies and sonnets, where the artist's 
talents are necessarily compared with those of the masters of 
Greece. 2 Adulation was fashionable and almost as shameless at 
that time as when it was sold subsequently to princes at the 
price of diamonds by such venal scribes as Aretino. It was 
effective in proportion to the popularity of the writer, and might 
repose on a genuine basis in Mantegna's case, but if so it 
represented, as has been truly said, the opinions of a select few 
and not the admiration of the million, for which indeed the art 
of Mantegna could have no charm. 

Squarcione's charge against Mantegna was that he lent him- 
self to the pernicious practice of imitating the hardness of 
marbles as contradistinguished from the softness and flexibility 
of flesh ; he added that Mantegna had done better to paint his 
figures in monochrome, than to tint them in so many colours, 
since they made no pretence to resemble living things. 3 What- 
ever may have been the motive, there was no denying the truth, 
of this opinion, and Mantegna very properly tried to correct the 
exaggerations into which he had fallen. The fruits of this 
endeavour are very clear in the Martyrdom of St. James, where 
feats of scientific draughtsmanship are avoided, a reasonable 

vol. v. pt. i. No. 2528. Jacopo Bellini copied the same inscription in the Louvre 
sketch-book (fol. 48). Below this inscription there is in the fresco another, of 
which, however, only a few syllables are visible (AVG . . . | BOM . . . 10 | VMA 
. . . L . . .). 

1 Cerdo was the architect of the arch of the Gavii at Verona, which no longer 
exists. (See Selvatico, Comm. in Vasari, iii. 452.) 

2 We may name Ciriaco of Ancona, Giovanni Marcanova of Padua, Matteo 
Bossi, abbot of Fiesole, Janus Pannonius, Pamfilo Sasso, Benevoli, Leonardi, 
Battista of Mantua. Extracts from the writings of these may be seen in Anon., 
pp. 145 and foil., and especially the eulogy by Janus Pannonius, pseudonym of 
John of Czezmicze, of whom Mantegna painted a (missing) portrait in company 
of Galeotto Marzio, a student at Padua in 1458, and the eulogy of Camillo 
Leonardi of Pesaro in Speculum Lapidum, printed at Venice in 1502, 

3 Vasari, iii. 389, 


vanishing point is chosen, human models are preferred to statues, 
and nature is consulted for a broad and effective landscape. On 
the brink of a ditch with a light fronting of rails, lies the 
prostrate form of St. James, closely guarded by men of all arms 
on foot and horseback ; astride of him a grim and muscular 
executioner with a huge mallet ready to come down. To the 
right is part of a ruined arch overgrown with ivy ; in the middle 
ground an almost leafless sapling, and a road ; and in the dis- 
tance a rocky terraced hill, a castle, and ill-repaired defences. 
What particularly strikes the eye is an obvious struggle between 
past habit and a novel resolution. The spirit of Donatello still 
lingers in three figures of soldiers on a road behind the Martyr- 
dom, foreshadowing as it were those of Michelangelo in the 
round of the Uffizi. The positive realism, which forms a pro- 
minent feature in Andrea's character, is displayed in the coarse 
and muscular shape of the executioner clothed in a patched 
jerkin. In powerful contrast again are the mounted guards, one 
of them on a foreshortened horse not unfamiliar to us in Uccelli or 
Jacopo Bellini's sketches, another curbing his charger after the 
fashion of the riders in the triumphs of Hampton Court. In 
the technical treatment of distemper an obvious change. In 
every part, and particularly in the figures at the right-hand 
corner of the picture, the surface loses its previous rigidity and 
metallic tone ; shadows are less sharp and black, and hatched 
lines give the modelling with greater softness ; but the iron 
nature of the painter's art is still reflected in the cutting 
contrasts of yellow hills, red walls and paths, and dull green 
bushes. 1 

Not without encouragement in this self-imposed reform, we 
think, Mantegna relaxes more and more from the grimness of 

1 In this fresco the substance of Mantegna's colour is less solid than before 
and more liquid ; the hatching is softer, and the red-brick tone is milder than 
before, and shaded with less blackness. The head of St. James is not in 
Mantegna's spirit, and seems done by a younger man in his school. The head of 
a man looking at him and stooping over the railing is injured; and just there a 
dangerous split is to be seen in the wall. The blues of the sky and dresses are 
either blackened or bleached. A bit on the upper part of the ruin to the right is 
restored in oil. Of this piece also there is a small canvas copy in the house of the 
Marquis Galeazzo Dondi-Orologio at Padua (see Anonimo, p. 26). [* This copy is 
now untraceable. See also antea, p. 33, n. 1.] 


his style in the Martyrdom and Removal of St. Christopher in the 
lowest course of the right-hand chapel wall. He divides his 
space into two parts by a pillar. The giant saint stands bound 
on the left hand, awaiting his doom. Near him the archers, 
under a bower overgrown with vine, leaning against a massive 
building covered with antique reliefs and inscriptions ; on one 
side three profiles of spectators, at a window the judge wounded 
by an arrow. 1 To the right the second and final scene, where the 
body of St. Christopher covers the foreground of a street, and is 
removed by soldiers. 2 But for the copies of these frescoes which 
are preserved in the gallery of Parma, we should lose many 
of the details of the composition, but guided by these we note 
the perfect nature of the architecture and its perspective. 3 

Both subjects have a common vanishing point marked by 
the nail-hole struck by Mantegna's own hand in the pillar 
between them. Retreating lines of the bower and toning of the 
walls in harmonic colours produce a masterly effect of distance ; 
flesh and dress are rendered with more liquid hatching than 
before ; rotundity is sought with less trenchant means, and 
portions of faces are broken in light with a cold grey. The 
drawing has not so much of hard searching, but the action of 

1 Almost all of the figure of St. Christopher is obliterated, as well as part of the 
legs of the archers and spectators to the right. The dresses of the three specta- 
tors are also deprived of colour. Beneath two busts in bas-relief in the wall 
below the window occupied by the wounded judge, an inscription of which one 
can read the words : " T PONENVS | M P MAECEL | . . . PATRI a \ . . . DIAE | 

. . . ET ovivi I ... viii." The figure of an archer partly concealing the un- 
intelligible words is greatly injured. [* The beginning of this inscription is given 
in the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, vol. v. pt. i. No. 2989.] In the scaled 
parts about the legs of St. Christopher the original drawing in red is visible on 
the wall. 

2 Here also we have but the outline of St. Christopher's head and frame, and 
of the figures in rear of him. The right-hand corner of the composition is in a 
similar bad condition. Here it is that according to Vasari (iii. 391) Mantegna painted 
a portrait of Squarcione as an obese archer the second figure to the right from 
St. Christopher and other portraits, for which see Vasari (iii. 391). 

3 Parma, Galleria Reale, No. 437, on paper, in oil, the same mentioned in 
Anonimo (p. 84) in the gallery of M. Michiel Contarini. [* There are old copies 
of these frescoes also in the Andr6 collection at Paris. See antea, p. 33, n. 1.] 

A large copy of the Martyrdom of St. Christopher was ordered some forty 
years ago by the city of Padua from the painter Signer Gazotto. 

The Arundel Society has partly issued a chromolithographic series of the 


Alinari photo. 1 


[[Padua, Eremitani. 

II. 40] 


the slender figures still wants relaxing. From the foot of the 
standing St. Christopher which remains, we see how perfectly 
the artist was acquainted with the structure of bone, of muscle, 
and of flesh, how anxiously he tried to avoid the stony look so 
bitterly reproved by Squarcione. A bolder foreshortening than 
that of St. Christopher dragged away by ropes in the last fresco 
is not to be found in the Paduan school ; a finer arrangement 
of gronps and accessories, more ready movements, cannot be 
imagined. Here it is that we become fully acquainted with 
Mantegna' s lofty position amongst artists. Here we mark how 
much more gifted he was in some senses than the celebrated 
men of the following century. We compare his giant figure 
with Titian's David and Goliath, or Death of Abel in the ceiling 
of the sacristy at the Salute in Venice, and we perceive that the 
great Venetian lives on the achievements of the Paduan, content 
to enjoy the fruit garnered by Mantegna, who for his part fixes 
rules indispensable to the future expansion of art. What indeed 
would have become of that art had not some one sacrificed the 
end to the means, and dwelt with severe patience and solemn 
pleasure on the dryest problems ? 1 It was necessary that some 
one should be found to level the road leading to perfection; 
and such an one we justly recognize in Mantegna, who without 
sense of spontaneous or ideal grace, and without feeling for 
colour, had the power and indomitable will of Donatello and 

We spoke of three profiles of spectators in the Martyrdom of 
St. Christopher ; they differ so essentially in form and treatment 
from others in the fresco that they might be due to a different 
painter. In appearance the central one is the oldest of the 
three, a man with strongly marked features, a bald head and 
padded cheeks, with his hands crossed over his waistband ; to 
his left a younger person about forty years old ; to his right, 
one, in a red cap, still younger. A bright flesh-tone, a soft style 
of modelling, an outline free from ruggedness, and delicate 
hands, extreme individuality, and constant consultation of nature 
remind us of late creations by Gentile Bellini. Mantegna, who 
had never exhibited any of the portrait character peculiar to the 
Venetians, suddenly seems to favour simple nature in drawing 

. l See Selvatico (Comm, in Vasari, iii. 455), 


and in tone. Had a single fresco of the Bellini been preserved, 
we might perhaps be able to hold some strong opinion as to the 
author of these figures ; but without this certainty we can only 
say that the Bellini might have painted so. More curious 
perhaps than the variety between this and other parts of the 
Martyrdom is the coincidence, that in the two youngest heads 
we trace a likeness to the medal portraits of Gentile and 
Giovanni. We may acknowledge the difficulty of distinguishing 
accurately between heads in their natural state and those which 
Venetian fashion encumbered with wigs; but so far as it is 
possible to judge, there is a resemblance between the nearest 
personage of the group to the medal of Camelio, and it might 
be that the next one is Jacopo Bellini, and the third Giovanni. 
If this should be admitted, we may presume that, at the time of 
producing this piece, Mantegna was already wedded to Jacopo's 
daughter, and the four painters were bound together by ties of 
relationship. 1 We might then suppose that the change, wrought 
in Mantegna after the completion of the St. James going to 
Martyrdom, occurred under the auspices and encouragement of 
the Bellini, who, as rivals of Squarcione, 2 would be interested 
in bringing their brother-in-law to a proper admission of the 
exaggerations of which he had been guilty. We are ignorant, 
as has been said before, of the exact period when this marriage 
took place ; we may believe without any violation of historical 
data that it was celebrated when Mantegna was at work in the 
chapel of the Eremitani ; and nothing can prevent us from 
thinking that Jacopo Bellini had a share in directing the career 
of Mantegna. We may assume that the full force of the 
Bellinesque influence was exerted when Andrea began the 
Martyrdom of St. James. Amongst the riders there we see 
something akin to the action and foreshortening of those in 
Jacopo's sketch-book ; and the general softening of his style as 
a colonrist and draughtsman is perhaps due to the same cause ; 
nor is it unlikely that the portrait character and soft impression 
conspicuous in the three figures we have noticed may have been 
the fruit of some transient but powerful expression of Bellinesque 
opinion in Mantegna, when stung by the criticism of Squarcione. 
Meanwhile it is but fair to say, that what Mantegna might have 

* ' See antea, p. 36, n. 2. 2 Vasari, iii. 388 sq. 


gained from the Bellini, he repaid to them in kind ; and for 
many a year, as we are now aware, Giovanni Bellini held truly 
to the standard which his brother-in-law had set up, and did 
honour at once to the lessons of his father, his relation, and 

The time was now approaching when events of great influence 
on the future expansion of North-Italian art were to take place. 
Having become celebrated in the Lombardo-Venetian territory 
by the works which he had finished, and by others which had 
not as yet been brought to perfection, Mantegna attracted the 
attention of the Marquis of Mantua, who used uncommon per- 
suasion to induce him to leave Padua. Jacopo Bellini was 
removed by death from the scene, and his sons were induced 
to withdraw to Venice. 1 From that moment the Paduan school 
lost its importance, and was overshadowed alike by the Venetian 
and the Veronese. Premising that there are no genuine pictures 
by Mantegna at Padua except those which we have described, 2 
and reserving to ourselves the pleasant task of following 

* ' As before stated, Jacopo Bellini continued to live until 1470-71, and we do 
not know when the Bellini stayed at Padua. 

2 We may cite the following as pictures assigned or assignable to Mantegna : 
(1) Padua, Dr. Fusaro ; formerly belonging to the Barbieri family. Half-length 
of the Virgin with the Child on a parapet ; a festoon of apples hangs from the 
upper corners ; a head of an emperor in a medallion is in the parapet, and 
two scutcheons ; distance, sky ; wood, tempera, half life-size. This panel might 
be called Mantegna with more propriety than any of the so-called originals at 
Padua. It is so rubbed that the wood is bared in many places. The movement 
and drawing are exact counterparts of those in a panel at Berlin (No. 27), but 
without the frame and ornament of angels' heads. The outlines are broken 
and sharp, and if this be a genuine Mantegna, it is a mere relic. [* This 
painting was subsequently in the collection of the late Mr. Charles Butler of 
London and was sold at the Butler sale, May 25, 1911, No. 49.] (2) Padua, 
Conte Miari. Christ at the Column ; see posted, Antonello. (3) Padua, Casa 
Antonio Gradenigo. Lunette panel with three angels carrying the emblems of 
the passion ; see posted, Liberale of Verona (4) Padua ; originally in Casa Capo di 
Lista, now in the Communal Gallery. Small panel tempera of the Eesurrection. 
Christ rising with the banner and the guards, one of them extended on the centre 
of the foreground and looking at the Saviour from under his arm. This is a 
Mantegnesque composition copied from a print, and similar to the panel of the 
same subject in the Lochis Gallery at Bergamo. (5) Padua, Casa Maldura. Virgin 
adoring the Child. A small, injured panel, with figures half the life-size, by Luigi 
Vivarini. (6) Same gallery. Holy Family and Magdalen. Wood. For a time this 
piece bore the forged name of A. Mantegna. The old inscription on a cartello has 
been recovered as follows : " Marchus Palmiza Foroliviensis." (7) Padua, Casa 


Mantegna later to Verona and to Mantua, we shall devote a 
short space to the examination of the lives of the painters who 
imitated and carried abroad the pure ugliness of the school of 

Antonio Nordio. Adoration, between the Annunciation and Circumcision, a 
triptych by a German of the sixteenth century. (8) Piove, in possession of 
the apothecary Signer Mangini. Nativity ; see postea, Antonio da Pa via. 

Amongst the lost works of Mantegna at Padua are the following : (1) San 
Benedetto. St. Benedict on canvas in the choir (Anonimo, p. 24). (2) Spirito 
Santo. Christ sends the Apostles to preach the Gospel (Eidolfi, Marav., i. 113). 



IT has been the habit of some very great historians to crave 
the pardon of their readers for introducing them to dull 
but necessary fragments of history. There is no page in artistic 
annals more calculated to test the patience of the writer or the 
constancy of the reader than that which treats of the genuine 
pupils of Squarcioue. Yet in every species of inquiry there is 
something to create interest, and the melancholy works of the 
Squarcionesques will not be described in vain, if they serve 
to prove the real mediocrity of a master hitherto honoured 
beyond his deserts, and of a school encircled by an artificial halo. 
That Squarcione is not to be judged by such works as bear 
his signature, has become evident in the course of this narrative ; 
that the true character of his teaching has been misconceived, 
may be illustrated by the career of his disciples. Of these the 
earliest is perhaps the Dalmatian Schiavone, whose Christian 
name, according to Scardeone, was Gregorio. 1 The rude freedom 

1 Scardeone, Antiq. Pat., ub. sup., p. 371. But Sansovino ( Veil. Descr., 
p. 286) describes a tempera of Christ on the Mount in the Scuola di San Marco at 
Venice, and calls the painter Giorgio Schiavone allievo di Squarcione, and Bidolfi 
(Marav.) i. 110) calls him Girolamo. 

* The name of this artist is really Giorgio Chiulinovich ; he was born at 
Sebenico in 1435 or 1436. In 1456 he entered the service of Squarcione for three 
years and a half, the contract being made at Venice. In 1462 Giorgio had 
returned to Dalmatia, carrying with him some drawings belonging to Squarcione, 
and also owing his master some money. A painter named Marinello, whom 
Squarcione in 1464 empowered to demand the return of his property, succeeded 
in obtaining both money and drawings from Giorgio, but instead of handing 
them over to the rightful owner he kept them all for himself ; and in 1474 we 
find that Squarcione's son Bernardino appealed to Giorgio Chiulinovich, then 



and boldness to which he attained are shown in two figures of 
St. Jerome and St. Alexius in the Lochis Gallery at Bergamo, 
where we recognize the style of Squarcione' s altarpiece of 1452. 1 
So quaint is the ugliness of these saints, that one hardly con- 
ceives how they could have been seriously accepted as sacred 
pictures. It is not that patrons were ever wanting for artists 
of a low class, who might rival the wooden rigidity and coarse- 
ness of forms, the lame action of extremities, or the paltry style 
of drapery conspicuous in these pieces ; but there is something 
so childish in the exaggerated character of the heads, in the 
awkward pattens of St. Jerome, in the black boots of St. Alexius, 
in the grotesque architecture and the dry landscape, that an 
involuntary smile must needs overspread the features of the 
spectator. Yet these hard and solid temperas are honoured 
with the name of Mantegna, and are the necessary precursors 
of others inscribed by Schiavone. The oldest of these temperas 
in point of time is a Virgin and Child enthroned between two 
angels in the Museum of Berlin, 2 in which a marked absence of 
nature in the shape of the faces and frames, and a stark stiffness 
of limb, are but slightly compensated by affected grimness and 
solemnity. In this poor work Schiavone calls himself the pupil 
of Squarcione, and there can be little doubt that he finished it, 
as he finished the previous one at Padua, after his introduction 
in 1441 to the guild of that city. 3 That Schiavone was utterly 

staying at Padua, to get back from Marinello both what he himself had passed 
on to him and also a drawing by one of the Pollaiuoli which Squarcione had lent 
to Marinello. After this we hear nothing more of Giorgio Chiulinovich. See 
Lazzarini and Moschetti, in Nuovo archivio veneto, ser. ii. vol. xv. pp. 116 sqq., 
283-7, 295 sq. 

1 Bergamo, Lochis Gallery, Nos. 161 and 159, under the name of Mantegna. 
Wood, tempera, the sky of the latter darkened. 

2 Berlin Museum, No. 1162. Wood, tempera, 2ft. Tin. high by 1ft. 10 in., 
from the Solly collection, inscribed : " Opus Sclavoni Dalmatici Squarcioni." 
This no doubt is the centre of an altarpiece which the Anonimo describes in San 
Francesco at Padua. It had St. Jerome and three other saints at the sides. In 
the time of Brandolese (Pit. di Pad., p. 252) the central Madonna alone remained. 
When Moschini wrote his Guida di Padova (p. 85) in 1817, the panel was in the 
archiepiscopal palace, and when he wrote the Vicende delta Pittura in 1826 (p. 64) 
it had been sold. The blues of sky and dress are in part renewed. 

3 We assume that Schiavone is the painter inscribed under the name of 
Gregorio (see Moschini, Vicende, ub. sup., p. 23). [* Of., however, antea, p. 45, 
n. 1.] 


unaware of bis weakness is proved alike by the earnestness with 
which he labours and the patient minuteness of his outlines. 
He is not free from the error of preferring the motionless 
character of stone to the flexibility of flesh ; his shading is 
made with straight hatching, and his surface is raw and dull. 
No pupil of Squarcione can more justly claim to have painted 
the seraphs and angels in the soffits of the chapel of San 
Cristoforo at the Eremitani ; and if under all circumstances it 
may be still doubtful whether he really carried out that work, 
the only person capable of contesting the authorship is Zoppo, 1 
who comes very near him in the technical treatment of tempera, 
and who might dispute with him the four saints in the sacristy 
of the canons of Padua, but that they are the side panels of the 
Madonna at Berlin. 2 

There is no more important altar piece by Schiavone than that 

now preserved in the National Gallery, a Virgin and Child with 

four saints, a little better handled than the Virgin of Berlin, 

and not without resemblance of manner to the creations of 

Girolamo da Camerino and even of Crivelli. 3 The most 

affectedly quaint of his pictures, however, is the Virgin and 

Child belonging to a gentleman at Sinigaglia, in which taste- 

[less architecture and garlands of fruit and flowers are duly 

[commingled after the Paduan fashion, and an attempt is made 

* l See antea, p. 16, n. 3. 

2 Padua, sacristy of the canons. Small panels answering the description of 
those seen by the Anonimo as side pictures to the Madonna in San Francesco 

I (Anonimo, p. 12). On one of them St. Louis and St. Anthony of Padua, on the other 
i St. Jerome and St. Francis, both in landscapes, the skies repainted, the colour 
hard, semi-transparent, the outlines very careful. 

3 National Gallery, No. 630, in ten compartments, the central one of the 
i Virgin and Child inscribed on an unfolded scrip : " Opus Sclavoni disipuli 

Squarcioni S." When in the Dennistoun collection this piece was set up in 
a different form from the present one, the upper course being Christ in the 
tomb between St. Anthony of Padua and St. Peter Martyr, the second the 
Virgin and Child between St. Bernardino and St. John the Baptist, the predella 
! containing half-lengths of SS. Anthony the Abbot, Catherine, Cecilia, and 
j Sebastian. Wood, tempera ; centre 3 ft. 6 in. high by 1 ft. If in. ; sides 2 ft. 2 in. 
i high by 9 in. broad. The altarpiece belonged to M. E. Beaucousin before coming 
into the National Gallery. All the figures are on gold ground, the Virgin and 
Child in the same attitudes as at Berlin. We note an imitation of a fly near the 
inscription, and mark common features in this and in the imitation of fruit- 
garlands between Schiavone and Crivelli. 


to copy the strained action of Crivelli and the drapery of 
Donatello. 1 

Marco Zoppo holds a higher place than his comrade in the 
ranks of the Squarcionesques. 2 He also is vain of having 
visited the famous atelier of Padua, and informs his patrons 

1 Sinigaglia, Signor Benucci Buenaventura. Wood, tempera, one-third of life- 
size, well preserved, and probably the same picture as that noticed at Fossombrone 
by Lanzi (ii. 116). It represents the Virgin and Child behind a window, imitating 
grotesquely enough a classic style of architecture, the arch above being hung 
with a garland of fruit and flowers, about which are two angels with trumps. 
Behind the Virgin a marble screen and a landscape. Outside the window and 
nearer the spectator than the Infant Christ, who sits on the sill, two little 
angels, each of them with a dish in his hand; on the one to the left a fly. 
Between the two a bronze platter with fruits and two vases. On a cartello the 
words : " Opus Sclavonici dalmatici Squarzonis." Nothing is more curious than 
the carefulness of the overcharged details or the variegated tinting of the 
marbles, reminding us of the peculiarities of the Ferrarese school. The move- 
ments of the head and hands are daintily awkward as in Crivelli, the dress 
tucked with girdles as in Giovanni of Pisa's imitations of Donatello. Very little 
relief is produced by the patient hatching of the parts, and the colour has a 
Ferrarese redness of enamel. [* This picture is now in the Gallery at Turin 
(No. 162).] 

We may note in continuation : (1) Louvre, No. 1523 ; school of Mantegna. 
[* Now ascribed to Schiavone.] Virgin and Child between two playing angels. ' 
This is a panel combining the styles of Schiavone and Zoppo, and more' 
Ferrarese in tempera than those of Schiavone generally. (2) Venice Academy, 
No. 616. Virgin and Child, from the ex-monastery of Santa Croce. This picture 
recalls Crivelli in the landscape and figures; it is a very careful Venetian 
piece. (See the engraving in Zanotto, Pinac. deW Acoad. Ven. t fasc. 34.) 
(3) England, Mr. Fuller Maitland, of Stanstead House. Virgin and Child in front 
of a bridge, and two angels. The painter affects to have drawn this group on a 
worn parchment, the sides of which are nailed to a panel ; on the left a fly, which 
suggests to some one who writes on the back of the picture the name of the 
painter Mosca. The style is that of Schiavone, and between his and Zoppo's. 
There is much of the Ferrarese in the affected movement and the introduction 
of accessorial detail. (4) In the style of the immediately foregoing, an enthroned 
saint, part of an altarpiece, and a Virgin and Child, surrounded by a halo of 
cherubs' heads, a St. Catherine, full-length, small panels, more or less preserved, 
in the collection of the Conte Eiva at Padua. [* These pictures are not among 
those which the Conte Biva in 1872 bequeathed to the city of Bassano and 
which are now exhibited in the Museo Civico of that town.] (5) Finally, a Virginj 
and Child in a highly ornamented arch between two angels, with the initials A. P. 
in the pilasters, in the collection of Mr. Barker in London. [* Now in the National 
Gallery, No. 904.] The style is very like Schiavone's, but the initials point to Antonio 
da Pavia, of whom posted. Moschini mentions a picture at the Brera, originally 
in San Prosdocimo of Padua ( Vicende, p. 63). No such picture is to be traced. 

2 Malvasia, Felsina pittrice, p. 30, tells us, we know not on what authority, 
that Zoppo is the pupil of Lippo Dalmasio. 


iri photo.] 

[Turin Gallery. 


II. 48] 

ui.] MARCO ZOPPO 49 

on every occasion that he is Zoppo di Squarcione. Having 
taken part, as we conjecture, in frescoes at the Eremitani, 1 he 
resided for a time in Venice, where he painted altarpieces in 
considerable number. That of Santa Giustina, which has 
perished, was done in 1468 ; 2 another, ordered for the Minorites 
of Pesaro, is preserved and bears the date of 1471. A little 
later Bologna was the place of his habitation, and there he is 
said to have lived at least till 1498. 3 Peculiarly characteristic 
of Zoppo's style is the tendency to imitate the stiffness and 
reflected modelling of brass, and simultaneously to realize 
something like veneering or tarsia. Had he been employed 
alternately by Giovanni of Pisa and by Lorenzo of Lendinara, 
he might have obtained exactly the manner we have described. 
Nor is it improbable that sculptures should have been objects 
of his attention on the one hand, and the cutting out of tarsia 
a part of his professional acquirements on the other. Both 
Giovanni and Lorenzo were contemporaries at Padua, and the 
latter Zoppo's fellow-pupil under Squarcione. The brass epoch 
in Zoppo is his first, the tarsia his second ; towards the close, 
.and particularly during the Bolognese stay, a better art deve- 
lops itself, with a local stamp distantly reminiscent of Cossa's 
or Costa's. We shall be able to observe that Zoppo was 
employed with Costa and many others in the decoration of the 
'Schifanoia at Ferrara. 4 The greatest honour which he now 

1 See passim. It is obviously an error of Vasari (iii. 405) to say that Zoppo 
painted the Loggia, used as a chapter-house in the Santo of Padua, the frescoes 
there having been relieved from whitewash, and proved to be by Giotto. 

2 Sansovino, Ven. Descr., ub. sup., p. 42. 

3 Malvasia speaks of frescoes by Zoppo on the front of the Casa Colonna at 
Bologna, dated 1498, but these paintings no longer exist (Felsina, p. 35). 

* Marco Ruggieri, called " lo Zoppo " (the lame), was born at Bologna in 1431 
'or 1432. In April 1454 he became an apprentice to Squarcione, who on May 9 
of the following year adopted him as his son. A few months afterwards Marco, 
however, left the house of Squarcione and went to live in Venice. The adoption 
therefore became null, and Squarcione, moreover, now claimed that Marco should 
pay him for his board and training. The judgment in this case, delivered on 
: Oct. 9, 1455, was almost wholly against Squarcione. See Lazzarini and Moschetti, 
loc. oit., xv. 120-124, 275 sqq. In September 1462 Marco was at Bologna, from 
where he wrote a letter to the Marchioness Barbara of Mantua, declaring that 
it was impossible to finish in time a pair of cassoni she wished to have by 
Christmas in that year. See L'Arte, ii. 253. 
4 Cf., however, postea, p. 250, n. 2. 
VOL. II 4 


enjoys is undeserved. He never, we think, directed the studies 
of Francesco Francia. 1 

There is no picture more truly characteristic of his first 
period than the Virgin giving the breast to the infant Saviour 
in the Manfrini Palace at Venice. 2 One can scarcely conceive, 
without looking at such pieces as these, the serious childishness 
of this peculiar class of painters. From the niche in which the 
Virgin is confined a double garland of apples and other fruit 
depends, having just been placed there by angels. Below these, 
half a dozen naked or half-clad boys play the quaintest instru- 
ments. As if this were the most natural and appropriate 
conception that fancy can suggest, Zoppo carries it out with a 
most loving carefulness and finish of outline, hatching up the 
parts with consummate care, forgetting neither shadow nor 
reflection, but producing a dull twilight of tone with a crystal- 
line surface ; nothing more curious than the unvarying nature 
of the texture, be it flesh or drapery, except perhaps the tortuous 
turn of the contour, the ugliness, affected classicism, and perfect 
rigidity o'f the forms. Equally remarkable is the gaudy yet 
melancholy tint of the dresses. A second specimen of this kind 
is the Virgin of Mercy, attended by two donors and saints, in the 
palace of Prince Napoleon at Paris. 3 The tarsia phase is more 
completely illustrated by the Virgin amidst saints in the gallery 
of Berlin, a panel ordered, as we have seen, for the Minorites 

1 This is stated by Malvasia (Fehina, ub. sup.}, but is not proved by Francia's 

2 Venice, Manfrini. Canvas, tempera, m. 0'73 broad by 0*89 high. Injured by 
repeated varnishing. Inscribed on a cartello : " Opera del Zoppo di Squarcione." 
A second cartello to the right is bare. Behind the throne a landscape with leafless 
trees. The Virgin wears a crown over a white veil, the Saviour is dressed in 
a light yellow cloth. [* This picture is now in the collection of Lord Wimborne 
at Canford Manor. Many critics ascribe it to Schiavone, whose style it 
closely recalls.] 

3 Paris, Prince Napoleon ; once belonging to Mr. Weber at Venice, and to 
Mr. Mundler in Paris. Small panel, inscribed : " Madonna del Zopo di Sqarcione," 
on the pilasters of the Virgin's throne. The Virgin, with the Infant on her knee 
in benediction, opens out her cloak, in front of which are the male and female 
donors kneeling. At the sides SS. Louis, Francis, and Jerome, Bernardino, 
Anthony of Padua, and a bishop ; a garland above is supported by two angels 
carrying censers. The tone of this piece is less dull than that of the Manfrini 
Palace. [* It now belongs to the King of Roumania. See Bachelin, Tableaux 
anciens de la Galerie Charles I, Roi de Roumanie, pp. 12 sq.] 


Hanfstaengl photo.] [Berlin, Raiser Friedrich Museum. 


II. 50] 

in.] MARCO ZOPPO 51 

of Pesaro in 1471. l There is something distressingly grotesque 
in the colossal coarseness of the figures and the disharmony of 
crumpled and serpentine drapery. Lean parched flesh in aged 
figures is made to contrast with a brassy pinguidity in the Child; 
and as much care is bestowed on the veins and muscles of the 
one as on the laps of flesh in the other. One can easily fancy 
such a piece to have been done by an artist affected in a puerile 
way by the models of Donatello at Padua or those of Giacomo 
della Quercia at Bologna. The whole surface at the same time 
presents the appearance of a map set up in various parti-coloured 
sections, semitone being altogether wanting, shadow green, and 
light of a rosy pallor. This is the style of a Madonna surrounded 
by saints in courses in the sacristy of the Collegio de' Spagnuoli at 
Bologna, where a Virgin annunciate in a round distinctly recalls 
the Doctors of the Church in the cupola of the Eremitani chapel; 2 

1 Berlin Museum, No. 1170. Wood, 8ft. 5 in. high by 8ft. 1 in. From the 
Solly collection ; previously in San Giovanni Evangelista and the Osservanti at 
Pesaro. Inscribed on an unfolded paper : " Marco Zoppo da Bolognia pinsit 
MCCCCLXXI I Vinexia." The Virgin is in a stone chair with festoons and in a hilly 
landscape ; at her sides, standing, SS. John the Baptist and Francis, Paul and 
Jerome. The Virgin is in the act of giving an apple to the Infant. Mark the 
affected daintiness of the hands and their conventional anatomy, the false 
classicism of the throne with a griffin supporting the arms, and a conch on the arm 
itself doing duty as a flower-pot. [* A half-length of the Madonna and Child in 
the collection of Sir Frederick Cook at Richmond shows a great similarity to this 
work. It is signed " Marco Zoppo da Bologna opus." See a\so postea, p. 53, n. 1.] 

2 Bologna, Collegio de' Spagnuoli, sacristy. Composite altarpiece in twenty- 
one parts. In the centre the Virgin on gold ground between saints in niches 
Andrew, Gregory, James, and Jerome ; in pinnacles, the Eternal between the 
Virgin and the Angel annunciate ; in pilasters, SS. Anthony of Padua, Catherine, 
John the Baptist, Peter, Paul, Anthony the Abbot, a female, and another saint ; 
in the predella, rounds of the Virgin adoring the Infant and St. Joseph, St. Jerome 
penitent, and Christ in the boat with the fishermen. Four small pilasters parting 
the predella subjects contain SS. Roch, Dominic, Francis, and Sebastian. On a 
cartello at the foot of the Virgin's throne : " Opera di Zoppo da Bolognia." The 
largest figures are about 2 ft. high, some of them, e.g. the Infant Christ and the 
pilaster saints, the St. Sebastian especially, rubbed down to the wood ; the predella 
piece in a great measure injured by scaling and stains. The upper rounds are 
fairly preserved, with the exception of the latter, which are better done than 
usual, and recall the style of the Canozzi of Lendinara ; the figures are paltry, 
with thin spider legs, and the tempera of a dull and hard enamel. [* Allied 
in style to the predella pictures are two very similar little representations of 
St. Jerome in the Desert, one (signed "Marco Zoppo op.") in the Gallery at 
Bologna (No. 778), the other (signed " Marco Zoppo d. a Bononia ") in the collection 
of Baron von Brenken at Wewer.] 


of a Crucifix in the choir of San Giuseppe de' Cappuccini 
outside Bologna, 1 and of a Man of Sorrows at San Giovanni 
Evangelista of Pesaro. 2 The improvement of Zoppo is shown 
in a foreshortened head of the Baptist in the same place, 3 and 
his approach to Cossa and Costa in a St. Apollonia at San 
Giuseppe. 4 There are examples of his manner in considerable 
numbers at Bologna and elsewhere, 5 but the principal occupation 

1 Bologna, San Giuseppe fuori Porta Saragossa. This Crucifix is in the old 
Sienese form, with the tearful Virgin and Evangelist on the arras of the 
horizontal beam and a skull beneath the Saviour's feet. The principal figure 
is of the size of life, with a vulgar grimacing face. The finish of this hideous 
work is quite remarkable, the art displayed in it being not above that of the 
Sienese Giovanni di Paolo or Simone de' Crocefissi. [* It is now in the Museo 
Civico of Bologna, which also contains a Nativity of Christ by Zoppo (No. 198).] 

2 Pesaro, San Giovanni Evangelista, sacristy. Christ in the Tomb supported 
by two angels ; an ill-preserved and split panel, m. 0-75 square ; very carefully 
outlined. The angels with white head-cloths, Mantegnesque, and mouthing ; the 
face of Christ a little less. repulsive than in the foregoing Crucifix ; the tempera of 
a thin dry yellow in lights. [* This picture is now in the Museo Oliveriano at 
Pesaro, No. 35.] The same subject in the National Gallery, under the name 
Tura (No. 590), is very like the above in every sense, and is undoubtedly by 
Zoppo. [* It is now officially restored to him. Yet another Fieta by Zoppo is in 
the Vieweg collection at Brunswick.] 

3 Pesaro, San Giovanni Evangelista, sacristy. [* Now Museo Oliveriano, 
No. 32.] Round, wood, foreshortened head of the Baptist looking up and cut 
off at the neck (10 in. in diameter). This is a Mantegnesque and not inelegant 
face, with long frizzled air about it, minutely detailed in the features, the form 
better rendered than of old and better modelled ; on the back of the panel 
a modern sentence as follows: "II pittore che ha fatto questa testa fu Marco 
Zoppo da Bologna, 1415 (?)." 

4 Bologna, San Giuseppe fuori Porta Saragossa, altar of sacristy. The saint is 
erect in front of a hanging which conceals a landscape and sky, holding the palm 
and pincers. In the frame of the period, gilt in broad flat surfaces, small panels 
are let in representing scenes from the saint's life, half-lengths of the Virgin 
and Angel annunciate and two saints; beneath the chief figure a coat-of-arms. 
Canvas. St. Apollonia is under life-size. There is more true realism in the 
drawing of extremities than before ; the flesh tint is a little flat and reddish, but 
the movement is still rigid and statuesque. This is an example of Zoppo's 
broadest and best manner, the small panels at the side, especially that of the 
saint before the judge having her teeth drawn, being animated compositions of 
reddish flesh-tone. [* This altarpiece has now its place in the Bologna Gallery, 
No. 352 ; it is catalogued under " Unknown painter of the Ferrarese school."] 

5 (1) Oxford University, under the name of Signorelli. Half-length of St. Paul, 
a present of the Hon. Fox Strangways ; a panel with gold ground. This is a rude 
tempera by Zoppo. (See History of Italian Painting, 1st ed., iii. 35.) (2) Bologna, 
Gall. Ercolani, No. 155. Small panel of the crucified Saviour between the Virgin 
and Evangelist, the Magdalen at the foot of the cross. The vehemence of the 


of his brush at Bologna seems to have been the painting of house- 
fronts ; and we regret that none of these decorations have been 
preserved, that we might compare them with those executed by 
Dario, the comrade of Zoppo at the study of Padua. 1 

movement and expression recall the Mantegnesque and Crivelli ; but Ercole 
Koberti might have a claim to the authorship as well as Zoppo. In the same 
category (No. 44), St. Dominic and his Brethren fed by Angels, assigned to 
Squarcione. (See antea, p. 12, n. 2.) [* The Ercolani collection is now in great part 
dispersed, and the editor is not sure as to where these pictures are to be found 
at present. He would like, however, to point out that the above descriptions 
correspond in every particular to Nos. 11 and 17 in the Museo Oliveriano at 
Pesaro. As has been pointed out by Prof. C. Kicci (in Rassegna, d'arte, vii. 103), 
No. 17 is certainly by Giovanni Francesco da Rimini, as may be seen from the 
types with the characteristic staring eyes, the hands, the folds, etc.] (3) Ferrara, 
Costabili Gallery. No. 40, Christ crucified, between the Virgin and evangelist, on 
gold ground ; Nos. 93-94, Virgin and Angel Annunciate ; rounds. These pieces are 
in style like the work of Zoppo at the Collegio de' Spagnuoli and the Crucifixion at 
the Ercolani College at Bologna. The figures have the vehemence already noted in 
these pieces. (Note that the Costabili collection is diminishing every year, as 
pictures are constantly sold by its owner, and these may already have passed into 
other hands.) [* This collection no longer exists.] (4) Bologna Gallery, No. 209. 
Virgin and Child between St. John the Baptist and St. Augustine. This common 
piece is now called Zoppo's. [* In the current catalogue it is ascribed to the 
Tuscan school.] (5) Rome, Palazzo Barberini. Two panels, with subjects we 
cannot explain, are here assigned to Botticelli. In one an interior with persons 
of both sexes ; above, the Virgin and Angel annunciate ; in the other a baptism of 
a new-born child, the mother in bed to the right. The figures are long and 
slender, the architecture imitates the classic, the drapery is crumpled and false ; 
all this more in the character of Zoppo than of Botticelli. [* These pictures 
represent the Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple and the Nativity of the 
Virgin; they are now labelled Fra Carnevale.] (6) Verona, Museum, No. 350. 
Virgin, Child, and youthful Baptist, and two angels. The name of Zoppo here is 
misplaced, the work being by Francesco Benaglio. [* In the current catalogue 
it is attributed to Francesco Benaglio, though with a query.] 

In the Academy of Venice (No. 601) there is a panel representing St. James, 
assigned to Paolo Zoppo. Such a person has been named in the Life of Bellini, and 
may be the miniaturist of Brescia, who lived some time at Venice. (See D'Arco, 
Delle arti di Mant., ub. sup., ii. 60.) The painting in question, greatly injured as 
it is, recalls a third-class work of the followers of Girolamo da Santa Croce. [* It 
is now officially attributed to "An unknown painter who recalls the style of 
Girolamo da Santa Croce."] 

In the Berlin Museum, too, we have a Nativity (No. 131) assigned to Rocco 
Zoppo, of whom Vasari speaks as a pupil of Perugino (iii. 591). The picture is 
that of an Umbrian of the following of Palmezzano and Signorelli. [* It is at 
present labelled Marco Palmezzano.] 

1 There are none of these decorations standing, though they are mentioned by 
Malvasia (Feltina, p. 35), nor are any traces preserved of the following pictures 
mentioned by the same author: (1) Bologna, Osteria della Sega da Acqua, 


Dario is perhaps one of the oldest of the disciples of 
Squarcione, being mentioned in the accounts of the church of the 
Santo in 1446 as "discipulo de Squarzon." 1 None of his 
pictures exist except a Virgin of Mercy in the gallery of Bassano, 
one of the poorest productions imaginable. The Virgin stands 
erect in the middle of the canvas, holding back her mantle, 
which covers a number of devotees. She is adored by a small 
kneeling donor, and attended by the Baptist and St. Bernardino. 2 
Margaritone in the thirteenth century was not inferior to Dario, 

portico, half-length, Virgin and Child, small. (2) Signori Bianchi, Virgin and 
Child. (3) Signer Bartolomeo Musotti (afterwards Signer Fosci), Virgin and Child, 
signed : " Marco Zoppo da Bolognia opus." This is perhaps the same as that 
noted by Annot. Vasari, iii. 406, in the possession of a picture-dealer whose shop 
was in the Palazzo Zampieri at Bologna. [* It might also be identical with the 
painting now belonging to Sir Frederick Cook ; cf, antea, p. 51, n. 1.] (4) Casa 
Camillo Scappi, Virgin and Child. (5) Casa Balli, ditto. (6) Casa Bolognetti, 
Christ on the Mount ; also signed (Annot. Vasari, iii. 406). Of the portrait 
which Zoppo did, according to Vasari, of Guidobaldo of Montefeltro (iii. 406 *<y.), 
we know nothing. 

1 Gonzati, La Basilica, lib. sup., i. 55, and doc. xxxv. 

* As a matter of fact, the painter is referred to in these records simply as 
" Dario depentori," Gonzati having added in his transcript the words " da 
Treviso, discipulo de Squarzon." Dario appears to have been a native of 
Pordenone. In 1440, at the age of about nineteen, he became a journeyman of 
Squarcione ; the agreement styles him " pictor vagabundus " an appellation 
which the story of his life quite justifies and he promises not to steal any 
of Squarcione's things. It appears that in 1446 he was still living with 
Squarcione, but he soon afterwards entered into partnership with the painter 
Piero da Milano, who was settled in Padua. Dario seems, however, not to have 
been the most desirable of companions, for in January 1448 he had to make a 
public acknowledgment of the debts which he had contracted with Piero. In 
1455 we find him settled and married at Treviso ; and the following year the 
Venetian Government wanted him to do some work in the Ducal Palace. From 
1459 to 1466 he was living at Asolo. A rude fresco of the Madonna, now in the 
Municipio of Asolo, was executed by him in 1459 for the church of San Biagio in 
that town ; it is signed " 1458 adi 21 del mese de aprile Dariu p." In 1467 he 
decorated the town-hall of Conegliano with frescoes ; in 1469 we find him at 
Serravalle painting the front of the Palazzo Troyer ; and in 1473 he was again 
at Conegliano. See Lazzarini and Moschetti, loc. cit., xv. 171 sqq., 263 sqq., 289, 
xvi. 75 sq., 80 gq. Gerola, in Miscellanea di studi in onore di Attilio Hortis, p. 
871 gqq. 

2 Bassano Gallery, formerly in San Bernardino. Canvas, all but life-size, 
much injured and restored, but still bearing the remains of a signature which 
Verci (Notizie delta citta di Bassano, ub. sup., p. 23) testifies to have been 
" Darius p." We note especially the large disproportioned extremities, the 
false forms, and the ignoble masks, also the dull and dirty tempera. The 
Virgin's face alone has some regularity. 

in.] DARIO 55 

who seems to have been a mere house-painter. His faces are 
monstrous, his forms put together in defiance of nature. Simon 
da Cusighe, one of the most elementary artists of the Trevisan 
March, was his equal, Bellunello of San Vito his superior. Yet 
we are told that the Venetian Signoria employed him in 1469 to 
take the portrait of Catherine Cornaro. 1 To what labour could 
Squarcione put such a man, except whitewashing or rude patterns 
for embroidery ? At the Eremitani he might have carried a 
hod ; there is no fresco there but is too good for him. After 
the breaking up of Squarcione's atelier he wandered home, and 
there are copious examples of his industry in house-fronts at 
Serravalle, Conegliano, and Treviso. It is not the art which these 
decorations display, but the necessity which dictated the use 
of it, and the spirit which it displays, that may interest us. 
We see that throughout the North there was as great an 
abhorrence of white walls in the fifteenth century as in Egypt 
and in Greece at the remotest periods. Every one who could 
afford it concealed the simplicity of architecture under imitations 
of carved objects and tracery of more or less taste. Fable, 
folklore, ancient history furnished subjects, and where ornament 
even of this kind became too costly, proverbs or mottoes were 
used in its stead. One of the best dwellings in the high street 
of Serravalle, with balconied windows and bays, is covered with 
graffiti and with friezes of foliage and vases, of which the 
authorship is boldly claimed by Dario. From his inscription 
beneath a projecting balustrade, we learn that he carried out this 
work in 1469. 2 Similar friezes of pomegranates and other fruits 
are to be found on the town-hall front, where a grotesque profile 
of a man, with a stick held to his lips, is shown sitting at 
an opening. On the balcony above the figure are the ciphers 
1476, and a long Latin inscription attributes the building of the 
hall to a member of the Venetian family of Venier. 3 Beneath 

1 MS. Istoria di Catt. Cornaro, in Verci, ub. su/p., p. 23. [* Of. Gerola, loc. 
cit.,p. 880*3-.] 

2 The inscription runs thus : " 1469 Desideriu Impioru pibit (peribit), 
Darius p." The house is No. 829-849, Contrada Grande. [* It is now the 
Palazzo Troyer, 20-21 Via Eegina Margherita.] 

3 " Aula fuit turpi genio confecta ruinas sepe prius testata graves ; Max 
Gabriel omni virtutum splendore nitens, quern clara propago Veneris genuit, 
sterni fundamine ab imo jussit et inde novam quam spectas summere formam." 


the first-floor windows of a house in the high street bearing the 
date of 1499, a dog is the only pictorial adornment, bnt one reads 
in panelled apartments : " The son's good works are a father's 
joy," " Laus Deo, honor et gloria," " La suberbia regna neli 
poveri chativi." 1 A florid classic style, reminding us of 
Mantegna, is displayed in another house opposite that of Dario, 
where Roman medallions are surrounded with ornament of 
cornucopias and dolphins, and the larger spaces are filled with 
allegories of justice and of love. This is too modern for Dario, 
but is the continuation of his art 2 and the fruit of his example. 

In Borgo della Madonna at Conegliano, a large edifice of 
three storeys is covered with Mantegnesque vases and tracery 
of divers colours. In the spandrils of the lower colonnade two 
knights before a judge, whose grim face peers out from a parapet ; 
a female playing a viol, and another partially effaced standing 
looking on in a characteristic attitude. Higher up beneath 
a window an ox holds a scroll on which is written : " Son lostaria 
del bo ; chi vol del polio e vedello " ; elsewhere, an angel 
supporting a coat-of-arms, and in large letters " Darius." The 
art is that of Dario at Serravalle. 3 Other specimens are to 
be found close by in the Contrada Santa Caterina ; 4 in the Casa 
Biadene, where subjects and mottoes are commingled ; 5 in Borgo 

1 Serravalle, No. 833, Contrada Grande, dated : " MCCCCLXXXXVIIII. die 
nil. mensis julii." 

2 Serravalle, opposite No. 749, Contrada Grande. The ornaments are mostly 
on a red ground. 

3 Conegliano, No. 323, Borgo della Madonna. Under the arches of the 
colonnade are remains of paintings, and chiefly of an Annunciation. Inside 
the house, too, cornices and festoons are painted in some of the rooms in the 
same style as the front. 

4 Conegliano, Casa Matiuzzi, No. 17. Here the wall is made to imitate a 
front with pillared recesses, the recesses being filled with helmets and shields 
or foliage, the pilasters with leaves and flowers, the friezes with medallion 
heads and vases, all in a rude sort of monochrome. 

* Conegliano, Via del Teatro. Here are friezes with sports of children with 
wild beasts, vases, and cornucopia ; a female in a foreshortened attitude is 
represented as if supporting one of the balconies, and children are shown 
bearing the weight of long chimneys clinging to the walls. There are 
also figures on horseback, and a harbour with a galley. Beneath the latter 
one reads : "lo me sforzaro di navecar tanto achorto che al dispeto di nimis 
spero entrar in bon porto " ; and under another subject : " Lo homo solecito 
che il bon se prochaza sempre la fortuna con lui se abraza." In one of the 
rooms of this house are distempers, representing a female on an elephant, a 


Sant' Antonio, 1 and Strada Grande ; 2 but here and in the 
Contrada del Duorno 3 a later hand and better taste are apparent, 
though all displaying the Paduan style brought by the Squar- 
cionesques to Treviso. 

From Conegliano we wander to Pordenone. We there find 
house-decoration as frequent as elsewhere, Mantegnesque in 
spirit, and above the level of Dario ; 4 we revert to his rude and 
unattractive style in colossal figures on the main square and 
some private buildings of Bassano. 5 At Spilimberg the old 
palace of the Counts Manaco is covered with scenes derived from 
ancient fable and history ; amongst the rest a Judgment of Paris, 
a Rape of Ganymede, and the Constancy of Scsevola ; 6 and on the 
face of the old castle, allegories of virtues which are not to 
be confounded with the fragments left by Pordenone. 7 Treviso 
itself furnishes the most modern specimens of house -decoration, 
giving proof of a deep study of the greater Mantegnesque 

car drawn by sea-monsters, women on dolphins, etc,, all in the character of 
Dario's art. There are also more modern decorations in other rooms. 

1 Conegliano, Borgo Sant' Antonio, No. 407. Here are rude monochromes on 
parti-coloured grounds of sacrifices, birds, and single figures, with friezes of 
leaves, fruit, and monsters. 

2 Conegliano, Strada Grande, No. 237. Dario's style is here improved, and the 
ornament better, but the figures are still rude and ill rendered. The whole 
consists of children riding on dragons, shields, lances, centaurs, all in mono- 
chrome in yellow and blue. 

3 Conegliano, Contrada del Duomo, No. 86. The ornament here is still better 
than in the foregoing example. The friezes represent weapons offensive and 
defensive, arabesques and cupids, and full-length figures. 

* Pordenone, No. 419, Contrada San Marco, office of the old Imperial Govern- 
ment, is covered with eagles, and foliage, and shields. No. 28 in the same 
street is conspicuous for a chain ornament, festoons, masques, prepared in 
monochrome on a blue ground, the art Mantegnesque of 1500 and about equal 
to that of the latest at Conegliano. In the same manner and reminiscent of 
Girolamo da Treviso and Pennacchi, a fight of horsemen and figures, No. 95 in 
the Contrada di San Marco. 

5 Bassano, Piazza, close to the clock tower. Chain-ornament and figures, 
and two large warriors with swords, at the side of a window, like Dario's work 
in the Virgin of Mercy. House contiguous to the Porta Prato : Sacrifice of 
Abraham, Judgment of Paris, etc., in the style of followers of Dario. 

6 Spilimberg, Casa de' Conti Manaco. These wall-paintings are coloured and 
not monochrome, similar in art to those of Bassano. 

7 Spilimberg Castle. Winged lion, Fortitude, Temperance, and other subjects. 
Pordenone's is a warrior s head, with a winged helmet in a round held by two 


examples ; and in one house, at least, a clever attempt is made 
to represent in correct perspective imitations of brackets and 
cornices, openings, pedestals, statues of men and horses, and 
arabesques interspersed with gambols of children, as they might 
look if they were real and seen from the street. 1 

When the Trevisans at the close of the fifteenth century 
attempted more serious painting, such as that of a St. Nicholas, 
on the front of a house near San Niccol6, 2 they were very much 
below the mark ; so much so, indeed, as to show that Tommaso 
of Modena, who filled several churches with frescoes, was superior 
to his successors, amongst whom Dario, Girolamo the elder of 
Treviso, Pennacchi, and a sixth-rate named Antonello are to be 
numbered. Of Pennacchi we shall not speak at present, as he 
surrendered local art for that of the Bellinesques ; but Girolamo 
the elder may arrest a moment's attention. Federici, in his 
notices of Treviso, is at pains to adduce proofs that Girolamo was 
the son of respectable parents, and the brother of Lodovico 
Aviani, a poet ; but pedigree makes no painter, and Girolamo 
was a ve*y humble member of the profession. The earliest 
reference that has been made to his works is one to the effect 
that he finished an altarpiece and frescoes for a chapel in San 
Niccol6 of Treviso in 1470 ; 3 but his oldest known production is 
that possessed by Signor Fabrizio Pieriboni at Lonigo, which 
bears traces of the date 1478. It is a small arched panel 
representing the Death of the Virgin, with a multitude of dry 
figures of an ugly livid tint. Outlines of angular break, recti- 
linear drapery with cross lines to indicate folds, and loud 
contrasts of tertiary colours are its conspicuous defects. 4 More 

1 Treviso, No. 520, Contrada sot to portico Forabosco in Scorzeria. 

2 Treviso, front of No. 1050, Contrada Isola di Mezzo. Beneath the figure, 
which is placed between two pillars, to which four angels cling, one reads : 
"... dela scuola de Sancto Nicolaus a fate depenzere questa figura 1471, 
adi 16 Marzo." There are pieces of the face and dress of the saint (who 
holds a lily and book) scaled away. Federici, Mem. Trevig., i. 216, assigns 
this to Girolamo the elder of Treviso. 

3 Treviso, San Niccolb. The altarpiece represented the Virgin, Child, 
SS. John the Baptist, Gregory, Anthony the Abbot, and James, and bore the 
following inscription : " Hieronynms Tarvisio, p." (Federici, Mem. Trevig., i. 
215 *#.). Both altarpiece and frescoes are lost. 

4 Lonigo, Signor Fabrizio Pieriboni. Small arched panel in tempera with 
figures about a foot high. The Virgin lies in her tomb surrounded by the 
apostles; in the sky the Redeemer. Inscribed: "H Tarvisio pinsit 


distinct evidence of Squarcionesque influence on Girolamo is 
afforded by a picture ordered in 1487 for one of the chapels 
in the Treviso cathedral by the Canon Pietro dalle Laste. His 
subject is the Virgin and Child enthroned in a portico, with 
St. Sebastian at the pillar on one side, St. Roch on the other, 
and two angels playing instruments. 1 The only praise to which 
Girolamo is entitled in reference to this creation is that of clever 
and appropriate arrangement. His architecture is in the shape 
and taste of Zoppo's, and of good proportion ; but the figures, 
though correct in size and in place, are wooden and rigid, and 
frequently out of drawing. They are of a coarse peasant grain, 
cutting in outline, hard and uniform in colour, and, worse still, 
unrelieved by transitions of any kind, reminding us occasionally 
of Ercole Roberti Grandi in the withered character of the limbs. 
The lights and shadows are both flat, and pitted sharply against 
each other. Quantitative balance of tones is preserved in 
dresses and accessories, but the contrasts are not the less violent. 2 
At San Salvatore of Colalto in 1494 Girolamo again illustrates 
his skill in the distribution of space, and sets a Madonna with 
four saints in fit attitudes within a court, but he fails to over- 

1 . ..." Federici, who saw the picture when it belonged to the Canon Carlo 
Adami of Treviso, gives the date as 1478 (Mem., ub. sup., i. 217). The colour 
is gone in many places, and what remains is discoloured. [* The editor has no 
clue to the present owner of this work. Perhaps of even earlier date is a little 
tempera painting on silk which many years ago was in the collection of Signer 
Giuseppe Piccinelli at Seriate, near Bergamo. It represents St. Jerome kneeling 
with open arms in front of a grotto; near by him are a crucifix and a 
lion. A cartellino in the lap of the saint bears the mutilated inscription: 
" Tarvissi . . . Mfio 14 . . ." ; on the back of the painting is written in characters 
of the fifteenth century : " Hieron. Tarvis 1475 (?) faciebat in (?) monasteri 
eremitani Padue." See the German edition of this work, v. 350.] 

1 Treviso, Duomo. Wood, figures life-size, inscribed on a cartello : " Hierony- 
mus Tarvisio pinsit, MCCCCLXXXVII." The St. Sebastian somewhat recalls Grandi ; 
the St. Koch is a common personage, nearly related to those with which we are 
regaled by Marco Marziale. The architecture is similar to that of Zoppo in the 
picture of Berlin, the tempera rough and uneven. 

* 2 Probably slightly later than this work is a lunette representing the 
Transfiguration of Christ, now in the Venice Academy (No. 96) ; it originally 
adorned an altar in Santa Margherita at Treviso, erected in 1488. See Biscaro in 
Atti delV Ateneo di Treviso, 1897, p. 263. Federici (ub. sup., i. 218) describes a 
Descent from the Cross, signed "Hieronymus Tarvisio pinxit MCCCCLXXXXII," 
which was seen by him in the Koyal Gallery at Turin. This painting is now 


come the principal defects of his style. 1 Here, however, his 
composition recalls that of the Vivarini ; the outline being 
minute and careful, the flesh rosy and slightly shaded with olive- 
brown, and hardness or immobility less conspicuous than before. 
Striking is the oval head of the Madonna, with its regular 
division of features, small eyes, mouth, and rounded chin ; 
striking the angular character of the drapery. It is here if 
anywhere that we trace the source of Catena's art. 2 Similar to 
this of Colalto, and perhaps more delicately handled, is the 
Virgin with Saints at San Vigilio of Montebelluna ; fair in the 
same style is the St. Martin sharing his Cloak in the church 
of Paese near Treviso. 3 Better and suggestive of greater power, 
the Christ at the Column in Casa Rinaldi at Treviso. 4 In this 
quaint panel, to which the painter's name is not affixed, there is 
an echo of Antonello da Messina. The Saviour stands grim and 
threatening in his pain, with long hair rolled into curls, falling 
down the sides of his cheeks. His frame is lean and bony, and 
drawn with decisive angularity; his face is coarse and vulgar, 
but there is a wild expressiveness in the look and glance that 
testify to a rugged sort of strength. 5 

1 Colalto, San Salvatore, near Conegliano. Wood, tempera, figures three- 
quarters the size of life. Virgin and Child between SS. Francis. Basil, Nicholas, 
and Anthony of Padua. On a cartello at the step of the throne : " Hieronimus 
Tarvisio, p. MCCCCLXXXXIIII." The panel is much damaged and scaled, and in 
part discoloured, and strong varnishes are gradually cracking up the whole surface. 

* 2 We have seen previously (i. 254, n. 1) that Catena is not identical with 
Vincenzo da Treviso. It is to the latter artist that this remark of the authors' 

3 Montebelluna, church of San Vigilio. Panel, tempera with figures as above. 
Virgin, Child, SS. Vigilius, Anthony the Abbot, Chiara, and Lucy ; inscribed : 
"Hieronymus Tarvisio, p." This also is a greatly injured piece. [* It is now in 
the cathedral of Treviso.] Paese, parish church. Arched panel, with a view 
of San Niccolb of Treviso in the distance; inscribed: "... onymus . arvisio p." 
The figures are large as life, the whole scaled and retouched. 

4 Treviso, Casa Rinaldi. Wood, bust, behind a parapet, on which a cartello 
without a signature is fastened ; blue ground. The colour is no longer pure 
tempera, but mixed in the new method and enamelled ; the lights yellow, and 
the shadow, such as it is, grey. [* The present whereabouts of this picture is 

5 The catalogue in the text may be extended as follows : (1) Lovere, on the 
lake of Iseo, gallery of Conte Tadini. Virgin with the dead Christ on her lap ; 
an ugly and injured panel of small size, inscribed : " Hieronymus Tarvisio pinsit." 
(2) Turin, Signer Orlandi. Here formerly was a Christ supported in the sepulchre 
by two angels ; small, with the painter's signature, and well preserved. [* This 


Squarcionesqne art thus extends, as we perceive, to a considera- 
ble distance in the direction of the Alps, differing essentially from 
that of the Friulans, and producing works less able than those of 
contemporaries of the same school at Verona, Vicenza, and Ferrara. 

Whilst Dario carried the influence of Squarcione to the North, 
a man of no greater merit than himself contributed to prolong it 
in Padua. This man was Parentino, whose earliest creation is a 
religious allegory in the Museum of Modena, and whose latest 
wall-paintings were left unfinished in 1494, in the second cloister 
of Santa Giustina at Padua. The allegory bears Parentino's 
signature and the Christian name of Bernardino, 1 and represents 
the Saviour carrying his cross, St. Jerome penitent before the 
crucifix, and a kneeling bishop in a landscape. Dario, feeble 

picture now belongs to the Brera Gallery at Milan (No. 154); it is signed 
" Hieronimus Tarvisio p."] (3) Treviso, fragment of a fresco, transferred from 
Santa Caterina to the church of Sant' Agostino ; subject, a saint (? Sebastian) and 
two angels in flight. This is all that remains of an altarpiece which, according 
to Federici, represented St. Sebastian, a patron, the podesta, Pietro Iron, and a 
Servite friar (Mem., ub. sup., i. 216). The inscription on the piece described by 
Federici was as follows : " Haec Palla facta fuit per scolam S. Sebastiani de 
Eleemosinis plurium Personarum Anno Mccccxcii. Hieronymus Tarvisio P." 
[* To these pictures may be added : (4) Dessau, Old Ducal Palace. The Virgin 
and Child, signed " Hieronimus Tarvisio p." (5) Hamburg, Weber Collection, 
No. 27. The Virgin adoring the Child, signed "Hieronymus Tarvisio p." In 
this painting Girolamo shows himself influenced by the Vivarini.] Girolamo 
probably painted house-fronts in Dario's fashion. As such we may notice : 
(1) Treviso, Pescaria Vecchia. House-front with gambols of children and two 
horses on brackets, one of the latter not unlike that in Girolamo's St. 
Martin dividing his Cloak at Paese. (2) Piazza del Duomo, No. 1548. Trophies 
in fresco ; but here the ornament is Mantegnesque, and in better taste than 
that of Girolamo. [* The frescoes on this house-front are the work of Giovanni 
Matteo of Treviso ; they were finished in 1504. See Biscaro, " Note e documenti 
per servire alia storia delle arti trivigiane," from Coltura e Lavoro, 1897, pp. 31 sq.~\ 
1 1 He is called Lorenzo Parentino in Anonimo, but the elegiac in his praise by 
Don Kafaello of Piacenza (Armeniados, 8vo, 1518, Cremona in Anonimo, p. 255) calls 
him Bernardo ; and as this elegy was written by a Benedictine, and probably at 
the close of Parentino's life, we may assume that " Lorenzo " in the Anonimo is a 
lapsus calami (see Anonimo, p. 11). But as the Anonimo also says that Parentino 
entered the Benedictine order, it has been supposed that he assumed the name of 
Lorenzo on taking the frock (see Morelli's notes to Anonimo, p. 110). [* The 
former supposition seems to be the correct one. The Anonimo really states that 
Parentino entered the order of St. Augustine ; and this makes us feel fairly safe 
in identifying Bernardino Parentino the painter with the Augustinian friar of the 
same name who died on October 28, 1531, at the age of ninety-four, and who was 
buried in the oratory of San Niccolb di Tolentino at Vicenza. See the epitaph in 
Faccioli, Museum Lapidarium Vieentinum, i. 147, No. 148.] 


draughtsman as he was, might have jested at the drawing of this 
piece, which combines the faults of the Byzantines with an 
imitation of the classic. We may look in vain for specimens of 
a similar kind by one taught to feel the beauties and appropriate 
character of movement in classic statues. One should think 
that a painter conscious of these beauties would transfer them to 
his canvas ; but Bernardino has the wish and none of the skill 
to attain this object. His figures are an exhibition of skin and 
bone, false in anatomy, unnatural in action, raw and flat in 
tempera ; his draperies are tortuous and crushed into the most 
minute and meaningless folds ; and the only details he succeeds 
in giving are those of rock and hill in distance and of reptiles on 
a foreground. 1 A slight improvement on this unpleasant style 
may be seen in three scenes from the life of St. Anthony the 
Abbot at the Doria Palace in Rome, a series which reveals the 
influence of Mantegna, and is for that cause assigned to him, 2 
but greatly beneath the powers of that master. In similar 
pieces belonging to the collection of the Marchese Pianciatichi at 
Florence, 3 a new feature introduced into subjects of a sportive 

1 Modena Gallery, No. 467. Canvas, tempera, m. 1 -12 high by m. 1-52, originally 
in the country-seat of Cataio. On the cartello are the words : " Bernardin Parencan 

2 Rome, Doria Palace, private apartments. Small panel : St. Anthony receives 
Offers of Wealth. He stands in a hilly landscape enlivened with incidents, between 
three quaintly dressed personages, one of whom offers a plateful of gold, the 
others tempting him with wands of office. Picture Gallery, No. 140: St. Anthony's 
Dream. He is tempted by devils, and lies extended on the foreground of a 
cavern ; small panel. Private apartments : the Youthful St. Anthony distributing 
Alms ; wood. These are three panels forming part of one predella, the last-named 
comprising a figure (to the left behind St. Anthony) extremely like the portrait of 
Mantegna, and bearing the letter A on its cap. Hence no doubt the name of 
Mantegna given to the picture. The style, however, is that of Parentino at 
Modena slightly improved. The figures are vulgar, ill-proportioned, and very ill- 
drawn, but in a more Mantegnesque spirit than at Modena ; the action is some- 
times well intended, and foreshortenings are attempted. Very rich details are 
given in the landscape, and classic models are followed in depicting vases and 
ornament ; there is even a copy of an antique relief of a fight in the Almsgiving 
of St. Anthony. The tempera is dull and of a brownish grey. The figures are all 
about one-fourth of life-size. 

8 Florence, Galleria Pianciatichi, No. 333. Canvas, tempera, on a red priming. 
To the right a man blows a horn ; children play instruments and dance in the 
middle distance, and in front of them a man reclines and sports with a monkey. 
No. 334, a male and female seated on rude plinths play instruments ; a square 
fountain to the left is decorated with a bas-relief. We note the same skinny 


[Berlin, Kaiser Friedrich Museum. 



[Berlin, Kaiser Friedrich Museum. 



and every-day character is that of an arabesque frieze with 
figures of females and skulls of oxen in good classical taste, 
showing that Parentino, as he advanced in years, might have 
been the competitor of Dario in a rude sort of art chiefly applied 
to the decoration of houses. That this was his peculiarity we 
might infer from the glowing description given by Father Delia 
Valle of the scenes from the life of St. Benedict in the cloister 
of Santa Giustina at Padua, a series partly executed by Parentino 
and partly by Girolamo del Santo, of which a few fragments are 
still preserved in a passage leading from the monastery to the 
church of that name. Delia Valle, following the example of a 
Benedictine, who calls Parentino, in the usual poetic strain, 
Parrhasius, Zeuxis, and Apelles, launches out into fulsome 
eulogies of this work, in which we may admit some slight 
improvement upon the earlier pieces we have described ; x but 

and bony figures here as at Modena, and the same dull tempera. The forms are 
also incorrect and coarse as before. These canvases are under Squarcione's name ; 
they illustrate the effort of a feeble hand to imitate the antique, to set forth 
animated and not ill-conceived groups ; the artist, however, tries for more than 
he can carry out. [* These pictures are now in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum at 
Berlin (Nos. 1628 and 1628 A).] 

The spirit which we discern in the pictures of the Doria and Pianciatichi 
collections might lead us to assign to Parentino an engraving now in Casa Lazzara 
at Padua, in which some have seen the hand of Squarcione. It represents a man 
to the right blowing a horn, another to the left doing the same, dancers, and a 
female with a leg of pork and sausages in each hand. This genre subject takes 
a classic air from the ornaments of an antique tomb, on which the player to the 
right is seated. (See Zani, Materiali per servire alia storia deW origine e de 1 
progressi del? Incisione, 8vo, Parma, 1802, pp. 59 sqq.) [* Passavant describes 
this engraving in Le peintre-graveur, v. 117, No. 86 ; it is signed " SE~." The 
editor does not see in it any particular resemblance to the style of Parentino, who 
moreover is not known to have practised engraving. There are impressions of the 
engraving under notice in the Uffizi at Florence, in the Bibliotbeque Nationale at 
Paris, and in the Museo Civico of Padua (the last-mentioned impression being 
probably identical with the one mentioned by the authors). Yet another im- 
pression appeared at a sale at Gutekunst's in 1907, and is reproduced in the sale 
catalogue (No. 683) ; the subject is here interpreted as a satire on the Jews.] 

1 Padua, Santa Giustina. These frescoes were minutely described in 1609 by 
Girolamo da Potenza, a monk of Santa Giustina, and subsequently by Brandolese 
(Pitt, di Pad., p. 99) and Delia Valle (Delle Pitture del Chiostro Mag. di Santa 
Giustina, without imprint), both writers using the MS. of Girolamo da Potenza. 
The southern wall of the cloister and one compartment adjacent were painted by 
Parentino with scenes from the life of St. Benedict, one of them bearing the 
date of 1489, another that of 1494, and tbe pilaster at the side of the last space 
(Death of St. Benedict) the name "Opus Parentini." The ornaments of the 


what he says of the ornament surrounding the subjects, and what 
we see of that ornament as engraved by Mengardi, justifies the 
belief that Parentino was little more than a decorator, 1 and one 
whom we may believe incapable of painting the panels assigned 
to him in the sacristy of the canons of Padua, 2 in the Academy 
of Venice, 3 and in the Museum of Berlin. 4 

pilasters and framings interspersed with heads of Benedictine popes have been 
engraved, and exhibit taste in selection, but Morelli (Anonimo, p. Ill) warns us not 
to trust to these as exactly corresponding to the originals. In 1542, 4, 6, the 
cloister was finished by Girolamo del Santo, and the fragments which remain are 
no doubt remnants of his and Parentino's work. These fragments represent 
chiefly heads of men and women, but also small parts of figures of men, birds, 
and animals, some of them like Parentino's work at Modena, outlined in his 
tortuous manner and incorrectly drawn; others more Mantegnesque, and such as 
Girolamo del Santo might have done ; others again, though still of the vulgar 
type common to the Paduan, attributable to a cleverer painter, not below Jacopo 
Montagnana in power. Amongst these ruins we also see parts of a Crucifixion 
which may have been that painted by Agnolo Zoto in 1489 (Moschini, Guida di 
Padova, ub. sup., p. 134), though we still see a Crucifixion in the old refectory 
which fully justifies (in grimace, coarse vulgarity, and defective art) the opinion of 
the Anonimo (p. 48) that Zoto, if he be the painter of it, was an " ignobile 
pittore." [* Parentino's frescoes in the second cloister of Santa Giustina were 
in 1895 rescued from the whitewash with which they were covered in great part 
in the beginning of the nineteenth century. A specimen of them in their present 
state is reproduced in Caprin, L'Istria nobilissima, ii. 99.] 

* ' In addition to those mentioned above, we may note the following paintings 
by Parentino : (1) Budapest, Picture Gallery, No. 105, Pieta. (2) Fiesole, Villa 
Doccia, collection of Mr. H. W. Cannon, No. 23, Battle of Amazons. (3) 
London, Collection of H.M. the King, St. Sebastian. (4) Milan, Galleria 
Borromeo, No. 13, The Betrayal of Christ ; No. 56, Battle of Amazons. (5) Padua, 
Museo Civico, No. 424, The Expedition of the Argonauts (cf. posted, p. 246, n. 3). 
(6) Paris, Louvre, No. 1678, The Adoration of the Magi. (7) Venice, Academy, 
No. 606, St. Gabriel ; No. 608, The Virgin Annunciate. Formerly in the convent 
of Santa Maria at Monte Ortone, near Padua. (8) Verona, Museo Civico, No. 331, 
The Conversion of St. Paul (cf . postea, p. 120, n. 1). (9) Vicenza, Museo Civico, 
No. 248, The Announcement to the Shepherds ; No. 249, The Procession of the 
Magi. On the whole, Parentino appears as a not uninteresting eclectic, imitating 
alternately Mantegna, Ercole Roberti, and Giovanni Bellini. 

2 Padua, sacristy of the canons. Pieta. Tempera, on panel, 7 ft. 4 in. long by 
2 ft. 8 in. high. The Saviour lies at full length in his winding-sheet, which is raised 
at the head by the Evangelist. The Virgin wails over the body, and the Magdalen 
wrings her hands at the foot. The scene is laid in front of the sepulchre of 
white marble. This is a dull distemper, with grey high surface shadows, 
Mantegnesque in character, and in the style of Andrea da Murano and Lazzaro 
Bastiani, e.g. in the upper part of the altarpiece at Trebaseleghe and the Pieta 
at Cittadella. 

8 Venice Academy, No. 100, Nativity, for which see passim, Lazzaro Bastiani. 

4 Berlin Museum, No. 48. See antea in Mansueti. 


A Paduan whom Vasari classed amongst the disciples of 
Giovanni Bellini is Jacopo da Montagnana, a Mantegnesque 
painter, altered to some extent during the expansion of his style 
by the study of Bellini and Carpaccio. He was born before 
1450, and enrolled amongst the members of the Paduan guild in 
1469. 1 His frescoes in the town-hall of Gividale 2 are mentioned 
by historians with the same respect as those which he finished 
during 1476, in competition with his brother-in-law Calzetta, 
Matteo del Pozzo, and Agnolo Zoto, in the Gattamellata chapel 
at the Santo of Padua. 3 The mutilated remains of ornament 
in the niches of the monument sacred to the memory of that 
chief and his son, if proved to be his, would entitle him to a 
certain rank amongst the better class of Mantegnesques. His 
constant employment at the Santo in later years, the designs 
which he furnished for certain candelabra, 4 the wall-paintings 
entrusted to him in the whitewashed cloisters of the novitiate 
in 1487, 5 are evidence of the esteem in which he was held. 
Engravings of classic subjects with which he covered the town- 
hall of Belluno in 1490, and fragments which were saved from 

1 Vasari, iii. 170, and Moschini, Vicende, p. 65. We describe him as born before 
1450, on the supposition that he was twenty when he entered the guild. 

* Jacopo dei Parisati da Montagnana seems to have been born in 1440-43. In 
1458 he became a pupil of the painter Francesco dei Bazalieri at Padua. See 
Lazzarini and Moschetti, loo. cit. xv. 186 sq., xvi. 95 sq. 

2 These frescoes no longer exist ; with reference to them is the following : 
" 1475. Era podesta in Cividale, Lorenzo Veniero . . . al qual tempo fu dato 
principio alia fabrica del palazzo del commune sopra la piazza maggiore . . . che 
fu poi con bellissime pitture ornato, tra le quali viene con molta admiratkme 
risguardato un Cadavero del gigante Golia senza il capo. Fu opera del Mon- 
tagnana, pittore famosissimo che depinse ancora la stantia dove se riduce il 
maggior Consiglio di Cividale." (JEListoria di Belluno di Giorgio Piloni, Venice, 
1607, lib. vi. p. 245.) We thus correct an error of Miari, Dizionario Bellunese, 
4to, Belluno, 1843, p. 54, who confounds the hall at Belluno with that of Cividale. 
[* The authors presume that the town mentioned by Piloni is Cividale del 
Friuli. Cividale is, however, also another name for Belluno ; and there can be 
no doubt that Piloni's words do refer to the town-hall at Belluno.] 

3 Anonimo, p. 5 ; Gonzati, La Basilica, ub. sup., i. 59, and doc. xxxvii. [* Cf. 
Lazzarini and Moschetti, loc. cit., xv. 175 sqq., xvi. 82 sqqJ] The monochromes 
here and the arms of Gattamellata are classical, in the Mantegnesque style, and 
recall the detail of Andrea's triumphs at Hampton Court ; the rest of the chapel 
is whitewashed. See also Scardeone, Antiq. Patav., p. 373. 

4 Gonzati, ub. sup., i. 66. 

5 Ibid., i. 295-6, and doc. cxlii. A Marriage of St. Catherine still in this 
cloister may possibly have been by Lorenzo Canozzi or Filippo da Verona. 

VOL. II 5 


the rains of it some seventy years ago, create the impression 
that he was one of the second-rates, who most faithfully pre- 
served the traditions of Mantegna in his early haunt of Padua. 
We find it difficult to understand why the town-council of 
Belluno consented to the destruction of frescoes valuable as 
works of art, and interesting in the highest degree as authentic 
productions of a rare though well-known master. As examples 
of a peculiar taste they were almost unique ; they might lack 
many qualities of selection, of form, of drawing, and of colour, 
for they were due to men who had many superiors in other 
schools, but they were very fairly composed and powerfully 
conceived, and they gave copious illustrations of the manner 
in which the influence of Mantegna and that of the Venetians 
became commingled at the close of the fifteenth century. All 
that we can guess from the fragments preserved at Belluno 
and Padua is that the outlines were rough, wiry, and coarse, 
as compared with those of the great Paduan, that the flesh 
was metallic in tone, and that it was painted with liquid tints 
in a resolute and hasty method. 1 We might easily be led by 

1 Belluno town-hall. Of this hall, rebuilt seventy or eighty years ago on a 
modern scale, we are told by Piloni ( u b. sup., lib. v. p. 200) that it was first erected 
in 1409. In a calendar of records preserved in the Municipio of Belluno (Dizio- 
nario di Francesco Alpago, 30 8bre 1773, p. 210) we read : " No. 10, 1490, 12 Nov. 
nel libro delle Provigioni Let. L. (The book itself is missing.) Pitture sopra la 
facciata del Palazzo Vecchio e nella Comunita (Hall of Council) di Giacomo da 
Montagnana. Costorono Due. 280 d'oro . . ." [* Cf. Lazzarini and Moschetti, 
loc. cit., xvi. 98. ] 

Miari [Florio], Dizionario, etc., Bellunese, ub. sup., pp. 53-4, gives an exact 
account of the town-house, the ground-floor of which was divided into two 
principal spaces: the fore-ball decorated with paintings, which still exist, by 
Pomponio Amalteo (1529) ; the council-hall with pictures by Jacopo da Mon- 
tagnana. The wooden ceiling was framed with a cornice containing the cog- 
nizance of several Bellunese families, and chiefly those of Girolamo da Mula, 
podest& in 1490. On the wall opposite the chimney was a fresco of the Saviour 
erect in benediction between the Virgin and Evangelist, assigned to Mantegna 
(and engraved as such), but by Montagnana, if we judge of it by the engraving. 
(Is it necessary to say that Mantegna was not at Belluno in 1490?) [* This 
painting is now in the Museo Civico of Belluno. Kristeller, Andrea Mantegna, 
p. 455.] On the chimney was an inscription : " Non hie Parrasio non hie 
tribuendus Apelli, hos licet auctores dignus habere labor. Euganeus vix dum 
impleto ter mense Jacobus ex Montagnana nobile pinxit opus." In half-lengths 
between the windows were figures of Zeno, Hesiod, Atlas, Pythagoras, 
Cicero, and the prophetess Nicostrata. On the walls were five scenes from 
Roman history, illustrating the story of the Horatii and Curiatii. 1, the fight ; 


comparison to assign to the same hand the Madonna Crowned 
by Angels in the Communal Gallery at Bassano, a fresco once 
in the Pretorio of that town. That such a work should have 
been attributed to Mantegna is natural when we look at the 
form and architectural decoration of the composition ; but spirit- 
less outline, stolid types, and rough treatment too surely mark 
the handiwork of a later Paduan, and we may consider them 
due to Montagnana with the more propriety as we possess 
numerous authentic paintings in a similar manner at Padua. 1 
In the hall leading to the Curia-Vescovile, in the episcopal 
palace, a dull and much repainted fresco of the Resurrection 
of Christ, above a door, is doubtless by Montagnana, as well 
as the heads of emperors and captains on the beams of the 
hall ceiling, 2 and the old chapel in the same building is covered 
throughout with legendary and scriptural subjects, certified by 

2, the triumphal return ; the deeds of Mutius Scaevola : 1, he kills the secretary 
of Porsenna ; 2, he burns his hand in the fire ; 3, subject obscure, each incident 
copiously illustrated with classical detail of architecture and costume. Nineteen 
small fragments of this important work are preserved, viz. four containing heads 
from the triumph of Horatius, and the profile of Cicero, in the hands of Signor 
Bucchi at Belluno ; ten in possession of Conte Agostino Agosti of Belluno, in 
part from the triumph, e.g. the bust of two children on the extreme right of that 
composition, in part from the frescoes of Scsevola ; five belonging to Professor 
Catullo at Padua. [* Some of the fragments seen by the authors in the Agosti 
collection are now in the Museo Civico of Belluno. See Fogolari, in Bollettino 
d'arte, iv. 287 sq.] Lanzi (ii. 113) speaks with due commendation of these frescoes ; 
and the commentators of Vasari (iii. 170) err, as we see, in blaming him for 
confounding works of Amalteo with those of Montagnana, being unaware that 
the latter are lost and the former preserved. 

1 Bassano, Communal Gallery. Fresco transferred to canvas, with life- 
size figures of the Virgin and Child on a throne of porphyry in a painted 
recess of florid classic architecture. An angel at her feet plays a violin ; two 
others hold the crown above her head ; in a lunette the Eternal, half-length, in 
benediction. A chain ornament and festoons behind the principal group remind 
us of similar accessories in the palace of Mantua. The left side of the picture 
is wanting. Especially Mantegnesque are the angels, so much so as to suggest 
not only Montagnana but Bonsignori. It may be that the fresco was executed 
by Montagnana from a cartoon of Mantegna. Note the mechanical outline of a 
coarse black sharpness, the bricky flesh, and dark shadows. 

2 Padua, Palazzo Vescovile. At the corners are two soldiers guarding the 
sepulchre and looking up. This fresco is repainted and of a dull red tinge. 
That Montagnana is the painter is proved by the style, but also by Scardeone, 
who says (Antiq. Patav., p. 373) : " Pinxit Christi resurrectionem super portam 
in prima aula episcopatus." The heads on the vertical faces of the beams of 
the ceiling are monochromes on blue ground. 


Montagnaua's own signature to have been executed in 1495. 
Looking at the more conspicuous parts of this complicated! 
decoration, such as a St. John the Baptist, a Christ in bene- 
diction, a Crucifixion, and half-lengths above the door, we shall 
be struck by the square forms, the coarse aspect, and bold spirit 
of the figures, and we see the germs of a vehement art like 
that of Bartolommeo Montagna. 1 We may be less certain as 
to the authorship of the Annunciation in the new episcopal 
chapel, an altarpiece of pleasant Paduan shape, reminiscent of 
Lippi's earlier style rather than of that peculiar to Montagnana. 2 
It may be difficult also to trace his hand in the Bellinesque 
Crucifixion on one of the pilasters at the Santo, which indeed 
is said to have been finished in 1518 by. Girolamo del Santo, 3 
but we may find character akin to his in the portraits of 
bishops forming the upper frieze of the great hall in the epis- 

1 Padua, ex-episcopal chapel in the Episcopal Palace. This is a rectangle, 
with scenes from the lives of the martyrs in the lower courses, figures of apostles 
in second courses, and monochromes in five lunettes indistinct from age and 
other causes. In the ceilings are the symbols of the four Evangelists and the 
four Doctors. On a painted pilaster is a retouched inscription as follows : 
" Jacobus Mont na pinxit MIIIIXCV." All these wall-paintings are more or less 
altered by time and repainting. The best subject is that of the flaying of a 
martyr, a spirited composition with the vehemence of Signorelli in its chief 
figures. The principal personages are about life-size. 

2 Padua, Episcopal Palace, chapel. The Annunciation between the Angel and 
Tobias, and the archangel Michael holding a balance. The scene of the annun- 
ciation is laid in a street, the Eternal in benediction (repainted) appearing in 
the sky in an embossed halo. The figures are a third of life, the Virgin's mantle and 
that of the archangel, in part renewed. This seems the careful production of a 
young man, the composition pretty, and the tempera very careful. The only 
Paduan feature is the colour ; the style is not that of Montagnana, as we see it 
in the old chapel. 

3 This Crucifixion is on canvas, and assigned by all guides to Montagnana, 
but it is stated, on what authority is not said, that it was finished by Girolamo 
del Santo in 1518 (Isnenghi [Padre Antonio], Basilica di Sanf Antonio, 12mo, 1863, 1 
p. 61). We see no trace of two hands here, and if Girolamo finished, he also 
began the work. [* Contemporary records prove that Girolamo del Santo in 1518 1 
was commissioned to finish this picture, which seems to have been begun about 
1511 by another artist, and which had not been completed owing to the death i 
of the former owner of the altar. See Baldoria, in ArcMvio storico deW arte,> 
ser. i. vol. iv. pp. 57 sqq.] The Saviour is crucified on a tree from the branches 
of which sprout the heads of the twelve minor prophets. Below are SS. Sebastian, 
Gregory, Ursula, and Buenaventura. The Christ is well proportioned and Bellin- 
esque, the St. Sebastian likewise so, and the figures generally slender; the art 
displayed is not that of Montagnana. 


j copal palace at Padua. 1 These bishops are all accompanied by 
[canons, and stand or sit in couples conversing or in thought. 
I They seem to have been drawn with great care from nature ; 
what they want in historical value as likenesses is compensated 
by their importance as illustrations of Paduan painting at the 
close of the fifteenth century. The perspective is judiciously 
calculated in each piece to suit its altitude ; the movements 
are natural and various, and the drapery well and simply cast. 
A marked superiority in treatment distinguishes this work from 
that of Belluno ; for though, in faces and in form, the coarse- 
ness and realism of Montagnana are occasionally apparent, the 
cloths have a novel lie of fold and strong harmony of tones ; 
I and the outlines exhibit power akin to that of Bartolommeo 
Montagna ; and it is but fair to presume that this and other 
productions of the same kind were carried out chiefly by the 
Vicentine, whom we shall learn to know as a master combining 
the vehemence of Signorelli and Carpaccio with the sterner 
character of the Veronese. 2 We shall be the more disposed 
to maintain this opinion as the frescoes, representing the Eternal 
and Apostles, scenes from the creation, the nativity, and the 
finding of the Madonna of Mont' Ortone, in the church of that 
name near Padua, are traditionally of a later date than those 
of the episcopal hall, and executed by Montagnana in 1497, 
in the ruder and more common manner already noticed in 
earlier and equally genuine pieces. 3 We might now describe 

1 Padua, Episcopal Palace, great hall. These portraits fill the four sides of 
the hall, the last of them having been done in 1494 (Moschini, Vic., ub. sup., 
p. 65). The whole of those on the wall facing the chief entrance are completely 
repainted, and those above the door itself partly so. Many bits in the rest are 
also new. Each bishop is accompanied by a canon. The lower walls and ceiling 
are modern, having been renewed under Clement XIII. in 1759. 

2 We shall see (in Montagna) that there is a fresco at Praglia, very like the 
portraits at the Episcopal Palace in its style and treatment. 

There is also a house-front, No. 385-6, Via San Francesco, at Padua, with 
allegorical figures of the seasons in monochrome, and friezes containing children 
and monsters much in this manner likewise, yet ruder, and perhaps by Jacopo. 

3 Santa Maria di Mont' Ortone near Padua. Choir: in the semidome 
eighteen monochrome rounds representing nine saints, greatly injured, and nine 
scenes from the creation. In the semidome front the Eternal in a glory of 
cherubs, and the twelve apostles beneath him. In the ceiling of the choir the 
four Doctors of the Church ; and in the two side-lunettes, 1, the Discovery of the 


a considerable number of productions on wall or on panel, 
exhibiting some of the features of Montagnana's style, or 
that of his school ; but their enumeration may be left to the 
compass of a note, and we shall be content to know that 
Montagnana made his will in 1499, and is not supposed to 
have long survived. 1 

Miraculous Picture of St. Mary of Mont' Ortone, and 2, the Nativity of the Virgin. 
These frescoes, duly noted in the Anonimo (pp. 31-2), who leaves the painter's name 
in blank, are mentioned by Scardeone (Antiq. Patav., p. 373), who assigns them 
without any reticence to Montagnana. They are defective in form and dis- 
agreeable in colour, and seem to have been hastily done ; but we must remember 
that their present appearance may be due to their having been recovered from 
whitewash. In the choir the miraculous image, which is the subject of one of 
the frescoes, was preserved, covered by two side-panels, signed, according to 
Moschini (Vicende, p. 66), with the date of 1497. We may inquire whether 
Vasari intended to allude to this piece when he wrote that Bartolommeo Mon- 
tagna painted an altarpiece in the church of Santa Maria d'Artone at Padua 
(Vasari, iii. 649 *#.). [* In the first edition of the Lives (vol. i. part ii. p. 453) 
he ascribes the same work to Jacopo da Montagnana.] 

1 (1) Padua, Communal Gallery, No. 9, rude tempera of SS. Agata, Francis, 
and Jerome, of the same art as a Nativity in the same collection ; and a Virgin 
and Child amidst four saints from the convent of Salbono, now in possession of 
Signer Giacomo Moschini at Padua. In these three pieces we see the decline 
of Montagnana's art, vulgar faces and forms, short and thick-set frames, and in 
each case damaged surfaces of tempera, due in part to time, in part to restoring. 
(2) Padua, Casa Lazzara. Four small panels representing scenes from the story of 
St. James, much damaged, but recalling at a distance Mantegna and Carpaccio. 
[* These paintings, as well as that which formerly belonged to Signor Moschini, 
can no longer be traced.] (3) Casa Papafava. St. Peter in Benediction, attributed 
to Squarcione, see passim ; a figure commingling the style of Montagnana and 
Bart. Montagna, of good chiaroscuro and firmly touched (wood, tempera, l^ft. 
by 2ft.). Through the opening behind the saint a neat landscape reminiscent 
of Antonello and the Bellini. At the saint's feet a kneeling patron and his dog. 
(4) In the same style as the foregoing, two small saints, Paul and Peter in niches, 
attributed to Mantegna, in possession of the Earl of Wemyss, Gosf ord House, Long- 
niddry. (5) Prato della Valle, Padua, house, No. 2692. Annunciation, a mere relic 
in fresco, suggesting the name of Montagnana, less than that of Canozzi ; if to 
the latter we could give the Granting of the Rules to St. Francis in the great 
cloister at the Santo. (6) Padua, side-portal of the Servi. Lunette of the Virgin and 
Child between SS. Jerome and Anthony of Padua and angels. This is a better 
fresco than those of Mont' Ortone, and perhaps one of the earlier ones of 
Montagnanat A large piece of it is wanting. (7) Padua, house-front, No. 3195, Via 
del Santo. Monochrome of a winged statue and a monster on a bracket, a wall- 
painting of the period under notice more artistic than Dario, and Mantegnesque 
in aspect. (8) Padua, Casa Dondi-Orologio [* now London, collection of Mr. J. P. 
Heseltine]. Copy of a fresco of the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, once in the Scuola 
dei SS. Marco e Sebastiano, attributed to Mantegna, but seemingly an exaggera- 


If it were desirable further to extend the notice of the 
Squarcionesques and Mantegnesqnes at Padua, we might also 
dwell upon the lives of Matteo del Pozzo, 1 Agnolo Zoto, 2 and 
Pietro Calzetta, 3 but it is better to deal lightly with these 

lion of the style of Montagna. Remnants of the frescoes themselves are in the 
Communal Gallery of Padua, Nos. 403 and 404, a single figure tying his shoe, 
St. Mark, St. Peter Martyr and three kneeling personages, transferred to canvas ; 
part of a half-length, too, of rude workmanship, belonging to Signor Gradenigo 
at Padua, and a bust head, now belonging to Dr. Tescari at Castelf ranco : all 
these pieces are by one hand, and show the decline of Mantegna's art in the 
hands of Montagnana and his followers. [* The two last-mentioned fragments 
are now untraceable ; yet another representing a soldier is in the Museo Archeo- 
logico of Padua. These frescoes are said to have been executed in 1481, and 
were destroyed in 1819. Before they perished they were copied by Signor Luigi 
Pizzi ; his copies are now in the Museo Civico of Padua. See De Toni in 
Bollettino del Museo Civico di Padova, i. 56-60, 70-72.] (9) Padua, Servi sacristy. 
Virgin of Mercy between SS. James, Christopher, a monk, and Jerome; half- 
ruined and effaced. This is a flat tempera of mixed Venetian and Paduan style, 
recalling chiefly the Vivarini's school. (10) A still ruder specimen is the Virgin and 
Child between SS. Sebastian and Prosdocimo in the sacristy of Ognissanti at 
Padua, a very ill-preserved bit and without character. (11) Venice Academe No. 617. 
Virgin and Child between SS. Prosdocimo, Lawrence, Stephen, and Liberale, from 
the suppressed convent of Santo Stefano of Padua. Here again is a Mantegnesque 
picture, recalling Liberale of Verona and the Canozzi, but too injured to allow 
of a decided opinion. (12) Padua, Santo, tenth pilaster in the left aisle. Virgin 
adoring the Infant, between a female saint, recommending a kneeling friar, and 
St. Joseph ; life-size, injured and greatly repainted, dated 1494. The style seems 
a mixture of the Venetian of B. Vivarini and Mantegna. 

1 Pupil of Squarcione, according to Scardeone (Antiq. Pat., p. 371). He was 
in the Paduan guild in 1470 (Moschini, Vicende, p. 25), worked in the cappella 
Gattamellata at the Santo in 1469, 1470, and 1471, died in 1471, author of a St. 
Francis in one of the pilasters of the Santo (Anon., p. 7). Not one of his works is 
known. See Gonzati, La Basilica, doc. xxxv.-xxxvii. [* Matteo del Pozzo of Venice 
began to study under Squarcione in 1447, when seventeen years old. The paint- 
ings in the Gattamellata chapel were not commenced until 1470. Lazzarini 
and Moscbetti, loo. cit., xv. 108, 175 sqq., 272 sq., 294 sq., xvi. 82 sqq.] 

2 Agnolo Zoto is registered in the guild of Padua in 1469 (Moschini, Vicende, 
p. 25), and is recorded as one oE those who painted in the Gattamellata chapel at 
the Santo in 1472 (Gonzati, La Basilica, i. 58 and doc. xxxvii.) ; he painted a 
St. Paul on a pilaster of the same chapel (Anon., p. 8), and some of the seasons and 
zodiacal signs in the Salone (Scardeone, ub. sup., pp. 201 sq. ; Gonzati, ub. sup., 
i. 58). [* Cf. Lazzarini and Moschetti, loo. cit., xv. 178 sq. ; xvi. 85, 88.] 

3 Calzetta (Pietro) was brother-in-law to Montagnana (Anon., p. 7), and con- 
tracted as early as 1466, in presence of Squarcione, to paint the chapel of Corpus 
Christi at the Santo, and an altarpiece from a drawing made by Pizzolo from 
a sketch by Squarcione. (Contract in Moschini, Vicende, p. 66, n. 1.) [* A 
copy of this drawing is appended to the document in question and is reproduced 
by De Kunert in L'Arte, ix, 53.] In 1470 he restores certain works by Stefano of 


distant and feeble offshoots of the Paduan school, and to close 
the notice of it with a few words on the merits of the Canozzi. 

The Canozzi 1 were not Paduans. Lorenzo, the elder, was 
born in 1425 ; Cristoforo, the younger, a little later, at 
Lendinara. 2 Their father was a carpenter, and they naturally 
followed the paternal trade ; but being men of considerable 
enterprise they established themselves at Modena and Padua, 
Lorenzo being chief partner in the former, Cristoforo chief 
partner in the latter place. Yasari states that Lorenzo was 
Mantegna's rival at Padua ; we may consider him to have been 
Mantegna's companion in the school of Squarcione ; and we 
have seen how likely it may be that he had a share in the 
frescoes of the Eremitani. 3 He was a painter, a maker of 
tarsia, a modeller in terra-cotta, and a printer of books, and 
Paciolo declares him to have been completely master of perspec- 
tive. Between 1460 and 1470 4 the firm of Lorenzo and 

Ferrara at the, Santo, having contracted in that year to join Matteo del Pozzo and 
Montagnana in painting the chapel of Gattamellata (Gonzati, La Basilica, i. doc. 
xxxvi., xxxvii., and i. 58). There are still payments for the latter work in 1476 
(ibid., doc. xxxvii.). In 1481 he gilds the chapel of Sant' Antonio (ibid., p. 58), and 
in 1500 he was still employed at the Santo (ibid., p. 57). An Ecce Homo under 
glass on the left side of the chapel of the Santo, near the fourteenth altar, and near 
the door of the chapel of the Reliquie, is by Calzetta, but so injured as almost to 
defy criticism. Apparently in this style is a Piet& in a niche in a pilaster of the 
right aisle, of the vulgar Mantegnesque manner peculiar to the Paduans of this 
period. [* Calzetta was in 1455 an apprentice to Pietro da Milano. See Lazzarini 
and Moschetti, loo. cit., xv. 173 sq. and xvi. 81. Cf. also ibid., xv. 174 sqq. 
and xvi. 81 sqq.] 

1 It may suffice to say that copious notices of these artists are to be found in 
Campori (Gli artisti, etc., ub. sup., pp. 229 and following), in Gonzati (Basilica), 
the Anonimo ed. Morelli (Vasari, iii. 404 sq.), Brandolese (Del Genio dei Lendi- 
naresi, Pad. 1795), Luca Pacioli (in De Proportioned, and Scardeone (Antiq. 
Patav., p. 373). 

* 2 It appears that they were really born at Ferrara, whence their father 
Andrea di Nascimbene in 1436 moved to Lendinara. See A. Venturi, in Rivista 
storica italiana, i. 623. 

* 3 In 1449-53 Lorenzo and Cristoforo executed tarsias for the studio of 
Lionello and Borso d'Este in the castle of Belfiore, near Ferrara (A. Venturi, ub. 
sup., i. 622). 

4 The tarsie at San Marco in Venice, assigned to " the Canozzi " by Sansovino, 
are really by Antonio and Paolo da Mantova, and executed (see Zanotto, Guida 
di Ven., p. 49) in 1520-30. In a similar manner the choir-stalls at the Frari 
assigned to the Canozzi are (Zanotto, Guida, p. 473) by Marco di Giampietro of 
Vicenza, July 1468. 

in.] THE CANOZZI 73 

Cristoforo at Padua finished the carving and inlaying of ninety 
stalls in the choir of the Santo at Padua, 1 and in 1465 of stalls 
in the choir of the cathedral at Modena. 2 Matteo Colacio 
minutely describes the first in a volume printed during the year 
1486 at Venice, 3 enumerating the various subjects introduced and 
praising the beauty of the design, the woods employed being 
mulberry, mountain ash, cypress, willow, maple, lentisk, liquorice, 
box, cherry, ebony, tamarisk, and white varieties occasionally 
dyed. 4 The stalls perished by fire in 1749, and of all their 
decorations a single figure of St. Buonaventura and a view of the 
Santo have been preserved as dossals to the confessionals of the 
Luca Bellndi chapel ; they might alone prove the master's pro- 
ficiency in perspective, and his natural clinging to Paduan or 
Mantegnesque form. At Modena, where the choir has under- 
gone change, there remain four panels representing the Doctors 
of the Church, in which natural shape and good proportions are 
combined with a certain individuality highly to be commended 
in works so difficult of execution as these. 5 So clever indeed is 
the arrangement of parti-coloured woods in the flesh-parts, that 
the transition from light to shade is by no means so abrupt as 
one might suppose. Angularity is to be found in the outlines, 
and a broken character in the drapery, but nothing more in this 
respect than might be due to the peculiar schooling of the 
artists. At the time when these pieces were being completed, 
Gutenberg's Bible was reprinted (1462) by the same enter- 
prising firm, and was followed by the books of Aristotle with 
the comments of Averrhoes. Between 1474 and 1477 Lorenzo 
undertook the tarsie of the presses in the sacristy at the Santo 
of Padua, on designs furnished ten years earlier by Squarcione. 6 
Till quite recently they were originals, comprising six standing 
saints and four views of streets, more or less in Squarcione's 

1 Gonzati, Basilica, i. 70-71 and doc. xliv. 2 Campori, Gli artteti, p. 230. 

3 " Matthaeus Siculus Christophoro et Laurentio fratribas," in De verbo, 
civilitate (Venice, 1486), fol. d. 1 w. sqq. 

4 Eecords in Gonzati, Basilica, i. 70-71. 

5 The St. Ambrose is signed as follows : "Hoc opus fatu fuit p Christopho 
P. et LA Vrentius fratres de Lendinaria, 1465." Besides these figures there are 
panellings with tarsie, containing imitations of doors, shelves and utensils, birds, 
cups, mitres, and the like. 

6 See antea, p. 7, n. 3, and Gonzati, Basilica, doc, cxxxiii., cxxxiv. 


style of 1452, the details of shelves, cupboards, and niches being 
much akin to those in the rounds of the semidome at the 
Eremitani chapel. 1 

That Lorenzo Canozzi undertook painting is certain, though 
no specimen of his skill exists ; 2 but if we bear in mind his 
character as a tarsia-maker, we could assign to him some 
second-rate wall-distempers, such as the " glories " of St. Francis 
and St. Chiara in the first cloister of the Santo, 3 a Virgin and 
Child, like veneering, in the Comune, 4 and some eight fresco 
portraits of churchmen in the ex-library of the canons of the 
Lateran at Padua. Though very incorrectly drawn, and poor 
productions by different hands, the last-mentioned are remark- 
able for the application of vanishing points to details of lodges, 
houses, ceilings, and shelves ; and the angular character of the 
drawing as well as the mapping of the lights and shadows 
betray the hand of men accustomed to inlaying. 5 

At Lendinara, the birthplace of Lorenzo, 6 we look in 

1 Being damaged by worm-holes, these tarsias were taken down shortly before 
1871 and inlaid afresh from outlines taken with transparent paper on the old work. 
The new tarsia is more polished but has not the character of the old, and Padua 
has thus lost a set of very interesting relics by the officious zeal of persons insuffi- 
ciently experienced to deal with matters of art. The saints are Bernardino, 
Jerome, Anthony, Louis, Buenaventura ; the head of St. Jerome being one of the 
few that has retained the old style. Four perspectives of streets in tarsia 
are also in a room at the Santo between the sacristy and chapter-house. But 
even these are in a great part remounted. 

2 " El San Zuan Battista sopra il Pilastro secondo a man manca (in the 
Santo) fu de man di Lorenzo di Lendinara." Anonimo, p. 6. 

3 Padua, Santo. Lower course, St. Chiara erect in prayer between twelve 
females kneeling in prayer. In a lunette above, St. Francis (effaced) between ten 
kneeling Franciscans. Parts of the fresco are scaled, others discoloured, others 
again renewed. The outlines are sharp and rude, the flesh bricky. the figures 
generally paltry and rigid ; the whole mapped in the style of inlaying. 

4 Padua, Comune. Half-lengths, panel, gift of Dr. Antonio Tolomei. The 
Child sits on a stone, upon the face of which an unicorn is painted. This is a 
rough tempera, tarsia in treatment. 

5 Padua, ex-library now annexed to the chapel of San Giovanni di Verdara. 
The drawing is very minute, the drapery broken, the flesh bricky and hatched 
over in dull grey the forms incorrect, the perspectives good and true. The 
style is lower but akin to that of a portrait of an Augustine monk in possession 
of Dr. Fusaro, assigned to Mantegna (see antea, p. 26); there is something German 
too in the draperies. 

6 Brandolese assigns to Lorenzo a St. Anthony between SS. Christopher and 
Onofrius in San Biagio of Lendinara, but this altarpiece is missing (Del Genio, 


Anderson photo.] {Modena Gallery. 


II. 74] 

in.] THE CANOZZI 75 

vain for pictures, but find a terra-cotta not unworthy of atten- 
tion. 1 

After Lorenzo's death in 1477, 2 his brother Cristoforo carried 
on the business partly at Parma, partly at Modena. He had 
already exercised a rude sort of talent in tarsias executed for the 
Duomo of Parma in 1473, 3 or for private patrons at Modena in 
1477 ; 4 but these are of less interest than the Virgin and Child 
with his signature and the date of 1482 in the royal gallery of 
Modena, a panel in which broken or continuous outline betrays 
the tarsiatore, and wooden form or incorrect drawing the feeble 
powers of a third-rate Paduan. 5 Not that these or other pieces, 

etc., p. vi). He also ascribes to the same a Virgin and Child between SS. 
Lawrence and Anthony of Padua, in the Duomo of Lendinara. It is, however, by 
Bissolo. At Santa Maria Nuova, near Lendinara, there is a panelled loft for the 
singing-choir painted with ornaments that might be by the Canozzi, but it is in 
bad condition. 

There is a canvas of Christ and the Marys in the House of Martha, No. 152 at 
the Venice Academy, inscribed: "Opus Laurenzi Chanozio patav. ..." But 
this is a work of the sixteenth century with a false signature. 

1 Vasari says, iii. 404, that Lorenzo modelled terra-cottas. That which may 
be seen at Lendinara is a Virgin and Child mutilated and whitewashed above 
the door of a shop, No. 150 in the Contrada del Duomo. The Virgin's nose is 
gone, likewise the Infant's toes. 

2 See his epitaph in Scardeone, Antigr. Patav., p. 373, or in original on the 
wall of the first cloister near the door leading to the second cloister at the Santo. 
He died on the 13th of April. 

3 Parma, Duomo, stalls of choir with perspectives as usual. A bearded St. 
Mark (bust), a St. Jerome (bust), reading, St. Luke, and a bishop, inscribed : 
44 Opus Christofori Lendinarii miri artificis MCCCCLXXTII," the first of these figures 
recalling Marco Zoppo and the local painter Caselli, whose education was partly 
Venetian. There is also a tarsia (round) of a youth reading in the sacristy of the 
Duomo, where, the wood having fallen, we see the original design cut into the 
ground. On a bench in the sacristy one also reads the following : " Luch. 
Blanch. Parm. gratus Crist. Lenden. cultor forulum hunc prot. hoperis perfecit." 
Date illegible. 

4 Cristoforo was made citizen of Modena in 1463 (Campori, 6fli artisti, p. 231), 
and there are records in the Modena archives proving his presence at Modena 
in 1475, 1477, 1478, and 1483. The tarsie are four Evangelists, on one of which 
one reads : " Christoforus de Lendenaria hoc opus f. 1477." Similar in character 
to the foregoing. 

5 Modena Gallery, No. 485. Wood, life-size, originally in the chapel of San 
Giovita, near Modena. The Virgin is seated in a landscape, and holds in her left 
hand a cross and chaplet; a transparent veil is bound to her head with a 
cincture. Below her feet are two inscriptions, one as follows : " hac imaginem de 
Gaspar de Sillingardis Episcopus mut. donavit Jovanni Bollino S.S. Faustini ac 
Jovitae Kectori nee non suo familiari anno Dni MDCV Die xiu Februarii," another 


whether of painting or tarsia, which might be attributed to the 
same hand, are of themselves attractive, 1 but because they lay 
bare the track followed by Paduan art, and show how the manner 
and example of the Canozzi, having already affected Zoppo, 
extended to most of the cities in the valley of the Po, mingling 
with the Umbro-Florentine at Ferrara, and with the Venetian at 
Parma. In some cases we discover the pupils of the Canozzi, 
for instance in a Pieta of 1485 in the Gallery of Modena by 
Bartolommeo Bonascia, 2 and we see the continuation of their 
teaching crossed with that of Francia or Costa in the works of 

so: " Christophorus de Lendenaria opus 1482." The high surface shadows of strong 
enamel are scaling, though the picture has been restored, and is thus dulled in 
tone. The parts are mapped and drawn as tarsia, the drapery angular in lines. 

1 Lucca, San Martino. Five pieces of tarsia are preserved here, four repre- 
senting perspectives, one a bishop less than life-size. On one of the per- 
spectives one reads : " Christophorus de Cannoccis de Lendinara fecit opus. 


Modena Gallery, No. 442. Panel of the Crucifixion with the thieves and usual 
scenes. In the foreground St. Francis receiving the Stigmata, and St. Jerome. 
This piece with figures a third of life-size was first called Mantegna, and after it 
was brought from La Mirandola by the Duke Francesco IV. it was called Gerard 
of Harlem. The real author may well be Cristoforo Canozzi, the style being that 
of a tarsiatore partly Mantegnesque, partly Ferrarese. The figures are dry and 
bony and motionless, the features being mapped out, and the draperies cut 
straight by lines. The vehicle is high in enamel like that of the Ferrarese and of 
Canozzi in his picture of 1482 ; the finish is very great, the colours gaudy and 
intense, the marks ugly and repulsive. [* This picture is probably an early work 
of Francesco Bianchi Ferrari. Its cimasa representing Christ appearing to the 
Magdalen is now also in the Modena Gallery (No. 412). See A. Venturi, in 
L'Arte, i. 282 xqq.'} 

2 Modena Gallery, No. 480. Canvas, Christ in the Tomb between the Virgin 
and Evangelist, inscribed : " 1485. Hoc opus pinxit Bartholomeus de Bonasciis." 
The face of the tomb imitates that of an antique sarcophagus with hippogriffs 
and vases. The contours generally are rectilinear, which shows that the painter 
was used to inlaid work. The Christ is not undignified, and is Bellinesque in a 
certain measure. This painter indeed is cleverer than Cristoforo Canozzi, com- 
mingling the character of the followers of Piero della Francesca with those of 
Bellini and Mantegna. The flesh in this picture is injured. [* Bartolommeo 
Bonascia, who painted " a head " for the oratory of the Ospedale della Morte at 
Modena in 1468-70, died of the plague as late as 1527. He was also a wood- 
carver and an engineer. See A. Venturi, in Arcfiivio storico delV arte, ser. i. 
vol. iii. pp. 383, 391.] 

3 F. Bianchi Ferrari is mentioned by Lanzi (ii. 346) as the author of an altar- 
piece once in San Francesco of Modena, and as the alleged master of Correggio 
(Spaccini in Annot. Vasari, iv. note 2 to p. 110). There is one picture by him 
under Francia's name in the Gallery of Modena (No. 476), the Annunciation, 


Alinari photo. "\ [Modena, San Pietro. 


II. 76&] 


Francesco Bianchi Ferrari, Giovanni Antonio Scaccieri, 3 Marco 
Meloni of Carpi, 4 and Bernardino Loschi. 5 

Of Ansuino da Forll we can say no more than that his name 
is undiscoverable anywhere but on the walls of the Eremitani 
chapel. There is indeed a profile assigned to him in the Correr 
Gallery at Venice, but the fine character of its drawing and 
expression, and the blended modelling of its flesh, reveal the 
hand of an Umbro-Ferrarese ; and the St. Christopher at Padua 
does not prepare us for the comparative perfection of the portrait 
at Venice. 6 

a panel executed for the church of the Santissima Annunziata at Modena. From 
records recently discovered in the archives of the brotherhood of that name 
under the dates of 1506, 1507, 1508, and 1511, 1512, it appears that this piece was 
left unfinished at his death in 1510 by Francesco B. Ferrari, and finished by Gio. 
Antonio Scaccieri in 1512. (See Intorno al vero autore di un dipinto attribuito 
al Francia; Nozze Ventnroli-Bianconi, by Andrea Cavazzoni Pederzini, 8vo, 
16 pages, Modena, 1864.) The style here is a mixture of Francia, Costa, and 
Panetti, with a patience of execution exceeding that of Mazzolino. The figures 
are slender, the colour bricky and mapped, shadows bituminous, and flesh horny 
and light. The painter is obviously a follower of the Canozzi, influenced by the 
school of Francia. The Duke Francis IV. paid 500 secchins for this alleged 
Francia in 1821. [* It is now officially restored to the real authors. Other 
works of Francesco Bianchi Ferrari are : (1) Berlin, Kaiser Friedrich Museum, 
No. 1182. The Virgin and Child with Saints. (2) London, Wallace collection, 
No. 2. A Youth watching a Sleeping Girl. (3) Modena Cathedral. Frescoes 
on the ceiling of the sacristy (executed in 1507). (4) Modena, San Pietro. The 
Virgin and Child with Saints. (5) Eome, Galleria Nazionale, No. 2370. The 
Agony in the Garden. For notices of this painter see A. Venturi in Thieme and 
Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Hldenden Kiinstler, iii. 586 sq. ; and Cook, in 
Gazette des Beaux- Arts, ser. iii. vol. xxv. pp. 376 sqq. 

4 Marco Meloni is the painter of a picture in the Modena Gallery (No. 483) 
representing the Virgin between SS. John the Baptist, Bernardino, Francis, and 
Jerome ; two angels support the crown above her head. On the throne one reads : 
" Habes mi Divi Bernardini confraternitas Marci Melonis opus, anno D.CCCCC nil, 
Kalendis Juni peractum." This picture was in San Bernardino of Carpi. Its 
figures (all but life-size) are wooden in form, but there is also here a distinct imi- 
tation of Perugino and Cima. [* The Modena Gallery also contains the predella 
which originally accompanied this painting as well as a St. Jerome by Meloni.] 

5 Of whom there is a Virgin and Child with Saints in the Modena Gallery 
(No. 477) ; he is also a painter indulging in defective drawing, lame movements, 
rectilinear outlines, and absence of feeling for colour ; but see posted in the 
painters of Parma. 

6 Venice, Correr, Sala XVI., No. 9. Wood, tempera, m. 0-49 high by 0-35. Profile 
of a man at a curtained window, through which one sees a castle, water, and 
ships, and a servant before two men on horseback. [* Signed on the wall beneath 
the window A. F. P." Cf. postea , p. 236 sq.'] 


Bono, the author of one of the frescoes at the Eremitani, is 
"rarely noticed in the annals of art ; bnt we may fairly believe 
that he was taught by Pisano, and we know that he painted 
St. Jerome in the Desert, a small panel once in the Costabili 
Gallery at Ferrara, and now in the National Gallery. In this 
curious old tempera the saint reposes on a stone in a rocky land- 
scape, the signature on a cartello indicating that Bono was of 
Ferrara and a disciple of Pisano. We shall accept its genuine- 
ness the more readily as the cold and solid treatment of the 
subject, and the hummocky outline of the distance heightened 
with gold, indicate a Ferrarese affected by the lessons of Umbrian 
teachers. 1 There is copious evidence in contemporary records 
that Bono was paid by the dukes of Ferrara to decorate their 
castles at Migliaro and Belfiore during the years 1450 to 1452. 2 
We are led to think that he was in the service of the superintend- 
ents of the cathedral at Siena in 1442 and 1461 ; 3 but there 
is no vestige of his works in any of these places. It is not 

1 London, National Gallery, No. 771 ; previously in the Costabili collection at 
Ferrara, after wards belonging to Sir Charles Eastlake. Panel, tempera, 1 ft. Sin. high 
by 1 ft. 3 in., inscribed : "Bonus Ferariensis Pisani disipulus." The saint wears a 
yellow cap, and holds a scapular. His face is wild, like that of St. Anthony in a 
Pisano of the National Gallery. 

2 We are indebted to the Marquis Campori for notices of the fact that Bono in 
1450 painted the lodge of the palace del Migliaro and chimneys in the house 
of the Castaldo of Casaglia near Ferrara. In 1451 he painted in the palace of 
Migliaro ; in 1452 a studio, probably at Belfiore. 

* Annot. Vasari, iii. 27, n. 2 ; Cittadella, Docnmenti . . . risyua/rdanti la, storia 
artisticaferrarese, p. 364. 

4 Dresden Museum, No. 44. Nativity with the forged inscription : " Antonius 
Florentinus Mcccxxxiii." Note the inky shadows and raw contrasts of line in 
this picture. 

5 Venice, Lady Layard; previously in the Costabili collection. Ecce Homo. 
The Saviour sits under an arch, through which a landscape is seen. Though not 
free from scaling and abrasion, this piece can still be judged of. The forms are 
dry and bony, and not unlike those of Galasso Galassi, the colour dim and raw, 
and the landscape Mantegnesque in its minuteness. 

' Ferrara. An Ecce Homo like the last belongs to the Conte Massa at Ferrara, 
and may be taken for a work of the same hand. The general tone here is dull 
brown, but enamelled and high in surface. A third specimen of the same kind in 
Casa Canonici at Ferrara represents the Saviour in white with the cord round his 
neck and the Magdalen at his feet. [* A replica of Lady Layard's Ecce Homo 
belongs to Prince Liechtenstein of Vienna ; it may be that one which was seen by 
the authors in the Massa collection. The picture which formerly was in the Casa 
Canonici is obviously identical with one which now belongs to Baron Tucher of 


doubtful that a pupil of Pisano capable of painting the St. Jerome 
of the National Gallery might, at a later period, and especially 
under the control of another master, produce the St. Christopher 
of Padua. The stamp of that manner is impressed on a Nativity 
with a false inscription in the gallery of Dresden, 4 and two or 
three pieces commingling Ferrarese with Mantegnesque peculiar- 
ities in Venice, 5 Ferrara, 6 and Munich 7 ; and it might be that 
his fourth- or fifth-rate powers were employed in the decoration 
of the Schifanoia Palace at Ferrara. 

The pictorial creations of Pizzolo have altogether disappeared. 
Assuming that he is one person with Niccol6 " depentor," jour- 
neyman to Donatello, we learn from records that he did various 
bits of tinting and gilding for the Florentine in 1446, 1447, 1448. 8 
We know further that he painted in the chapel of the Podesta 
an Eternal, 9 and that a house-front supposed to be by him existed 
at a recent date in Padua. 10 

Vienna (reproduced in Munchner Jahrluch der lildenden Kunst, 1908, 1. Halbband, 
p. 27).] 

7 Munich, Pinakotek, No. 1023. Virgin and Child between two bishops and 
two Franciscans, one of them St. Anthony of Padua with the lily. This picture 
is called Mantegna, chiefly because the abbreviation of the word Maria on a 
pilaster has been read as a monogram of Andrea Mantegna. The forms are 
angular and dry, the flesh of a dull brown, the general tint of the picture dark 
and glowing, perhaps on account of varnishes ; the dresses are in strong primary 
contrasts. The style is a mixture of that of Galasso and Tura, and recalls that of 
the foregoing examples. We may therefore class this piece under the name 
of Bono. [* It is now labelled " School of Ferrara, about 1480."] 

8 Gonzati, JBasilica, i. doc. Ixxxi. [* Mccol6 " depentor " is undoubtedly 
identical with Niccol6 Pizzolo; but see amtea, p. 21, n. 3.] 

9 Vasari, iii. 388, and Anonimo, p. 28. 

10 Moschini, Vicende, p. 60. This front was inscribed : " Opus Nicole tti." [* In 
1441 Niccolb Pizzolo had executed some paintings in the church of Monte Ortone, 
near Padua (Lazzarini and Moschetti, loc. oit., xv. 125 sq., 268 *#.). See also antea, 
p. 21, n. 1.] 



rpOWARDS the close of the year 1456, Mantegna was visited 
JL on several occasions by an agent of the Marquis Lodovico 
Gonzaga, who sounded him as to his willingness to leave Padua 
and take service at Mantua. The terms offered to him were most 
tempting fifteen ducats a month, lodging, corn and fuel, and the 
expenses of the journey. For a time he hesitated. His friends 
wished to . keep him at Padua, 1 but the brilliant prospect of a 
residence at court, the flattering tone in which the Mantuan 
agents spoke, made a deep impression on his mind ; and in 
January of 1457 he had gone so far as to declare that he would 
entertain the idea of coming, though bound before doing so to 
complete an order from the protonotary of Verona. 2 During the 
whole of 1457 the painter was in no condition to move ; he had 
no doubt much work on hand and a list of unfulfilled promises to 
settle ; but Lodovico did not lose sight of his object, and at last 
succeeded in inducing Mantegna to fix a date for the transfer of 
his family and workshop to Mantua. It was arranged that the 
commissions of the protonotary of Verona and others should be 
attended to during the summer and autumn of 1458, 3 that three 

1 " Non obstante le molte persuazione daltri in contrario diliberai totaliter 
venire a servire la prefata vostra Ex." Mantegna to Lodovico Gonzaga, Marquis 
of Mantua, May 13, 1478. (Baschet, A., "Documents sur Mantegna," Gazette des 
Beaux- Arts, 8vo, Paris, 1866, vol. xx. p. 338, n.l. The same in Italian with varia- 
tions under the title of Micerche, 8vo, Mantova, 47 pages, 1866, p. 38.) 

2 Lodovico Gonzaga to Andrea Mantegna, Mantua, Jan. 5, 1457. (Gazette des 
Beaux- Arts, ub. sup., vol. xx. p. 322 ; Hicerehe, p. 18.) 

3 To this time we may assign the missing portraits of Galeotto Marzio of Narni 
and Janus Pannonius. See Jan. Pan., Poemata, 1784, cit. Selv. Comm. Vasari, 
iii. 438 and 457, and Anonimo, pp. 144 sq. and 255 sq. 



months should be given for the despatch of private affairs, and 
that the Mantuan service should begin at the opening of 1459. 1 
A letter in the Marquis's own hand expressed his extreme 
pleasure at this prospect of a settlement. The summer and 
autumn had gone, and winter was partly spent, yet no signs of 
Mantegna's coming were observed 2 ; the Duke wrote in December 
to remind him of his promise. 3 Mantegna asked for eight weeks 
more to finish the work of the protonotary. When this was 
granted, the podesta of Padua begged the Marquis for still more 
time, that Mantegna might finish a "little piece" for him. With 
great courtesy the Marquis acceded to the podesta's desire, but in 
April Mantegna was still at Padua, thinking less of moving than 
ever. 4 It was of no avail that the Marquis, in May, sent twenty 
ducats by a trusty messenger for a boat to take the painter to 
Mantua 5 ; the old excuse was constantly repeated, the protono- 
tary's altarpiece was incomplete. Lodovico now wrote to the 
latter to ask him whether he would not allow his picture to be 
finished at Mantua, and informed Mantegna that he had taken 
this step 6 ; but the protouotary was far too wary to consent to 
this arrangement, and insisted on the despatch of the panels 
to Verona, subsequent to which, it was suggested, Andrea might 
be spared to visit Mantua for a day. 7 

That Mantegna soon after left Padua to visit Verona is 
probable. How long he remained there is uncertain. His 
employer, Gregorio Corraro, was a dependent of Eugenius IV. 
and nephew to Cardinal Anthony of the old family of Correr, 
appointed abbot in commendam of San Zeno at Verona, and 
apostolic protonotary in 1443. For the adornment of the abbey- 
church he caused a new altar to be erected in the choir, and 

1 Lodovico Gonzaga to Andrea Mantegna, Mantua, April 15, 1458. (Gazette des 
Beaux- Arts, p. 323.) 

* 2 In October 1458 Mantegna took as his pupil a boy aged thirteen, named 
Giovanni Battista. Lazzarini and Moschetti, in Nuovo arohivio peneto, ser. ii. 
vol. xv. pp. 138, 301. 

3 Lodovico Gonzaga to Andrea Mantegna, Mantua, Dec. 26, 1458. (Gazette 
des Beaux-Arts, p. 325.) 

4 Same to same, Mantua, Feb. 2, 1459, and March 14, 1459. (Ibid., pp. 325-6.) 

5 Same to same, Mantua, May 4, 1459. (Ibid., p. 327.) 

8 Same to same, Mantua, June 28, 1459. (Ibid., p. 327.) 

7 Same to same, undated. (Ibid.) 

VOL. II 6 


ordered the altarpiece at Padua. 1 If we consult historians, they 
tell us that Mantegna adorned the fronts of several houses at 
Verona and finished a couple of pictures besides, and it has 
generally been assumed that his stay there was a lengthened 
one. Under these circumstances it is important to note that 
the Madonna of San Zeno is the only Veronese masterpiece of 
which we can prove the genuineness ; and it was not executed 
at Verona. Had we not undoubted testimony of this, we should 
have guessed it from the style of the compositions themselves : 2 
the side compartments recalling Andrea's beginnings at Padua ; 
the predella, Donatello ; and the Martyrdom of St. James as 
well as the Virgin, productions of a later and still bolder phase. 
It is unfortunate that this noble collection should have been 
removed from the principal altar of San Zeno and hung at a 
great height in the choir ; a mischance that the predellas should 
be scattered in the museums of Paris and of Tours, but we are 
content to know that they all exist and are well preserved. 
Of the subject there is nothing to say but that it is the Virgin 
and Child; of life-size, amidst angels, attended by eight saints 
in a classic portico, with festoons of fruit overhanging the square 
pillars of the court and the marble throne in which the Virgin 
sits. Six parts, forming one complex, seem to have been 
finished at distinct intervals. To the left St. Peter stands with 

1 Verona, San Zeno. " La Pala nella cappella maggiore in Coro e in tre 
partimenti . . . opere bellissime del Mantegna. Oltre 1'altare la detta pala fu 
fatta a spese di Gregorio Corraro abate comendatore eletto da Eugenic IV. 1'anno 
1443. Le sedi del Coro furono fatte da' suoi eredi in virtu del suo testamento " 
(Ricreazione pittorwa ossia notiz. univ. delle Pitt., etc., di Verona, 12mo, Verona, 1720, 
pp. 179-180). That Gregorio Corraro was protonotary we learn from Giovanni 
de' Agostini, Notizie delle opere degli scrittori Veneti, in which there are notices 
of Progne, a tragedy, and other literary prolusions by this author, who died 
patriarch at Venice in 1464. 

2 Vasari (iii. 392) states that Mantegna painted a picture " for the altar of San 
Cristofano and Antonio," but in what church he omits to say. He also " painted 
the altarpiece at Santa Maria in Organo " (iii. 393), but the only altarpiece there 
in a style approaching that of Mantegna is that of the Buonalini chapel, described 
by Vasari himself (v. 329) as by Girolamo dai Libri (ci. posted, p. 203, n. 2). We 
must therefore suppose that Vasari assigns the same picture to two artists, or 
assume that the Mantegna is missing. 

* The altarpiece which Mantegna, according to Vasari, executed for Santa 
Maria in Organo is undoubtedly identical with the picture by him which now is 
in the collection of Prince Trivulzio at Milan. Sezpostea, pp. 110 sq. 


the book in his hand, St. Paul at his side, leaning on a two- 
handed sword ; beyond them the young St. John the Evangelist 
with a classic face and figure reading, and St. Augustine with 
mitre, psalter, and crook of office; to the right St. John the 
Baptist, also reading, heedless of the vicinity of St. Zeno, St. 
Lawrence, and St. Benedict ; on the throne the Virgin in front 
of a marble bower, through the pillars of which the sky appears ; 
on the steps, amidst garlands by the side of the Virgin's chair, 
and about a wheel halo modelled after the rose in San Zeno, 
angels gambolling, singing, and playing instruments ; below, in 
the form of a predella, Christ on the Mount, Christ Crucified, 
and the Ascension. If we confine our attention to the left side of 
the picture, we notice a group of men remarkable for grandeur 
of proportions and sternness of mien, clad in sculptural draperies, 
but reminiscent in mask of the old and solemn impersonations 
of the mediaeval time. They alternately recall aged types, to 
which Bartolommeo Vivarini was partial, 1 or antique models 
with finely chiselled lineaments and articulations, familiar to 
the student of the Greek age. 2 There is less of flexibility and 
elasticity in movement, less rotundity in modelling, than we are 
accustomed to in Mantegna's expanded style. The period of 
execution may have been that in which the Call to the Apostle- 
ship was completed at the Eremitani. Turning to the right, 
we have a St. Benedict like that of the Brera, St. Lawrence 
with a head that might be taken for a youthful pagan hero 
carved by Donatello, a mitred saint that seems to have issued 
from a relief by Ghiberti, a St. John of grim wildness. In each 
personage a fine individuality ; in each figure studied action and 
correct shape of limb, of muscle and extremity ; drapery of 
searching finish in the fold, yet of statuesque grandeur in cast. 
In treatment and colouring we see the hand of the fresco- 
painter, a thin distemper of an iron tinge in flesh, shadowed 
with grey, lights and darks worked in over a ground surface of 
neutral red, a vehicle of subtle texture sufficiently resinous to 
hold, not too viscous to project; absence of half-tone, severe 
correctness of definition in balanced mass of chiaroscuro, occa- 
sional sharpness in the peach on a lip, and a warm metallic hue 

1 This especially in St. Peter and St. Paul. 
* E.g. in the St. John the Evangelist. 


in reflections. All this points to the time when Mantegna 
composed the St. James proceeding to Martyrdom at the 
Eremitani. 1 Some of the angels singing about the Virgin seem 
quite Florentine in air, others have the full-blown mask and 
rotund cheeks and eyes imitated by the indiscriminate dependence 
of Caroto and Liberale ; the Virgin herself supports the Child 
erect on her lap, and has an undulating movement and free 
action, revealing a still later phase in the development of 
Andrea's manner. Highly characteristic in every part is the 
introduction of medallions in the pillars of the court and in 
those of the throne. Here is an emperor crowning some 
favourite, a group of legionaries on foot and horseback, a 
Minerva ; there a female on a dolphin, a duel, or a colossus like 
that of Montecavallo. In the predella of the Crucifixion now 
at the Louvre nothing can exceed the polish of the figures ; 
nowhere except in the fresco of the Eremitani has Mantegna 
further pushed the boldness of foreshortening. His art in 
balancing the groups is great. On one side grief and lamenta- 
tion contrasted with the calm of the Redeemer and repentant 
thief ; on the other carelessness and gambling, and the un- 
repentant thief in his agony ; fine is the gang of dicers, grand 
the episode of the fainting Virgin, a wonderful mixture of the 
dramatic and sculptural, here and there grimace, from which 
Mantegna is never free when he indicates pain ; in the Saviour 
one of the finest nudes produced in Central Italy since Jacopo 
Bellini's Crucifixion ; Donatellesque the writhing thief, equally 
so the repentant one, who seems modelled on the Marsyas of 
the Uffizi. 2 

* l The Eremitani frescoes having, as we now know, been completed 1452 
(see antea, p. 13, n. 2), it seems impossible that any of the parts of the San Zeno 
altarpiece could be contemporary even with the latest of the wall-paintings at 

2 Verona, San Zeno. As to the condition of this piece, we shall mark a bit 
scaled out in the dress of the St. John the Evangelist, and other little injuries of 
a similar kind ; and, besides, a disagreeable lustre produced by varnishes, and a 
certain dullness of tone caused by age. The figures in the body of the principal 
pictures are life-size ; the predellas, of which one is No. 1373 at the Louvre, the 
others (not seen) in the Museum of Tours, m. 0-67 high by 0-93. When the altar- 
piece was taken to Paris in 1797, the predellas were separated from it, and were 
not returned at the peace. There are copies of them in San Zeno. In the predella 
at the Louvre the nimbuses are abraded and the surfaces washed over with some 


But whilst Mantegna was busy at this piece, he was also 
working in 1459 at a smaller one for Giacomo Marcello, podesta 
of Padua, 1 which in our opinion can be no other than the Christ 
on the Mount in the collection of Mr. Baring. Here the Saviour 
kneels on a rock before the angels that bring him the symbols 
of the Passion ; in the distance, Iscariot and his band hasten out 
of the town, which for this once is a view of Padua, with the 
city gate and the church of the Eremitani ; and the apostles 
sleep calmly in the foreground. 2 

At this source Giovanni Bellini first imbibed his fondness 
for the Mantegnesque ; here he studied the sculptural in attitude 
and in drapery, and the realistic in expression, without reaching 
to the scientific level of his brother-in-law. No creation of 
Mantegna shows more science in distribution and drawing, 
nowhere do we find a more startling contrast between imitation 
of the plastic in drapery and of nature in faces. An excessive, 
a coarse and vulgar realism, is combined with the hardiest 
foreshortening in the sleeping apostles ; a brown transparence 
covers the surface, and the picture makes on the whole the 
impression of a potent bitter. 

That these and perhaps other masterpieces should all have 
been finished at Padua on the eve of Andrea's settlement at 
Mantua, might make us doubt that he ever stayed for any 
length of time at Verona, yet his influence in the Veronese 
school was great and lasting, and there are marks of his brush 
at least on one fresco, which might prove his stay there. We 
must remember, however, the proximity of Mantua to Verona ; 
we must bear in mind that Goito, where Mantegna frequently 

brown preparation. The Marsyas alluded to in the text is an antique restored by 
Donatello (Uffizi, West Corridor, No. 155). [* The supposition that this is the 
statue which Donatello restored (see Vasari, iii. 407) is incorrect ; of. Diitschke, 
Antike Bildwerke in Oberitalien, iii. 133 *#.] 

1 See autea, p. 81. 

2 London, Baring collection, previously in the Fesch and Coningham 
Galleries, inscribed: "Opus Andreae Mantegna." Mark the round heads and 
protruding bellies of the angels. 

* This picture is now in the National Gallery, No. 1417. 

Closely allied to the predella of the San Zeno altarpiece and to the Agony in 
the Garden is a picture of the Adoration of the Shepherds in the collection of 
Mr. C. A. Rouse-Boughton-Knight of Downton Castle (Ludlow, Herefordshire). 
The design, but only part of the execution of this picture seem to be by Mantegna 


resided, was a castle stronghold of the marquises and dukes of 
the Gonzaga family, from whence the painter might occasionally 
visit Verona, and where he could receive Veronese artists. The 
facade of a house near San Fermo, on which traces of frescoes 
remain, is made to imitate stone panelling with round openings, 
a sentinel with lance and shield, an equestrian statue, and 
fragments of heads, of children, and monsters. These fragments 
display the style of Mantegna at the moment of his retirement 
from Padua, 1 but it is a solitary example, and other ornaments 
of the same kind on the fronts of houses and in Sam? Anastasia, 
as well as temperas in private collections at Verona, fail to 
convince us that they should be classed amongst the productions 
of his pencil. 2 

The paucity of Mantegna's works at Verona might be 
favourable to an opinion, accepted by many, that he finally 
entered the service of the Gonzagas in 1460, 3 an opinion 
strongly confirmed by circumstantial evidence, though no positive 
testimony proves it. But in 1463 the painter began residing at 

1 Verona, San Fermo in Pescheria ; parts of the front whitewashed. 

2 (1) Verona, Casa Giolfino a Porta Borsari. Square spaces in the upper part of 
this house contain figures of soldiers on foot and horseback, and a fight of horse- 
men in monochrome. The colour is so abraded that the character of the work 
can hardly be distinguished ; but the painter may be Giolfino. Lower down on 
the same front is a Virgin and Child, and part of an angel, clearly by Giolfino. 
(2) Verona, Piazza San Marco, No. 854. The frescoes on this front are, as we shall 
see, by Falconetto. (3) Verona, Casa Tedeschi, previously San Bonifacio, near 
the chapel of Santa Maria della Scala. The paintings of this front are also by 
Falconetto. (4) Verona, Sant' Anastasia. Frescoes above the altar of St. Vincent 
Ferrerio, assigned to Mantegna. These frescoes may be by Francesco Benaglio, 
Liberale, or Falconetto. Seepostea. (5) Verona, Casa Bernasconi [* now Verona, 
Museo Civico, No. 153]. Canvas, tempera, with figures one-third of life, of Christ 
carrying his Cross (busts). This, we shall see, is in the manner of Francesco 
Mantegna. (6) Same place [* now Museo Civico, No. 152], Panel, tempera, with 
figures half life-size, of the Virgin and Child full-length, inscribed on the hem of 
the Virgin's dress : "<INQBHACO MIN(TIN)WA M . . ." This is a picture with 
a suspicious signature, and probably by one of the Benaglii. (7) Same place [* now 
Museo Civico, No. 134]. Arched piece with figures all but life-size, of the beato 
Giustiniani and a mitred saint, kneeling. This dull-toned production with its grey 
shadows seems a cross between Mantegna and B. Vivarini, and may be by 
Antonio da Pavia. 

3 Certain notices gathered by Signor Giuseppe Arrivabene (MS.) state: "A 
letter of Albertino Pavesi, dated Oct. 11, 1460, shows that Mantegna was then 
lodging at the court of the Marquis " (D'Arco, Delle Arti di Ma?itova, ub. sup., i. 26), 
but a more tangible proof is Mantegna's letter to Lodovico Gonzaga, dated Mantua, 


Goito in the service of the Marquis Lodovico, and he complains, 
as artists always complained in these days, that he had had no 
pay for more than four months. 1 From shreds of a correspon- 
dence which now took place, we discover that Lodovico was 
making use of Mantegna's designs to decorate one of the rooms 
in the castle of Cavriana, and ordering panels for a chapel. The 
panels are mentioned in a letter addressed by Mantegna to the 
Duke on the 26th of April, 1464, from Goito, and we can only 
regret that the records which throw light on this interesting 
period should not be accompanied by corresponding notices of 
pictures. 2 Complete darkness indeed covers this and the next 
two years, 3 till we alight on a despatch in which Aldobrandini, 
the Marquis's agent, writing from Florence in July 1466, tells 
Lodovico Gonzaga that Mantegna has been there, conducting 
certain business with great credit to himself and honour to his 
master. 4 

Looking round amongst Mantegna's works at divers epochs, 
we are struck by a small triptych in the Uffizi at Florence, which 
might, we think, have been done at Goito in 1464. 5 This triptych 

May 13, 1478, in which he reminds his patron that he " has been nearly nineteen 
years at his service" {Gaz. des B.-Arts,p. 338). [* The above-mentioned letter 
of Pavesi is published in Kristeller, Andrea Mantegna, p. 400. For another 
letter by the same person, mentioning Mantegna and dated May 15, 1463, see 
Braghirolli, in Giornale di erudizione artistica, i. 195.] 

1 Mantegna to Lodovico Gonzaga, Dec. 28, 1463, from Goito ( Gaz. des B.-Arts, 
p. 329). The Marquis replied at once from Cavriana, sending him thirty ducats 
(Rioerche, ub. sup., p. 27). 

2 Mantegna to Lodovico Gonzaga from Goito, March 7, 1464, speaks of designs 
for the four walls of a room in the castle of Cavriana ; and Lodovico to Mantegna, 
March 12, 1464, from Belgioioso in reply, and also Giovanni Cattaneo, overseer of 
Cavriana, to Lodovico, Cavriana, March 12 ; further, Mantegna to Lodovico from 
Goito, April 26, 1464, saying he will have done his work in a few days, and he talks 
of " postponing the varnishing " of certain pictures on panel for the "chapeleta." 
(Gaz. des B.-Arts, ub. sup., pp. 329, 330). 

* 3 A MS. of Felice Feliciano in the Biblioteca Capitulare in Treviso contains 
a delightful description of an excursion which Feliciano, Samuele da Tradate, 
Mantegna, and Giovanni Marcanova made in September 1464 for the purpose of 
studying the antique remains on the shores of the Lake of Garda. See Kristeller, 
ub. sup., pp. 176, 472 gq. 

* Giovanni Aldobrandini to Lodovico Gonzaga, Florence, July 5, 1466. (D'Arco, 
Delle Arti di Mantova, ub. sup., ii. 12.) 

5 Florence, Uffizi, No. 1111. That a picture answering the description of this 
was in the chapel of the castle of Mantua in Vasari's time is known from his 
notice of the fact (iii. 394 sqq.). Small figures on panel, all in good preservation. 


once adorned a chapel belonging to the Gonzaga, and was sold to 
Antonio de' Medici, prince of Capistrano. The centre panel repre- 
senting the Adoration of the Magi was a favourite of Mantegna, 
and he began an engraving of it ; J the sides are the Circumcision 
and the Resurrection. In the first the Virgin sits to the right in 
a choir of cherubs, attended by the aged Joseph. A kneeling 
king bends before her, having deposited a rich casket on her lap. 
In rear to the left are the two magi and their suite in a rocky 
landscape, and a glory of pretty angels fills the upper air. The 
masculine and sculptural character of the Virgin is attenuated by 
the pleasing form of the Child ; great animation and cunning 
perspective give life to the groups ; and a perfect harmony of 
tone imparts a general charm to the piece. There is on the whole 
a curious mixture in this work of northern realism and Florentine 
plasticity. A grander composition and one more Italian in its 
lines is that of the Circumcision, where the Virgin attended by 
the prophetess and a female of noble air holds the Child in pre- 
sence of Simeon beneath the arches of a temple ; a boy kneels to 
the left with a plate in his hand, and St. Joseph, a tall apparition 
looking on, reminds us by his naturalism of the searching creations 
of Dtirer. Bas-reliefs in the arched recesses re-echo the old 
traditions of scripture, and present to us the sacrifice of Abraham, 
and Moses showing to the people the tables of the law. The 
rising Christ in the Resurrection is less perfect, and recalls the 
strained attitude and crumpled draperies peculiar to Crivelli, 
whilst the slender worshippers below are occasionally disfigured 
by coarse and vulgar masks. 2 Nothing can exceed the exquisite- 
ness of these three pieces, in which the lights are frequently 
heightened with gold. 

Of the same or very nearly the same period is the Virgin and 
Child with a pretty framing of angels in the Berlin Museum, in 
which we may detect the present which Mantegna once made to 
his friend Matteo Bosso, Abbot of Fiesole ; 3 and the noble Pre- 

* l Bartsch, 9. This engraving is by some imitator of Mantegna. Kristeller, 
ub. sup., pp. 388 sqq. 

2 This slenderness suggested to Selvatico ( Vasari, iii. 396, n. 1) that Pizzolo might 
have had a part in the work, and there is no doubt the style of drawing is very 
like that of the Assumption in the semidome of the Eremitani chapel at Padua. 

* Berlin Museum, No. 27. Wood, tempera, 2 ft. 6 in. high by 2 ft. If in., from 
the Solly collection. This is an ill-preserved panel, the Virgin and Child being both 


sentation in the same collection, a picture of antique simplicity 
in its types, grandly contrasting with the Socratic ugliness of 
those peculiar to Giovanni Bellini. 1 Perhaps, too, we see at 
Berlin the likeness of Matteo Bosso, whose familiarity with 
Mantegna is proved in a letter preserved by Scardeone. 2 A 

injured. The Virgin is graceful, holding the Child on the parapet, on which a 
book lies. On the perpendicular face of the parapet is a coat-of-arms ; a festoon 
falls over from the upper angles ; the composition is the same as that of Dr. 
Fusaro's Madonna at Padua (see passim"), ground blue. The picture answers 
Vasari's description of a Madonna at Fiesole (iii. 394). That Matteo Bosso was 
Abbot of Fiesole is stated in Poliziano (De veris ao salutaribus animi gaudiis, 
Flor. 1491, ap. Comm. Vasari, iii. 394, n. 2). [* In the opinion of the editor, 
Mr. Berenson is right in doubting that this picture is a work of Mantegna, and in 
ascribing it rather to a pupil of Bartolommeo Vivarini who is trying to imitate 
Mantegna (The Study and Criticism of Italian Art, i. 99 sq.}. The same com- 
position occurs not only in the painting which formerly was in the Fusaro collection, 
but also in one bearing the signature of Bartolommeo Vivarini, in the Museo 
Civico of Venice (Sale XV., No. 28). Of. antea, i. 49, n. 2.] 

1 Berlin Museum, No. 29. Canvas, tempera, 2 ft. 2 in. high by 2 ft. 8| in., from 
the Solly collection. The Virgin presents the Child in swaddling clothes to Simeon 
in presence of Joseph, the prophetess, and another. This piece was once in the 
Bembo collection (Anon., p. 17), afterwards in that of the Gradenigo at Padua 
(Giovanni de' Lazzara to Giovanni Maria Sasso, Padua, March 3, 1803, in Campori, 
Lettere, p. 351, and Vasari, iii. 419, n. 4). The Simeon is a noble type, grave and 
dignified as one of Leonardo's ; the other figures are very select; great is the finish 
of every part, but the colour is very thin and has been darkened by repeated 
varnishes. [* It seems unquestionable that this noble and powerful work is from 
Mantegna's own hand ; and yet Morelli considered it as a free copy of a picture 
in the Querini-Stampalia collection in Venice (Sala II , No. 2), which according 
to him is the original by Mantegna (Die Galerie zu Berlin, p. 98). The latter 
painting is very much retouched, and therefore difficult to judge ; it gives, how- 
ever, more than anything the impression of being a later imitation of the Berlin 

2 Berlin Museum, No. 9. Wood, 1 ft. 5 in. high by 1 ft. f in., tempera, bust, on 
green ground. This is also grey from time, but well rendered, not free from 
rigidity, sharp in contrasts of light and shade. That Mantegna painted Bosso's 
portrait is stated by Selvatico (Comm. Vasari, iii. 419), who cites authorities. There 
is a replica of this portrait, less finished perhaps, and embrowned by varnish. It 
was till lately in London, having formed part of the Bromley collection. On the 
back of the canvas are the words : " Ludov. patav. S. K. E. Tit. Slaurindam 
presb. card. Madiarot, archiep. Flor. et patr. Aquilei," which may be modern. 
[* There can be no doubt that the person whose features are reproduced in these 
two paintings is Cardinal Lodovico Mezzarota Scarampo (died in 1465). See 
Kristeller, ub. sub,, pp. 170 syq.] 

We shall return to this gallery to state that No. 28, the Dead Christ and two 
angels, cannot be by Mantegna. (Seeposteain Bonsignori.) [* The authors do 
not mention this picture when dealing with Bonsignori in the first English edition 


masterpiece of this time is surely also the small and highly 
finished St. George in armour at the Academy of Venice, whose 
spare and well-proportioned body is capped by a classic head 
like that of St. Lawrence in the altarpiece of San Zeno. 1 Nor 
can we assign a later date to the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian in 
the Imperial Gallery at Vienna, where contortion and pain are 
rendered with the same fidelity as repose in the Venice example. 2 
We might be tempted to assume that this beautiful little figure 
with its cold silver-grey tones was undertaken by Andrea on his 
return from one of those expeditions in which inscriptions and 
antiques were sought for and discovered, the name being written 
perpendicularly in Greek letters on the pillar of a round arch, 
while fragments of sculpture, two colossal heads, a foot, and two 
boys in marble lie on the parti-coloured floor. 

In December 1466 Mantegna had settled down with his 
family in Mantua; with such resolution to reside there per- 
manently that he borrowed a hundred ducats from the Marquis 
to enlarge and improve his lodging. 3 There during the winter 
months, and in summer at Buscoldo, whither he retired during 
the heats to a purer and higher air, he attended to the orders of 
his patron, furnishing, as the fancy of Lodovico might dictate, 
pictures of a secular nature, portraits, or designs for arras. 4 

of the present work. In the German edition (v. 509, n. 119) they state with regard 
to the above-mentioned painting : " After having seen it again we declare that we 
no longer believe that it is by Bonsignori. It is far too Venetian for Mantegna and 
the Mantegnesques, and has most in common with the Vivarini. We are, however, 
not yet prepared to suggest any definite attribution." The picture is now labelled 
"Giovanni Bellini," and is undoubtedly a work by this master. See antea, 
i. 147, n. 4.] 

1 Venice Academy, No. 588. Wood, tempera, m. 0-61 high by m. 0-32, formerly 
in the Manfrini Palace. The saint holds the stump of his lance, and the dragon 
is at his feet ; distance a hilly landscape, seen through an opening from which 
a festoon depends. The shadows here are thin enough to show the underground, 
yet the colour has the lustre of enamel. 

2 Vienna, Imperial Gallery, No. 81. Wood, 2ft. 1 in. high by 11 in., inscribed : 
"TO EPrON TOT ANAPEOT T" The colour is dry and spare, but harmonious; 
the contortion of the frame powerful, as in Michelangelo's slaves at the Louvre ; 
distance a landscape ; the lights of the architecture touched in gold. 

3 Mantegna to Lodovico, Mantua, Dec. 2, 1466, in Baschet (Gaz. des S.-Arts, 
p. 331), but note that in the text the date of this letter is given as the second, and 
in the copy of the letter itself as the eleventh of December. 

* 4 In the Archives of the Camposanto at Pisa there is the somewhat surprising- 
record that on July 3, 1467, thirty soldi were spent on a luncheon in honour of the 


In June 1468 he was busy with some subject of an unknown 
character, derived from a book to which mysterious allusions are 
made. 1 In July 1469 he is asked for a turkey and turkey-cock 
for the Marquis's arras-makers, the originals to be found strutting 
in the gardens of Mantua. 2 In 1471 he finished two portraits 
which have been identified with more haste than judgment with 
those in the Hamilton collection near Glasgow. 3 From that time 
till 1474 we may suppose him absorbed in the execution of the 
wall-distempers of the Camera de' Sposi, in the castle of Mantua. 
As a painter, we observe, his life is obscure; as a man he is 
revealed to us with great clearness in the correspondence of these 
and subsequent years. With some regret we perceive that he 
never succeeds in living quietly with his neighbours ; and after 
quarrelling with them he involves the Marquis in the dispute, 
and loudly calls for justice. Of this there are two curious in- 
stances in 1468 and in 1475. On the first occasion he makes 
enemies of a gardener and his wife living near his town-lodging 
in the via Pradella, and he never walks out with or without his 
wife but he is pursued by this enraged couple, who exhaust the 
vocabulary of abuse against him. In communicating this to the 
Marquis, Mantegna goes so far as to say that but for his respect 
to his Excellency he would be led to commit some folly. 4 On 
the second occasion Mantegna charged Francesco Aliprandi with 

painter Andrea Squarcione who at that time was about to finish his paintings in 
the Camposanto (Supino, II Camposanto di Pisa, p. 28). We have seen before 
that Mantegna is occasionally called Andrea Squarcione (cf . antea, p. 26, n. 1), so 
it is quite probable that the above-mentioned entry refers to him. There is no 
other record of works by him in the Camposanto at Pisa, and we look in vain for 
any of them there at present. 

1 Mantegna to Lodovico, June 28, 1468. (Gaz. des B.-Arts, p. 332.) 

2 Lodovico to Mantegna, July 11, 1468. (Ibid., p. 333.) 

3 Same to same (ibid.). The two portraits at the Duke of Hamilton's are those 
which were sold in 1666 at the lottery of the Kenier collection. They are, it is said, 
life-size busts of Lodovico Gonzaga and Barbara of Brandenburg. In their present 
condition they certainly have not the appearance of pictures by Andrea Mantegna. 
They are in oil, in the style of Francesco or Lodovico Mantegna. [* These portraits 
were acquired at the Hamilton sale by M. Henri Cernuschi of Paris, and appeared 
again at the Cernuschi sale in Paris, May 25-26, 1900 (No. 53).] See Sansovino, 
Ven. Descr., p. 378, and Anonimo, Morelli's notes, p. 145. 

* Mantegna to Lodovico, July 27, 1468, and Lodovico to Carlo Agnelli and to 
the Vice-Podesta of Mantua (exc. in Gfaz. des B.-Arts, p. 333). The gardener and 
his wife were effectually stopped from further objurgations. 


stealing five hundred quinces from his garden at Buscoldo, which 
gave the accused an opportunity of writing to the Marquis 
denying the theft and upbraiding Mantegna for bad language. 
" Besides," adds this incensed individual, with whom Andrea 
was engaged in an action for trespass, " there is not a single 
person in the vicinity with whom he agrees ; he is at law with 
Zohan Donato de' Preti, with Gaspar of Gonzaga, with Antonio 
of Crema, with the arch-priest of San Jacomo, with Messer 
Benevoglia." l 

It is pleasant to turn from these bickerings, which exhibit 
Mantegna in no amiable light, to an episode of another kind. 
One of the Marquis's sons, the Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga, was 
a collector of gems and antiques, and a passionate admirer of 
music ; he writes from Foligno on July 18, 1472, telling his father 
that he is going to the baths and intends to stop two days in the 
beginning of August at Bologna. There he begs Mantegna may 
be sent to him with the player Malagiste, that he may show the 
first his collection of cameos, bronzes, and antiques, whilst the 
second dispels the tediousness of a watering-place by his singing 
and playing. Lodovico did not hesitate for a moment to accede 
to this request, and Mantegna started at a short notice for 
Bologna, returning a fortnight after with the cardinal to Mantua. 2 
It was not long after this that the Marquis displayed his benevo- 
lence by exempting Mantegna's property from the land-tax. 3 

When we read the story of the sack of Mantua by the 
imperialists in 1630, we find it natural enough that treasures of 
art should have become rare in that miserable city. It was 
hardly possible that three days of plunder, preceded by a siege 
of three months and a capture by storm, should leave a single 

1 Mantegna to Lodovico, June 30, 1474 ; Lodovico to Mantegna, July 2, 1474 ; 
Mantegna to Lodovico, Sept. 22 and 29, 1475 ; and Francesco Aliprandi to Lodo- 
vico, Sept. 27, 1475. The end of this quarrel was that Mantegna could not prove 
that Aliprandi had stolen his quinces. (6?az. des B.-Arts, pp. 335-7.) [* In 1475 
Mantegna also had a quarrel with the two engravers Zoan Andrea and Simone da 
Beggio. See Hind, Catalogue of Early Italian Engravings, pp. 332 sqq.~] 

2 Cardinal F. Gonzaga to Lodovico, Foligno, July 18, 1472; Lodovico to 
Mantegna, July 1472, from the country-seat of Gonzaga. (Gaz. des B.-Arts, 
pp. 334-5.) 

8 D'Arco, Arti di Mantua, ii. 13. The property of Buscoldo was exempted 
on Nov. 20, 1472. In 1474 another property at Goito was exempted from " dazio 
e Gabella " likewise. (Ibid.) 


Mtnari pTioto."] [Mantua, Castelb. 


U. 92] 


monument in its original state. We are therefore almost agree- 
ably surprised to find that an entire chamber facing the Lago di 
Mezzo in the old castello, and a second one looking out on the 
Piazza del Pallone, called the Schalcheria, should contain frescoes 
by Mantegna. By a lucky chance it happens that the first of 
these rooms is fairly preserved, and that the frescoes are authenti- 
cated by a signature. The name by which the place was known 
is, according to Ridolfi, " Camera degli Sposi," though in its 
configuration and arrangement resembling a dining-hall. The 
northern side is most completely filled with paintings ; above the 
door leading to the suite of ducal apartments now occupied by 
the Mantuan records, a flight of winged angels in a landscape 
supports a tablet with an inscription alluding to the Marquis 
Lodovico, his wife Barbara, and Mantegua, and dated 1474. 
To the left of the door a groom holds the Marquis's charger, and 
servants a brood of large white hounds in leashes. To the right 
the Marquis, accompanied by his children, meets his son the 
young cardinal, Francesco Gonzaga, at Sichia near Mantua ; the 
followers of both being arranged in a formal but not ill-conceived 
group. On the western face a shield is supported by four 
children. 1 The northern wall is bare. On the eastern, above 

1 Mantua, Castello. The inscription, though repainted over an old surface 
corroded by time, is attested in its present form by one of the family of Lazzara, 
who thus rescued the original from oblivion ; and it is the more necessary to bear 
this in mind because Brandolese (Testimonianze intorno alia Patavinita di A. 
Mantegna, Pad. 1805, p. 13) declares the date to have been 1484, in opposition 
to the testimony of Zani and many others. As it now stands the words are 
these: "111. Lodovico II. M. M. Principi optimo ac fide invictissimo, et ill. 
Barbarae ejus conjugi mulierum glor. incomparabili suus Andreas Mantinia 
patavus opus hoc tenue ad eoru decus absolvit anno MCCCCLXXIIII." This 
inscription does not exactly cover the previous one, the old ciphers being still 
visible beneath the new. There is room for more letters at the close ; and the 
restorer has obviously not been content with retouching the date, but has altered 
its position. As to the treatment of the paintings, they have all the same air ; 
the ceiling being, perhaps, looser and slovenlier than the rest, which may be 
owing to later additions. It had become necessary in 1506 to restore the so-called 
Camera de' Sposi with the aid of Francesco Mantegna. (Francesco M. to the 
Marquis Francesco, Mantua, Oct. 2, 1506 ; Isabella, Marchioness of Mantua, to 
the Marquis Francesco, Sept. 24 and Oct. 20, 1506, in Gaye, Carteg., ii. 90; 
D'Arco, Delle Arti, ub. sup., ii. 68, 69.) This restoration by F. Mantegna is visible 
in the angels holding the tablets, of which large pieces are now wanting, but 
which were retouched in 1506, and in our day by Sabatelli. The heads of the 
two servants holding dogs near the door are modern and on a new piece of 


the chimney, Lodovico, in an arm-chair, receives a message from 
his chamberlain in a garden decorated with a classic temple. 
He is surrounded by Barbara of Hohenzollern, her daughter and 
a female dwarf, and a suite of persons of both sexes. In a 
neighbouring compartment is a reception of guests on a staircase 
all the figures over life-size. The ceiling of this apartment is 
curved and broken into groinings; in the sections above the 
lunettes are scenes from the fables of Hercules, of Orpheus, 
and Apollo, on gold ground ; in those above the corbels medal- 
lions of emperors, eight in number. The centre imitates a 
circular opening looking out to the sky and protected by a parapet 
in perspective, at which laughing women stand and cupids sport ; 
all this, unfortunately, in a very bad state of preservation. 
Nothing can exceed the finish and precision of the parts that 
have remained untouched by time or restoring. We admire the 
natural air and correct drawing of the servant holding the 
charger ; we count the hairs on the hounds in leash ; we note 
the fidelity of portraiture in faces neither comely nor attractive ; 
and wherever the hand of Mantegna is traceable, a bolder and 
freer system of wall-painting than that of Padua ; colours of 
much body, dulled^unhappily to a monotonous iron tone. 1 

With every allowance for the necessities of the occasion, we 
cannot consider this decoration attractive. The Marquis, his 

intonaco, but those of the groom and third keeper of the dogs are preserved, 
and treated like the foreshortened Christ in the Brera of Milan. In the Reception 
at Sichia, several parts, such as the Marquis's jacket, the cardinal's cap, and the 
dress of the boy taking his hand are bleached white. It is in this fresco that 
we observe heads of the character of those by Piero della Francesca ; the hands, 
too, are small and slender. 

1 A large flaw and scaling have damaged the right side of the fresco represent- 
ing the Marquis with his wife and family. A figure stooping over the Marquis's 
chair is all but obliterated, and both distance and foreground are much dis- 
coloured. To these causes and a general bleaching of the surfaces we may 
attribute the comparative hardness apparent here, for there is a raw iron tinge in 
the whole ; and yet we observe freedom of hand united to a rougher contrast of 
light and shade and less perfect perspective than usual. The outlines, too, are 
harder, and the modelling worse than they ought to be. 

In tbe lunettes there never was any other ornament than shields of arms. 
Some of the coves above them no longer contain more than traces of the subjects 
that once adorned them. The subjects that are preserved are monochromes, of 
which we can still distinguish Hercules killing Antaeus, leading Cerberus, shooting 
his arrows, and fighting the lion ; Orpheus playing ; Apollo charming the 
monster ; rape of Dejanira ; and others. Amongst the medallions of emperors are 


wife, their children, and the dwarfs of which they kept a 
peculiar breed in lodgings built for the purpose were the 
plainest people imaginable; some of them downright ugly and 
deformed. The short jackets and tights and the round caps of 
the period formed an awkward dress ; the scenes depicted were 
homely and uninteresting to all but those immediately concerned. 
It was. therefore, out of Mantegna's power to exhibit variety, 
or do more than enrich each episode with copious detail of 
landscape and architecture. In the ceiling he was free to use his 
fancy, and there he revels in some sort of gaiety, solving problems 
of perspective with great cleverness, and creating models of 
arrangement subsequently carried out by Melozzo and Peruzzi. 
There is a strong contrast between the gambols of naked 
children on the cornice hung with garlands ; the laughing air of 
the inferior mortals amongst them a negress looking down 
from their altitude, and the starched appearance of the Gonzaga 
on the walls. Mantegna indeed seems to feel some ease in doing 
this; he plays with the difficulties of perspective, and betrays 
none of the anxious searching noticeable at Padua ; he takes the 
light from the windows in the north and east faces, giving each 
part the projection it would have in real relief. The corbels and 
the ornaments which spring from them are tasteful, and the 
angels which support the tablets and medallions are in good and 
lithe action ; the blue sky in the central opening cleverly broken 

those of Galba (hair new), Otho, Julius Caesar, Octavius (retouched), and four 
others too injured to be distinguished. There are also monochromes on gold 
ground, in garland framings. Amongst the figures in the centre, we may note a 
boy-angel leaning against the parapet, and foreshortened so as to show the 
soles of his feet ; near him another looking over from the inner side, like that of 
Raphael in the Sixtine Madonna (restored in 1506) ; near that again an angel 
foreshortened holding an apple, and the head of another peeping through the 
openwork ; a boy playing with a peacock, others presenting their back or looking 
through ; then a female with a comb, and two others looking down and laughing 
(restored), a basket projecting over the balcony (new), a female with a jewelled 
head-dress, and a negress. On the pilasters of the hall, monochrome arabesques 
on mosaic ground (repainted mostly in yellow). It has been assumed that the 
Camera de' Sposi was still unfinished in 1484 ; and this on the strength of a letter 
of February 1184, from Lodovico Gonzaga, Bishop of Mantua, to the Cardinal 
della Rovere, saying that Mantegna cannot work for him (the cardinal), being 
busy at a camera, for the finishing of which the Marquis is waiting. But this, 
no doubt, is some other camera than that of the Sposi. See the letter in D'Arco 
(Delle Arti, ii. 194). 


with white clouds. The artist is in the full swing of his art, 
though uncongenial in his hardness, and ill-favoured by the 
nature of his subject. It was not till ten years later, we think, 
that he painted in the Schalcheria, where the central portion of 
the ceiling gives evidence of his presence ; l but, subsequent to 
that period, the rounds of emperors above the corbels and the 
hunts in the fourteen lunettes of this room were renewed by 
some one of the stamp of Costa or Caroto. If we seek to ascer- 
tain what other labours Mantegna undertook in his leisure hours, 
or at his country-house during the period subsequent to 1474, 
we should say he produced that wonderful figure of the Dead 
Christ bewailed by the Marys which now adorns the Brera, 
having long adorned the palace of the Gonzaga, and once formed 
part of the collection of Cardinal Mazarin. It remained unsold 
in Andrea's possession till his death, and was disposed of in 
payment of his debts It is a picture in which Mantegna's 
grandest style is impressed, foreshortened with disagreeable 
boldness but with surprising truth, studied from nature, and 
imitating light, shade, and reflection with a carefulness and 
perseverance only equalled by Leonardo and Durer ; displaying 
at the same time an excess of tragic realism, and a painful un- 
attractiveness in the faces of the Marys. 2 We might suppose 
Mantegna to have finished also the two monochromes in the 
gallery of the Duke of Hamilton near Glasgow, one of them 
representing a female carrying a basin, the other a female looking 

1 The centre figures of a man and child holding arrows seem Mantegnesque ; and 
we have the evidence of Raffael Toscano that Mantegna painted here (D'Arco, Delle 
Arti, ii. 69). There is also notice of a frieze by our artist in a hall near the 
Archivio Secreto (ibid, citing Codd6), and of portraits of the Emperor Frederick III. 
and the King of Dacia in a camera of the castello (ibid, citing Marco Equicola). 

2 Milan, Brera, No. 199. Wood, tempera, m. 0'68 high by m. 0'81. The flesh is 
reddish and shadowed with a dull grey, and looks almost like a monochrome. 
The hands are contracted, the belly fallen in, the forms of the legs and knees 
marked through the white cloth covering them ; almost repulsive is the detail of 
the wounds in the feet and hands. The tempera is in part faded and abraded, 
e.g. in the shadow of the white sheet. To this picture Lodovico alludes in a letter 
to the Marquis Francesco, dated Oct. 1506 (D'Arco, Delle Arti, ii. 70), and in a 
second from the same to Isabella in Nov. 1507 (G-aye, iii. 564). It was taken 
possession of by the Bishop of Mantua, and was carried off from the G onzaga 
Palace in 1630. It was in Cardinal Mazarin's palace at Rome in 1696 (FSlibien, 
JEntretiens, Paris, 1696, ii. 168), bought by Giuseppe Bossi at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century and taken to Milan. 


up and drinking, 1 and the Death of the Virgin at the Madrid 
Museum, in which the apostles surround the bed of Mary, and 
perform the funeral service in a colonnade looking out upon the 
lake and city of Mantua. 2 

The Marquis's gift to Mantegna of a piece of land in 1476 
enabled him to lay the foundations of a villa, and to launch into a 
current of extraordinary expenditure. Being extremely vain and 
possessed of the belief that no Italian prince enjoyed the services 
of a painter like him, 3 Mantegna wished to make a display ot 
his importance by raising an edifice remarkable for its decorative 
beauty; yet at the time when he most brooded over this design 
he was in debt to a considerable amount, and persecuted by the 
original owners of his property at Buscoldo, who had never been 
paid. The Marquis, it is true, had frequently promised to satisfy 
this demand ; he had even consented to help Mantegna to the 

1 Duke of Hamilton, Glasgow. [* Now National Gallery, No. 1125.] These 
are two very grand performances of classic air, highly finished and heightened 
with gold, yet broadly carried out ; they recall the allegories of the Castello. 
[* Dr. Kristeller suggests (ub. sup., p. 372) that these figures represent the Vestal 
Virgin Tuccia carrying water in a sieve and Sofonisba drinking the cup of 
poison. They are now commonly held to be works of Mantegna's school only.] 

2 Madrid Museum, No. 248, and formerly in the collection of Charles I. (see 
Vertue's catalogue). Wood, 1 ft. 9 in. by 1 ft. 4| in. Here some of the types recall 
those of the Eremitani. 

This is one of three small panels by Mantegna, once in the Mantuan collection, 
and subsequently purchased by Daniel Nys for Charles I. ; the two others, 
representing the Virgin and Child between six saints, with incidents from the lives 
of SS. Christopher, George, Francis, Jerome, and Dominic in the distance (wood, 
1ft. 9 in. by 1ft. 5 in.), and the Adulteress taken before Christ (half-lengths, 
1 ft. 9| in. by 2 ft. 4 in.), are missing. [* The editor understands that the former 
of these two paintings is now in the collection of Mrs. J. L. Gardner at Boston. 
Akin in style to the portraits in the fresco of the Meeting at Sichia is the profile 
of a boy prelate presumably of the Gonzaga family (perhaps Lodovico Gonzaga the 
younger) in the Gallery at Naples (cf . Frizzoni, in Napoli NoUlissitna, iv. 24 ; 
Kristeller, ub. sup., p. 173). Other works of Mantegna which may be mentioned in 
this connection are the portrait of a man in the Palazzo Pitti as Florence and the 
superb full-length figure of St. Sebastian until lately in the church of Aigueperse 
(Puy -de-Dome) and now in the Louvre. The landscape background of the latter 
picture recalls that of one of the frescoes in the Camera degli Sposi. We may 
suppose that the St. Sebastian was brought to France by Gilbert de Bourbon, 
Comte de Montpensier, to whom Aigueperse belonged, and who in 1480 married 
Chiara Gonzaga, the daughter of Mantegna's princely employer Federico. See 
Mantz in Gazette des Beaux- Arts, ser. ii. vol. xxxiv. pp. 375 sqq. ; Kristeller, ub. 
sup., pp. 138 sqq. ] 

3 Mantegna to Lodovico, May 13, 1478. (Gazette des Beaux-Arts, p. 338.) 
VOL. II 7 


settlement of his affairs, and to the building of his house J ; but 
the promises of a military chieftain in these days were usually 
dependent on his successes, and Lodovico at the close of his 
reign was habitually needy. Mantegna, who was not a man to 
take a serene view of matters in general, in a querulous mood 
one day in 1478 penned a long letter of complaint to Lodovico, 
reminding him of the assurances made nineteen years before, 
recalling his claim to eight hundred ducats for the property of 
Buscoldo, his expectations of help to liquidate charges amounting 
to six hundred ducats more, and his well-founded hopes of assist- 
ance in the erection of his villa, winding up with the assertion 
that though aged and burdened with boys and girls in a marriage- 
able state he was now in worse circumstances than when he first 
came to Mantua. 2 Lodovico was disposed to be angry with this 
missive, but he did not hesitate to reply, admitting with soldier- 
like frankness that he had not done all that he intended, but 
urging that he had done as much as he could considering the 
poor condition of his finances, and concluding with asseverating 
that though his own income was diminished by the increase of 
arrears and the pawning of his jewelry, he would pay all that he 
had given his word for. 3 

Less than a month after this Lodovico Gonzaga expired at 
Goito, leaving his marquisate and its encumbrances to his son 
Federico. 4 

With the opening of the new reign Mantegna' s hopes of 
improving his fortune rose, and it is to the honour of the Marquis 
that he fulfilled all the engagements of his father, confirming 
the painter in the freehold of the land formerly given to him at 
Goito and Mantua, and burdening his exchequer with the sums 
due for the property of Buscoldo. 5 

1 The house still exists, and bears the following inscription : ' Super f undo 
a Do. L. Prin. op. dono dato, An. C. 1476, And. Mantinea haec fecit fundamenta, 
XV Kal. Novembris." It was still unfinished in 1494 (D'Arco, Delle Arti t ub. sup., 
ii. 31). Ridolfi tells us the house was covered with paintings, which the 
imperialists destroyed at the sack of Mantua (Marav., i. 115). 

2 Mantegna to Lodovico, May 8, 1478, ub. sup. 

1 Lodovico to Mantegna, May 15, 1478. (Gazette des Beaux- Arts, p. 339.) 
4 See Barbara of Brandenburg to Federico Gonzaga, June 12, 1478. (Baschet, 

(zazette des Beaux-Arts, ub. sup., p. 339.) 

4 Both records, dated June and August 1481, are in D'Arco (Delle Arti, etc., 

ub. sup., ii. 15, 16). 


Mantegna had thus reason to be convinced of the favour of 
Federico, the tone of whose letters, when condoling with him 
on his bad health, or treating of the pictorial works in the palaces 
of Gonzaga and Marmirolo, was always condescending l ; and he 
was kept in good humour by acknowledgments of his talent from 
some of the most influential families of Italy. From the Duchess 
of Milan came a note in 1480, requiring that he should paint her 
portrait from a likeness, but our artist was by no means flattered 
with the commission, and Federico replied in June communicating 
his refusal, and observing that " these excellent masters were so 
capricious, we must be content to get from them what they were 
willing to give." 2 

In February 1483 Lorenzo de' Medici, passing through 
Mantua on his return from Venice, was induced to stop there and 
accompany the heir-apparent, Francesco Gonzaga, to the atelier 
of Mantegna ; the Florentine prince was pleased to admire all 
that he saw there, the u heads in relief" and other antiquities 
which formed the artist's cabinet. 3 Little less than a year after, 
Giovanni della Rovere, Governor of Rome, wrote to Lodovico 
Gonzaga, Bishop of Mantua, and brother of the Marquis Federico, 
asking him to use his interest with Mantegna to furnish a 
picture for him ; but Lodovico replied that Andrea had no time 
to spare for such an undertaking, being pressed to finish for the 
summer a camera in which the Marquis was anxious to reside. 4 
Federico, it would seem, was in poor health, his correspondence 
being carried on chiefly by his brother. He died before mid- 
summer 1484, leaving the government in the hands of his son 
Francesco II. 

1 Federico to Mantegna, from Gonzaga, Oct. 16, 1478, inviting him. This is 
followed by Andrea's excuse, being siuk, and a kind rejoinder of the Marquis 
regretting his illness, which may, he hopes, not prevent the furnishing of certain 
designs. Federico to Giovanni da Padua (Mantua, April 24, 1481) mentions the 
coming of Mantegna to Marmirolo to superintend works there. It is needless to 
say there are no paintings left either at Gonzaga or Marmirolo. (See Gazette 
det Beaux-Arts, pp. 478-9.) 

2 Francesco Gonzaga to Bona, Duchess of Milan, Mantua, June 20, 1480 (ibid., 
p. 480), and Selvatico, Annot. Vasari, iii. 428. 

8 Francesco Gonzaga to Federico, Feb. 23, 1483. {Gazette det Beaux- Art*, 
p. 480.) 

4 Lodovico Gonzaga to Giovanni della Rovere, Feb. 25, 1484. (D'Arco, DdU 
Arti, ub. sup., ii. 194.) 


A more serious blow than the death of this prince conld 
not have befallen Mantegna. He could scarcely conceal from 
himself that it would be vain to expect from a youth, as Francesco 
then was, the services which he might have derived from Federico 
and Lodovico ; yet his necessities were such that he required 
assistance. We therefore see him at this time in considerable 
trepidation as to the means of keeping up his old style of living, 
and supplicating distant patrons for that which he had thought 
to find at Mantua. He addressed, amongst others, Lorenzo 
de' Medici, who had probably given him commissions before, 
explaining the loss he had incurred by the successive deaths of 
the two marquises, the burden imposed on him by the furnishing 
of his new house, and the want of a subsidy. 1 In the meanwhile, 

1 1484, Mantua, Aug. 26, A. Mantegna to Lorenzo de' Medici (unpublished) : 
" Magnifico signore et benefactore mio singulare. (Da poi le debite recom- 
mandazione.) La vostra magnificencia e optimamente informata de lo amore mi 
era portato da li doi miei 111. Sign 1 la gratia de li qnali mi pareva havere in tal 
forma vendicato che mi persuadevo de loro ogni bene in ogni mia opportunita. 
Per la qual cosa presi animo in volere fabricare una casa, la quale speravo 
mediante le loro servigie, non havendo facolta da me, conseguire lo optato mio 
desiderio de fornirla. Mancommi la prima speranza non senza grande jactura ; 
mi e mancatala seconda, la quale mi augumentava 1'animo a major cosa ; tante 
erano le dimostrazione de la sua felice memoria verso di me. II perche non dico 
ch el mi para essere destitute per la perdita facta ho demesso alquanto de animo. 
Non obstante che la indole di questo novello signore mi fa pilgiare qualche 
restauratione, vedendolo tutto inclinato a le virtu; per mi bizogna far qualche 
pratica, la quale fin tanto non se perviene al fine, fa stare sempre 1'homo, 
dubioso ; et e causa ch'io pilgi reffugio dove son' certo non mi sia essere denegato 
sussidio, al quale reputo per el piu vero quello de la vostra magnificentia, ben'che 
io habia fatto perdita di molti signori con li quali tenevo servitu et da loro non 
vulgaramente amato mediante le sue humanita et lo adminiculo di qualche mia 
operetta. Onde havendo indubitate speranza in la magnificencia vostra ricorro a 
quella, si volgia dignare per sua liberalita darmi qualche adiuto et accontentarsi 
volere participare in essa cosa, prom etendoli fame tal memoria, che in me non sara 
mai imposto macule de ingratitudine : et questo mio fiduciale scrivere non lo 
imputo a me ma a la vostra magnificentia la quale per la sua benignita e sempre 
solita far bene non tanto a quelli sonno suoi dediti, ma chi ella non vide mai : et 
se ella cognosce che sia in me he che io habbia cosa li sia grata, prego vostra 
magnificentia non cum mancha prontezza volgia fare prove di me, che n'a la sicurta 
che ho presa in lei perquesta mia lettere : il che reputer6 ad cosa gratissima. 
Recommandomi infinite volte a la vostra magnificentia la quale Iddio felicemente 
conservi "ANDREAS MANTINIA, V." 

"ad. magnifico et generoso viro domino Laurentio de medicis majori 
honoraudo Florentie." 

Favoured by G. Milanesi. 


however, his relations with the young Marquis took a pleasanter 
turn ; distant protectors continued to crave his services, and 
pecuniary distresses were for a time forgotten. 

Amongst his first patrons at Padua, Mantegna once num- 
bered the Marquis Lionel lo d'Este, Lord of Ferrara, whose 
portrait was ordered of him in 1449. 1 His connection with the 
Ferrarese court ceased when he accepted the Mantuan appoint- 
ment, yet the memory of his talent outlived this temporary 
estrangement ; and when the Marquis Francesco became intimate 
with the house of Este, and meditated marriage with Isabella, 2 
the Duchess's desire to have a Madonna from the painter's hand 
was eagerly favoured. About 1485 this piece was finished and 
delivered, 3 and we may identify it with the beautiful half- 
length of that subject which adorned the collection of the late 
Sir Charles Eastlake, or with the less pleasing example of the 
same kind belonging to M. Reiset in Paris. 4 Our preference 
for the former may be due to its better preservation, 5 but, apart 

1 In the account-books of the Ferrarese court there is an entry, dated 1449, of 
payment for a panel bought by Marquis Lionello to be painted by "Andrea 
of Padua," with Lionello's likeness on one side and that of the favourite Folco da 
Villafuora on the other. This record was discovered by the Marquis Campori. 
[* Cf. antea, p. 27, n. 2.] 

2 Francesco was twelve years old and Isabella nine when they were betrothed 
in 1480. (Schivenoglia in D'Arco, Delle Arti, ii. 23.) 

The name of Mantegua was well known later at Ferrara. When Costa con- 
tracted in 1499 to paint the choir of the cathedral of Ferrara, it was part of the 
contract that his work should be valued by Andrea Mantegna. See L. N. Cittadella, 
Documenti ed illustrazioni risguardanti la storia artlstica ferrarese, p. 70. 

3 Francesco Gonzaga to Mantegna, Nov. 6 and 14, and Dec. 12 and 15, 1485, 
from Goito. (Gazette des Beaux-Arts, pp. 481 *#.) [* See also Kristeller, ub. sup., 
pp. 482 sq.~] 

4 Paris, M. Reiset. Virgin, Child, and three figures, a female and two males, 
inscribed " Andreas Manten " ; very carefully executed on canvas, but injured. 
[* Dr. Kristeller (ub. sup., p. 325, n. 1) refers to a report that this picture is 
now in the Andr6 collection in Paris. This is, however, not confirmed by 
M. Yriarte (Mantegna).'] 

* 5 The picture which Mantegna in 1485 was executing for Eleonora of Aragon, 
Duchess of Ferrara, is no doubt identical with the Virgin and Child with Seraphs 
by Mantegna which in 1493 is mentioned in an inventory of the works of art 
belonging to the Duke of Ferrara (see Campori, Racoolta di catalogJii, p. 1). This 
painting is now commonly identified with a panel in the Brera Gallery (No. 198) 
which for a long time was ascribed to Giovanni Bellini (see antea, i. 187, n. 9) ; 
after having in 1885 been freed from the repainting which covered it to a great 
extent, it was, however, at once recognized as a most beautiful work of Mantegna. It 
came to the Brera from Santa Maria Maggiore in Venice, whither it probably had 


from this, its character is more nearly assignable to Mautegna's 
best period ; and it is rare to find in his works so much comeli- 
ness and feeling allied to grand form, broad modelling, and 
brilliant tone. The Infant erect on the Virgin's lap is completely 
naked, and throws his arm with charming flexibility round his 
mother's neck. The form is antique in its simplicity ; there is 
great affection in the pressure of the Virgin's hands on hip and 
breast. The boy Baptist to the right points upward, and accom- 
panies the gesture by an expressive glance ; St. Anna above is 
grave and severe ; St. Joseph to the left of Leonardesque 
regularity. 1 We can easily suppose this noble canvas to have 
been thrown off at the period when the Triumphs were first 
begun. Between 1485 and 1488 we may assume that Mantegna 
devoted all his energies to this, the greatest and for him 
evidently the most enticing of his works. 2 He was only 
induced to interrupt its completion in consequence of Francesco 
Gonzaga's wish that he should visit Rome. Innocent VIII. had 
about this time completed the erection of a chapel for his private 
use in the Vatican, and asked Francesco Gorizaga to let Mantegna 
adorn it. This request Francesco did not think it politic to 
refuse, and he accordingly sent the painter with a knighthood 
and a flattering letter of introduction to the Pope in midsummer 
of 1488. 3 During the two years which followed, Mantegna 

passed during the political troubles which overtook Ferrara towards the close 
of the sixteenth century. See Frizzoni, in ZeitscJirift fur bildende JCunst, ser. i. 
vol. xxi. pp. 101 sqq. The inventory of 1493 registers yet another work of Man- 
tegna, " uno quadro de legno depincto cum le Marie " (the three Marys at the 
Grave) ; it can no longer be traced. 

1 London, collection of the late Sir Charles Eastlake [* now Dresden Gallery, 
No. 51]. Canvas, 1ft. Sin. high by 2ft. 4Jin. This may also be the picture 
noticed by Eidolfi as belonging in his days ta Bernardo Giunti (Marav., i. 116). 
It is slightly changed in tint by varnishes, and there is a slight retouching 
in the St. John. [* A Holy Family in the collection of the late Dr. L. Mond comes 
very close to this picture.] 

a See postea in a letter from Eome, where he speaks of the Triumphs being 

* Cf. also a letter from the Chancellor Silvestro Calandra to the Marquis 
Francesco, dated Aug. 25, 1486, in which it is related how " the duke " (probably 
Ercole of Ferrara), while visiting Mantua, on that day went to see the Triumphs 
of Caesar on which Mantegna was then working. (Braghirolli, ub. sup., i. 200 tq. \ 
Kristeller, ub. sup., p. 483.) 

1 Francesco Gonzaga to Innocent VIII., June 10, 1488. (Gaye, Cart., iii. 561 ; 
D'Arco, Dette Arti, ii. 19.) 


laboured with little intermission at the frescoes entrusted to him, 
composing a Baptism of Christ and other subjects, and leading the 
while a life of privation rather than of pleasure. 1 Being frequently 
visited by the Pope at his labours, but little used to feel the 
effects of his generosity, he is said to have imagined an artifice 
for the purpose of insinuating that he wanted money. Having 
introduced into his monochromes a figure without any of the 
known attributes of the virtues, he forced Innocent to inquire 
what the meaning of it might be, and said it meant " Discretion." 
The Pope rejoined, "Put her in good company, and add Patience," 
a recommendation which Mantegna found it useful to follow. 3 
But what he dared not tell the Pope directly he confided to the 
Marquis ; and it is very amusing to catch from the tone and 
context of his letters a reflection of the intercourse between both. 
Mantegna writes with the full confidence of one accustomed to 
gracious treatment. On the 31st of January, 1489, he declares 
that his Holiness only gives boarding-expenses ; were he not 
assured indeed that by his diligence he is duly serving the 
interests of his lord, he would prefer being at home, for there 
is a great difference between the habits and customs of the 
Vatican and those of Mantua. He begs the Marquis to send, 
if but a line, to one who calls himself a child of the house of 
Gonzaga ; asks him to see that his Triumphs are not spoiled 
by rain coming in at the windows, for he is proud of having 
painted them and hopes to paint others ; he recommends the 
brigata his family at Mantua concluding with a wish for a 
benefice for Lodovico. 3 To this Francesco vouchsafes a friendly 
though not over-warm answer at the close of February, urging 
him to more speed in the chapel, in order that the beautiful 
Triumphs may be completed, concluding with a vague wish that 
a place may be found for Lodovico and with a curt assurance of 
service. 4 In June again Mantegna despatches an epistle, saying 

1 Berlin Museum, No. 21. To this period is assigned a Judith with the Head 
of Holofernes in the Berlin Museum. This panel, a tempera, dated 1489, is by a 
scholar of Ghirlandaio. [* It is now officially ascribed to D. Ghirlandaio.] 

2 Vasari, iii. 400 sq., v. 396 ; Eidolfi, Marav., i. 114. 

3 Mantegna to Francesco Gonzaga, Rome, Jan. 31, 1489. (Bottari, Raccolta, 
ub. sup., viii. 27 ; D'Arco, Delle Arti, ii. 20.) 

4 Francesco Gonzaga to Mantegna, Mantua, Feb. 23, 1489. (Bottari, viii. 27 ; 
D'Arco, ii. 20.) 


that he has tried to do honour to his lord by exerting himself to 
the utmost in his professional duties ; he is in favour with his 
Holiness and the whole court ; he alludes again to the matter 
of the benefice, and to the frescoes at the Belvedere, which he 
describes as no small matter for a man without help, anxious to 
do his best and win the prize ; enters into a description of the 
Sultan's brother, a prisoner at that time in the Vatican, of whom 
he promises to send a drawing, and ends with a hope that his 
Excellency will not consider him too facetious. 1 

On this occasion Francesco made no instant reply, but in 
December he wrote to Mantegna and the Pope simultaneously, 
requesting that the painter might return in time for the festival 
of his marriage with Isabella d'Este. 2 Mantegna, however, was 
ill in bed when the courier came, and declined to move a 
resolution in which he was encouraged by the Pope, who mean- 
while reported to the Marquis confirming the statement of 
Andrea's sickness. 3 In the following month, while Francesco 
was going through the solemnities of his wedding, the Belvedere 
chapel, so shamefully sacrificed at a subsequent time by Pius VI., 
was finished, and a Madonna produced for Francesco de' Medici. 4 

If we had any doubt that Mantegna at this period was in the 
fullest expanse of his talent, we should be convinqed of it by this 
beautiful little canvas, which we still admire in the gallery of the 
Uffizi 5 ; it is surprising that Andrea should have compelled his 
usually hard and rugged pencil to so much softness. The Virgin 
sits on a stone supporting the sleeping Infant upon her knee, her 
glance downcast, tender, and mournful ; she seems to hush the 
half-dying and flexible Child into slumber ; about her a fine cast 
of sculptural drapery ; behind, a ragged shred of rock tunnelled 
by quarrymen ; a road with shepherds and their flocks, a distant 
hill and a castle for Mantegna's stern habits a wonderfully 
tender performance. Of the same phase, if not done at Rome and 

1 Andrea Mantegna to Francesco Gonzaga, Rome, June 15, 1489. (D'Arco ; 
ii. 21-2.) 

a Francesco Gonzaga to Andrea Mantegna, Mantua, Dec. 16, 1489, and same to 
Pope Innocent VIII., same date. (D'Arco, ii. 22-3.) 

8 Andrea Mantegna to Francesco Gonzaga, Jan. 1, 1490, and Innocent VIII. 
to Francesco Gonzaga of same date. (D'Arco, ii. 23-4.) 

4 Vasari, iii. 400 sqq., and Annot. ibid. 

5 Uffizi, No. 1025. Small figures on canvas, fairly preserved. 


at this time, is the Man of Sorrows, enthroned with angels, in 
the gallery of Copenhagen ; a splendid exhibition of skill in the 
reproduction of nude and accessorial detail, but too realistic to 
produce absolute pleasure. 1 We are accustomed to grimace in 
Mantegna' s rendering of grief, and grimace is not wanting in this 
instance ; yet the expression is striking for its power, and we 
know of no picture of the master in which form is given with 
more purity, drapery with more studied art, and chiaroscuro with 
more Leonardesque perfection. 

With the summer of 1490 Mantegna's stay at Rome came to 
an end, and the Pope dismissed him with " valet " and a hand- 
some note of acknowledgment to the Marquis of Mantua. 2 
From the close of September to the opening of the next year, 
and during the whole of 1491, the painting of the Triumphs was 
resumed at Mantua, 3 and when the Marquis rewarded his artist, 
in February of 1492, with a fresh gift of land, he declared the 
present to be justified by the works of the castello and the 
Triumphs of Cassar, then in course of completion. 4 

1 Copenhagen Museum, No. 200. Wood, tempera, 1 ft. 6| in. broad by 
2ft. 6|in. This picture was formerly in the collection of Cardinal Valenti, 
Secretary of State under Benedict XIV. at Rome. The Saviour is on a sarcophagus, 
showing the stigmata, two angels behind him holding the corners of his winding 
sheet. To the left Jerusalem at sunset, to the right Golgotha, and at different 
planes in a highly finished distance a variety of incidents. On the pedestal of 
the sarcophagus to the right the words in gold letters : " Andreas Mantinia." The 
colour here was no doubt once very clear and transparent, but the picture has 
been abraded, and is injured especially in the right arm of the Saviour, the wings 
of the angels, and the sky. The flesh is warmly tinged and relieved with cool 
shadows, the Saviour's head large for the frame. 

2 Innocent VIII. to Francesco Gonzaga, Home, Sept. 6, 1490, in which Mantegna 
is entitled knight. (Moschini, Vicende, p. 43, and D'Arco, ii. 24.) 

3 There is a splendid drawing by Mantegna at the Uffizi, dated 1491, from 
which it has been said that a picture of Judith with the head of Holof ernes and a 
slave holding the sack, in the collection of the Earl of Pembroke, is done. This 
is a mistake. The panel in question, 7 in. broad by 11 in. high, is not taken from 
the drawing at the Uffizi, and is different from it. The treatment is oil, probably 
by a Fleming copying an engraving, and a Fleming, we should add, of the six- 
teenth century. 

* There exist several other versions of this composition, viz. a picture 
imitating a bas-relief in the National Gallery of Ireland (perhaps an original by 
Mantegna), another painting in the same manner by some pupil of Mantegna 
belonging to Mrs. J. E. Taylor of London, engravings by Mocetto (Bartsch, 1), Zoan 
Andrea (Bartsch, 1), etc. 

4 Moschini, Vicende, p. 43. [* See also Kristeller, ub. sup., p. 486.] 


It has frequently been asked for what purpose these canvases 
were intended, and various suggestions have been made at sight 
of them, as they hang irreparably injured on the walls of Hampton 
Court Palace. The mystery is partly explained in a letter dated 
1501 from Sigismund Cantelmo to the Duke of Ferrara. Cantelmo 
was a gentleman of the Ferrarese court who afterwards perished 
in the service of his lord. He was on a mission at Mantua at the 
opening of the sixteenth century, and kept the Duke informed 
of the gossip as well as of the politics of the Gonzagas. He 
writes, on the 24th of February, 1501, describing the perform- 
ance of the Adelphi of Terence and comedies of Plautus in the 
castle of Mantua. 1 The theatre, he says, was a long rectangle 
figuring the interior of a classic dwelling-house with colonnades 
along the sides, the pillars faced with arabesque reliefs, simulated 
capitals and bases. The space was divided diagonally into two 
equal parts ; one half being occupied by the stage, the other half 
filled with seats for the audience and for the orchestra. The 
stage was hung with golden tapestry and greenery ; it was 
decorated on one face with six pictures of the Triumphs of Caesar 
by Mantegna ; there was a grotto in the angle formed by the two 
sides of the building, with a sky illuminated with stars, and a 
circle enclosing the signs of the Zodiac, about which the sun and 
moon revolved in their several orbits. Inside, too, was the wheel 
of fortune, the goddess herself on a dolphin ; on the parapet of 
the stage, the Triumphs of Petrarch, also by Mantegna ; a pair 
of candelabra ; and at the sides, the arms of the empire, of the 
Pope, the Emperor, the Duke Albert of Germany, and the Duke 
of Ferrara ; above the whole a blue heaven, with the emblems 
peculiar to the season. We have every reason to believe that 
the Triumphs of Petrarch alluded to in this letter were done by 
Francesco Mantegna, in imitation of those of his father, and that 
they were finished at Marmirolo in 1491-2 ; 2 both together 
would form an appropriate decoration for a theatre, being on 

1 Sigismund Cantelmo to the Duke of Ferrara, Mantua, Feb. 23, 1501. (Campori, 
Lettere incd., ub. sup., p. 3.) 

2 Bernardino Ghisulfo to Francesco Gonzaga, Marmirolo, July 16, 1491. 
Francesco (? Mantegna or Bonsignori) and Tondo together are about to begin 
painting the Triumphs on canvas, as Messer Mantegna has done, as they will thus 
be better and more durable (D'Arco, ii. 24, and Gaye, Carteg., ii. 29). The Triumphs 
of Petrarch have perished. 


Spooner photo."] 

[Hampton Court. 


II. HXJa] 


Spooner photo."] [Hampton Court. 





canvas and easily moved; but they can scarcely have been 
intended for this express purpose, their paleness and finish of 
tone being calculated for the daylight of a palatial chamber 
rather than for the glare of lamps and candles. Under all 
circumstances, however, they were such as to attract attention, 
and Mantegna might well be proud of his share in them. They 
were an embodiment of all that he had learnt and acquired from 
youth upwards ; they illustrated his love of scientific perspective, 
his fondness for plastic examples, his deep and untiring study of 
the antique. 

In a series of nine canvases of the finest texture, once divided 
by pilasters inlaid with martial ornament, we have a varied 
representation of the different parts of a Roman triumphal pro- 
cession. First come the heralds with a flourish of brazen horns, 
then the standard-bearers and attendants holding aloft the pictures 
of Caesar's victories ; the cars, with their horses, drivers, and 
leaders laden with the spoils of art and of war, statues, busts, 
catapults, helms, shields ; these are followed by stretchers on 
men's shoulders heavy with the weight of vases, cups, and 
bullion ; on the heels of these again a band of trumpeters 
heralding the advance of tribute in kind, oxen, sheep, and 
elephants bedecked with flowers ; more soldiers staggering under 
loads of trophies ; captives, males, females, and children, moving 
past the grated windows of the prison where their fellow-sufferers 
have perhaps been butchered ; then Csesar himself in chariot of 
state surrounded by officers raising high the busts of captured 
cities. In countless articles of common use in ancient times ; in 
the statues, shields, helms, and breastplates forming the peculiar 
feature of these pictures, we think we see Mantegna copying the 
treasures of that rich collection which Lorenzo de' Medici and 
Francesco Gonzaga admired and envied, and exhausting the 
catalogue of antiquities discovered throughout Italy. His horses, 
kine, and elephants are natural, his costumes accurate, to a 
surprising degree. He was the only artist of this period, not 
excepting the Florentines, who was pure and accurate in the 
attempt to reproduce the semblances of a bygone time ; surpass- 
ing alike Botticelli and Piero della Francesca, and reducing 
the Sienese to pigmies. With a stern realism which was his 
virtue, he multiplied illustrations of the classic age in a severe 


and chastened style, balancing his composition with the known 
economy of the Greek relief, preserving the dignity of sculptural 
movement and gait, and the grave masks of the classic statuaries; 
modifying them, though but slightly, with the newer accent of 
Donatello. 1 His treatment was the reverse of that which marked 
the frescoes of Padua, more akin to that of the portraits in the 
castle of Mantua ; he no longer drew with a black and incisive 
line, nor modelled with inky shadow ; his contour is tenuous and 
fine, and remarkable for a graceful and easy flow ; his clear 
lights shaded with grey, are blended with extraordinary delicacy ; 
his colours are bright and variegated, yet thin and spare, and of 

1 Hampton Court. No. 873 to 881. The Triumphs are in such a con- 
dition that we do not inquire what parts are injured, but rather are there any 
bits uninjured. No. 873. Here we note, as in part preserved, the banner 
beneath the Roma Victrix, part of the yellow drapery of the trumpeter nearest the 
spectator, the buskin of the next figure to the right, the gold body-piece of the 
Ethiopian, and part of the skirt and sleeve of the standing figure on the extreme 
right. No. 874. Part preserved : wheel and ornament of car to the left, blue 
jacket and red scabbard of standing figure in centre of foreground, bust of Cybele 
(retouched) ; on the tablet of the car to the right : " Imp. Julio Csesari ob Galliam 
devict. militari potencia triumphus decretus invidia spreta superata." No. 875. 
Part preserved : the shield in the left-hand trophy, with a fight of centaurs, 
satyrs, and others about a female, and the ornament of a shield in the centre of 
the picture. No. 876. Face of the youth on the extreme right, in which the 
outlines are kept, lights being retouched on the cheek, and the hair and neck new. 
This is a splendid and broadly handled head, like that of the Evangelist at San 
Zeno of Verona. Head of the youth behind the face of the bullock, the nose and 
mouth being retouched ; the neighbouring amphora. No. 877. In part preserved 
the head of the female leading near the bullock, the colour superposed by the 
restorer having fallen out and left the original bare. This beautiful figure was 
copied by Rubens in his picture at the National Gallery (No. 278). Part of the 
elephant is thus likewise visible, as well as a piece of the head of the Indian 
sheep to the right. No. 878. Preserved : the hair of the first figure to the left and 
his yellow hose, and bits of the head next to the right, a breastplate and helmet 
in the middle of the canvas, and a head-piece on the right. No. 879, No. 880, 
all repainted. No. 881. In a slight degree preserved, the shield above the 
wheel of the car and the lower semicircle of the wheel. The monogram M. on 
the hindquarters of the horse is new, but no doubt repainted on the old lines. 
On the arch behind the figures is the colossus of Montecavallo. Amongst the 
many copies of these Triumphs are those of the Imperial Gallery at Vienna, 
Nos. 72 to 80, some of them much injured (No. 72). They were reduced from the 
prints, as we see from the interlacing on which the drawing was taken. There is 
another copy on copper at Schleissheim, Nos. 505-8. It is hardly necessary to say 
that these Triumphs were purchased for Charles I. of England, valued after his 
death at 1000, and kept back by Cromwell for the adornment of Hampton Court 


Alinari photo.-] [Bergamo, Oalleria Carrara. 


n. 108] 


such gauzy substance that they show the twill throughout. After 
much use, no doubt, and frequent rolling for the sake of transport, 
the surfaces became injured ; the canvases lost their brightness 
and required repair, and what now remains is with slight excep- 
tions the daub of a most ruthless and incompetent restorer. 

It is characteristic of the works which Mantegna now under- 
took that they more or less betray the aid of his assistants, of 
whom he had several in the persons of his sons Francesco and 
Lodovico Mantegna, Francesco Bonsignori, and Caroto. 1 We 
detect their presence by observing that the bitterness of the 
master is frequently attenuated by the mildness of his disciples, 
yet in the years which immediately followed 1492 we have 
several fine productions : a bust-portrait of a person of station 
treated in a soft and greatly blended manner with some feebleness 
in the silhouette and shading, and a Virgin and Child of smiling 
aspect and careful execution, in the Gallery at Bergamo, 2 and an 
allegory of Parnassus and Wisdom Victorious over the Vices in the 

1 Vasari states (v. 280) that Caroto was Mantegna's pupil and assistant, adding 
that Mantegna sold Caroto's works for his own. The same author tells us 
(v. 299 *#.) that Bonsignori was also Mantegna's pupil, and we know Bonsignori 
was in Mantua in the pay of the Marquis of Mantua. See poxtea. 

2 Bergamo, Lochis Gallery, No. 154. Life-size bust of a man in a red dress 

and red conical cap, with a gold chain and locket, on which the monogram 
is written. The brows are bushy, the hair plentiful, the mouth, nose, and 

cheeK slightly injured. The ground is repainted in oil and of a green tone. 
[* Morelli {Die Galerien Borghese und Dorla Panjili in Rom, p. 360, n. 1) rightly 
claimed that this is a work of Francesco Bonsignori. It conies especially close to 
the portrait of a Venetian senator by Bonsignori in 'the National Gallery.] 

Carrara Gallery, No. 153. Virgin and Child. Half-length, half the size of life. 
The Virgin holds the face of the Infant to her own, and smiles ; her mantle is 
blue embroidered with gold. This is a very careful light-toned tempera on canvas, 
a present to the gallery from the Count Carlo Marenzi. [* Intimately related 
to the Madonna in the Carrara Gallery are two pictures in the Museo Poldi- 
Pozzoli (No. 625) and the Kaiser Friedrich Museum at Berlin (Simon collection, 
No. 5), respectively, and the Adoration of the Magi in the collection of Mr. J. G. 
Johnson of Philadelphia. With the last-mentioned painting we may again 
associate the Ecce Homo belonging to Mme. Edouard Andre of Paris. All 
these works are pervaded by a strange sentiment of mystery. See Fry, in The 
Burlington Magazine, viii. 87 sqq.~\ 

In the Lochis Gallery the Eesurrection, No. 169. Much injured panel, which 
may have been original once, if it be not a copy from a print. We have already 
noticed a feeble replica in the CapodiLista collection at Padua, passim in Squar- 
cione. The piece at Bergamo may be that mentioned as by Mantegna in a 
Mantuan inventory of 1627 (D'Arco, ii. 165). 


Louvre. We are ignorant of the history of the former ; the latter 
were ordered for the private rooms of the Marchioness Isabella, 
and were part of a series completed by Perugino and Costa. In 
the first, Mars and Venus on a rocky arch of natural formation 
stand in gentle dalliance, whilst Cupid sends his darts into the 
cave of Vulcan ; the Muses dance to the sound of Apollo's lyre, 
and Mercury leans on Pegasus and listens ; in the second, 
Minerva and other goddesses expel the Vices from a garden, and 
welcome the approach of Justice, Force, and Temperance from 
heaven. With all the finish of the Triumphs, these subjects are 
drawn with classic taste and correctness, they are delicately 
modelled and heightened with gold ; and we see the ground 
painted up to a firm but somewhat dark incised contour. There 
is some very beautiful detail of trees, a warm hue and pleasant 
harmony, in the Expulsion of the Vices. Gayer tints than 
Mantegna's usual ones enliven the Parnassus, and this we may 
attribute to the co-operation of Bonsignori ; but the fanciful 
composition, the faultless outline, and flying drapery are due 
to Mantegna alone. 1 

In a sadder mood, but still with great power, the lean 
St. Sebastian of La Motta was added to the treasures of Andrea's 
own gallery 2 ; and the Assumption, belonging to the Marquis 

1 Louvre, No. 1375. With a piece added on all round, and so m. I'GO high 
by 1-92, canvas, the Parnassus; the sky is retouched and the colour dulled by 
varnishes. No. 1376. Expulsion of the Vices, enlarged likewise, of similar size 
and in similar condition. These pictures formed part of a series in the boudoir 
of Isabella, Marchioness of Mantua, an apartment called in contemporary re- 
cords the studio, near the grotto on the ground floor of the castello. The studio 
contained, besides the foregoing, several Mantegnas now missing: e.g. a panel 
imitating a bronze relief with four figures, another panel of the same kind repre- 
senting Jonah cast into the sea ; two pictures by Costa, one by Perugino, Michael 
Angelo's Cupid, and several antiques. The two Mantegnas of the Louvre were 
removed at the sack in 1630, and were for a time in the palace of the Duke of 
Richelieu at Richelieu. See D'Arco's inventory of the " Studio " in Delle Arti 
ii. 134-5. [* As for the paintings in the studio of Isabella, see Forster in the 
Berlin Jahrbuch, xxii. 154 sqq.~\ 

2 La Motta in Friuli, Galleria Scar pa [* now Venice, collection of Baron 
Franchetti]. Tempera, 2 ft. 10J in. broad by 7 ft. 1 in. high. St. Sebastian, in a hip 
cloth with his arms bound behind his back, pierced by several arrows ; on the 
foreground a lighted taper ; above, a double string of corals ; on a cartello : 
"Nil nisi divinum stabile est, caetera fumus." This lean and spindle-shanked 
figure was in the painter's atelier at his death, and was originally intended for the 


Trivulzi at Milan, was finished in 1497. 1 During these days also 
Mantegna began the Madonna della Vittoria, perpetuating with 
his brush a pious fraud not uncommon in that age. It was in 
1495 that Francesco Gonzaga commanded the forces of the 
Venetians and fought the battle of Fornovo. He was beaten 
by Charles VIII. of France, with a loss of three thousand men, 
and to celebrate the event he caused the church of Santa Maria 
della Vittoria to be erected at Mantua, and ordered Mantegna to 
design the altarpiece. It may be seen at the Louvre, representing 
the Marquis armed in proof at the Virgin's feet in a bower of 
green leaves, attended by the archangels, St. Longinus, and 
St. Andrew, and comforted by the intercession of the young 
Baptist and St. Elizabeth. 2 There is no doubt a fine realism in 
the kneeling Marquis ; great research and minuteness in the 
details of the bower, and in the reliefs which adorn the throne ; 
but the composition is crushed by the heavily wigged archangels, 
and the drapery is no longer cast in the flowing style so admir- 
able in creations of an earlier period. It is probable, indeed, 
that the disproportion of the figures and the poverty of form in 
the children, as well as the broken character of the dresses, are 
due to the helping hand of Francesco Mantegna, whilst the taste 
for minutiae and the searching method in which the parts are 
made out are the result of Mantegna's frequent use of the graver. 
It was, we think, after his return from Rome that Andrea gave 

Bishop of Mantua (Lodovico Mantegna to Francesco Gonzaga, Oct. 2, 1506, in 
D'Arco, ii. 70). It became the property of Pietro Bembo (Anonimo, p. 19), and 
was sold by his heirs in 1807 to one of the Scarpas. The flesh of the breast of 
the figure is abraded, and the whole dimmed by varnishes. 

1 Milan, Marquis Trivulzi. Canvas, with life-size figures, representing the 
Virgin and Child in an elliptical glory in the sky, above a landscape and groups of 
lemon-trees ; at the sides, SS. John the Baptist, a canonized Pope, Romualdo, and 
Jerome, and three boy-angels in the centre of the foreground. On a square page 
the words : A. Mantinia pi. an. gracie 1497, 15 Augusti." The Virgin is fine, and 
the saints are sculptural in shape and attitude ; but we revert here to a less 
pleasing art than that of the Triumphs. This piece indeed is one which in- 
fluenced the later Veronese. It is now dimmed by varnishes. [* This picture 
was originally in Santa Maria dell'Organo at Verona. Kristeller, ub. sup., 
p. 316.] 

2 Louvre, No. 1374. Canvas, m. 2-80 high by m. 1-60. The art here, especi- 
ally as displayed in the St. Elizabeth, reminds us of that in the chapel of 
Sant' Andrea at Mantua, by Francesco Mantegna. [* For the history of this 
picture, see Kristeller, ub. sup., pp. 311 


himself tip to the task of engraving his own works 1 ; and it is 
very likely that the time he spent over copperplates forced him 
to employ assistants on paintings which of old he would have 
carried out in person. To this cause, and to this alone, we may 
assign the comparative feebleness of such late productions as the 
Triumph of Scipio, belonging to Mr. Vivian, and the Virgin and 
Child between the Baptist and Magdalen in the National Gallery. 
The latter is a rosy pallid piece in which strange contrasts are 
created by the juxtaposition of bright clear tints in flesh and 
drapery with strongly marked foliage and vegetation, the dis- 
harmony being increased by the strong shadow in the trees, and 
the absence of it in the dramatis personse. 2 

The Triumph of Scipio is a monochrome fanciful after the 
fashion of Botticelli, and far less chastened in style than the 
great series of Hampton Court. It was begun in Mantegna's 
old age for Francesco Cornaro, a friend of Pietro Bembo at 
Venice, and we know from a note of the latter to Isabella in 
1505 that Cornaro was very indignant at not receiving it, though 
advances had been made for its completion. 3 But whilst the 

1 The reader is referred for Mantegna's engravings to the pages of Vasari, 
Bartsch, and Passavant. [* See now also Kristeller, ub. sup., pp. 376 sqq., and 
Hind, ub. sup., pp. 329 sqq. It is no longer held that Mantegna himself reproduced 
any of his paintings in engraving.] 

2 National Gallery, No. 274, having formed part of the collections of Cardinal 
Monti (1632) and Mellerio at Milan. Canvas, 4ft. 6| in. high by 3 ft. 9| in., inscribed : 
"Andreas Mantinea C. P. F." Note the disproportions here ; the feeble frame of 
the Virgin, the large torso and spindle legs of the Baptist. 

3 London, collection of G. Vivian, Esq. [* now National Gallery, No. 902]. 
This is a monochrome on a canvas, 8 ft. 10 in. long by 2 ft. 4^ in. high, roughly 
executed, wanting in the usual delicacy of Mantegna and blackened by retouching. 
It was taken at Mantegna's death by Sigismund Gonzaga, Bishop of Mantua, out 
of the atelier (Lodovico Mantegna to Isabella d'Este : Gaye, iii. 564), yet 
passed ultimately into the house of the Cornari, for whom it was intended, 
i.e. Casa Cornaro Mocenigo a S. Polo in Venice. See Bembo to Isabella d'Este, 
Jan. 1, 1505, in Gaye, ii. 71 ; Lodovico Mantegna to Francesco Gonzaga, in 
D'Arco, Delle Arti, ii. 70. The art in the piece is quite reminiscent of that of 
Botticelli, just as at times that of Botticelli has recalled Mantegna, e.g. in a 
picture of one of the Seasons, once belonging to Mr. Baldeschi at Rome, and 
since purchased by M. Eeiset in Paris (Annot. Vasari, iii. 422, and Hixtory of 
Italian Painting, ed. Douglas, vol. iv. p. 269). [* Other monochrome paintings 
by Mantegna or his school are Samson and Delilah, in the National Gallery 
(No. 1145); Sibyl and Prophet, in the collection of the Duke of Buccleugh 
in London; The Judgment of Solomon, in the Louvre (Gallery of Drawings, 
No. 241) ; Mutius Scaevola, in the Print-room at Munich (No. 3069) ; and the Sacriace 
of Abraham and the Triumph of David in the Imperial Gallery at Vienna.] 


hoary artist alternately devoted his attention to the composition 
of pictures, the superintendence of his atelier, and the finish of 
his copperplates, he was also consulted on many points involving 
judgment in professional matters, and it was very nearly his good 
fortune to see a statue of Virgil erected after his design on some 
square in Mantua. At a court occasionally visited by men 
skilled in literature and in art, the subject of Virgil might 
naturally be expected to be mooted. That a sovereign who 
prided himself on his patronage of letters, and lived habitually 
at Mantua, should do something to honour the author of the 
jEneid, had no doubt often been suggested. One prince, it was 
said an Italian, and a man of experience and education had 
put his country to shame by casting a bronze of Virgil into 
the lake. 1 What more beautiful halo could be thrown around 
the family of Gonzaga than that created by a monument to the 
memory of the greatest of Latin poets. This idea germin- 
ated in Mantua, and in 1499 a friend of the Marchioness 
Isabella consulted Pontanus and Vergerins at Naples as to 
the best form to be given to a statue of Virgil, the appro- 
priate turn of an inscription, and the person most competent 
to furnish the sketch. 2 As we might expect, the name of 
Mantegna was at once mentioned, and he furnished a drawing 
so fully in the spirit of the classic time that it seems a copy 
from the antique. 3 

The later years of the century, especially those subsequent to 
the Koman stay, had been good ones for Mantegna. He sold his 
property at Padua in 1492, 4 furnished his house at San Sebastian 

1 Carlo Malatesta occupied Mantua in 1397, and committed the act here 
alluded to. 

2 J. Dhatri to Isabella d'Este, Marchioness of Mantua, Naples, March 17, 
1499, in the archives of Mantua, but printed in Gazette des Beaux-Arts, vol. 
xx., ub. sup. 

8 Paris, collection of M. His de La Salle [* now Louvre, His de La Salle 
collection, No. 58], Virgil is drawn on a pedestal, holding a book in both hands, 
in splendid draperies, his head crowned with laurel ; on the plinth a tablet, held 
by two angels, with the words: "P. Vergilii Maronis aeternse sui memoriae 
imago." We have only seen a copy of this drawing and a reduced facsimile in 
the Gazette des Beaux-Arts, ub. sup. [* Morelli ascribes this drawing to Bonsi- 
gnori (Die Galerien zu Miinchen und Dresden, pp. 233 *#.).] 

4 D'Arco, Delle Arti, ii. 225. [* See also Lazzarini and Moschetti, loc. oit., 
xv. 135 sq., 304 sqq.] 

VOL. II 8 


about 1494, 1 settled all the disputes with his neighbours at 
Buscoldo, and married his daughter, Taddea, with a large dowry 
in 1499. 2 Lodovico,1his son, had a good place as overseer 
and agent to the Marquis Gonzaga at Cavriana in 1502. 3 
Mantegna thus enjoyed the prospect of an easy and undisturbed 
old age. But misfortune overtook him again. Having become 
a widower he fell into illicit amours, and had an illegitimate 
child, whom he christened Gian Andrea. 4 He sold his house at 
San Sebastian and lived in lodgings 5 ; his son Francesco in- 
curred the displeasure of the Marquis and was banished in 1505 
to Buscoldo, neither the tears of Andrea nor the intercession of 
Isabella availing to remit the sentence 6 ; but even under these 
trials Mantegna's courage did not forsake him. He made a will 
in 1504, assigning a considerable sum to his favourite son 
Lodovico, with the charge of bringing up Gian Andrea, securing 
a competence to Francesco, and leaving a legacy of 200 ducats 
for the endowment and decoration of a chapel in the church 
of Sant' Andrea. 7 He then entered into a contract with 
Sigismund Gonzaga, Bishop of Mantua, and the canons of the 
church, to furnish and adorn the chapel, to erect a monument for 
his family in it, and to lay out a garden in its proximity ; and he 
spent upon these baubles a considerable amount of money. 8 
Not content with this, he bought a new house for which he 
promised to pay 340 ducats in three instalments. 9 

1 Andrea Mantegna to Francesco Gonzaga, Mantua, Sept. 2, 1494, in which 
the painter notifies that his son Lodovico has caught and wounded an officer of 
the Marquis's household, whilst stealing the stones in the yard of the house. 
(Gaye, i. 325 ; D'Arco, ii. 31 gives date Sept. 3.) 

2 Moschini, Vicende, p. 49 ; D'Arco, ii. 43-44. 

8 Lodovico Mantegna to Francesco Gonzaga, Jan. 16, 1502, from Cavriana. 
(Gaye, iii. 563.) 

4 See will in Moschini, Vicende, p. 50, n. 1. 

6 This is evident from the fact that he lived in the Contrata Bovi at Mantua in 
1504, and states in a letter to Isabella d'Este in 1506 that he has bought a new 
house in order to be spared continual change of hired lodgings. See records in 
D'Arco, belle Arti, ii. 52 and 61-2. 

6 Isabella to Francesco Gonzaga, April 1, 1505, and Francesco Mantegna to 
Francesco Gonzaga, June 3, 1506. (D'Arco, ii. 58, 65.) 

7 Moschini, Vicende, p. 50, n. 1 ; D'Arco, ii. 50 sqq. 

Gaye, iv. 565 ; D'Arco, ii. 54, 70, 71 ; Codde, Pit. Mcmtov., pp. 108-9. 
The will was modified in favour of Gian Andrea by a codicil, dated Jan. 24, 1506 
(D'Arco, ii. 62, 63.) 

8 See note 5 above. 


These were unfortunate and imprudent ventures. When the 
day came to pay the instalments Mantegna's means were ex- 
hausted, and his health was seriously impaired. 1 A plague 
visited the lowlands and drove all persons of good and middling 
fortune from Mantua a merciless quarantine being kept up 
between the infected locality and the neighbouring country. 2 
Sick as he was, Mantegna still struggled on. He had a com- 
mission for a painting of Comus from the Marchioness Isabella, 3 
and he tried hard to finish it ; but his strength was not equal to 
the task, 4 and he was obliged in January 1506 to apply to his 
protectress for aid, and offer for sale his precious bust of 
Faustina. 5 She did not answer as she had been used to do, and 
thus offended the pride of the old master. She even bargained 
with him for the Faustina, and got it from him through her 
agents. 6 No incident is more affecting than this. Mantegna 
could sell land and houses, and live in lodgings, but to part with 
his antiques was exquisite torture. When he gave the Faustina 
to Jacopo Calandra to be sent to the Marchioness, he did so with 
such reluctance, that Jacopo said he was sure Mantegna would 
die of the loss. 7 From that time, indeed, his heart seems to 
have been broken. He lingered on through the summer, and 
expired on the 13th of September. 8 His last wish had been 

1 See note 5 previous page. 

2 See D'Arco, ii. 64, 65. The Marchioness withdrew to the villa of Sacchetta 
near Cavriana. 

3 See the subject described by Calandra, D'Arco, ii. 65, 66. [* Kristeller 
ub. sup., p. 497.] 

* * As a matter of fact, there was a picture representing the Grove of Comus 
in the studio of Isabella ; it is now in the Louvre (No. 1262), and displays all the 
characteristics of Lorenzo Costa's style. The composition answers, however, 
remarkably well to the description which Calandra gives of the " tabule de lo dio 
Como " for which Mantegna in July 1506 had not yet completed the design 
(cf. antea, n. 3). It is therefore not impossible, as Dr. Kristeller suggests, that 
the picture in the Louvre was begun by Mantegna and for the most part executed 
by Costa. See Kristeller, ub. sup., pp. 358 sq. ; Forster, in the Berlin Jahrbuoh, 
xxii. 173 sqq. 

5 Andrea Mantegna to Isabella, Jan. 13, 1506. (D'Arco, ii. 61, 62.) 

6 Jacopo Calandra to Isabella, July 14, 15, Aug. 1 and 2. (Bottari, Racoolta, 
viii. 30, 31, 33, 34.) [* Cf. Kristeller, ub. sup., pp. 49G sqq.] 

7 Ibid. The bust is now in the Museum of Mantua, No. 25. 

8 Francesco Mantegna to Francesco Gonzaga at Perugia, Mantua, Sept. 15, 
1506. (Codde, Pit. Mantov., p. 164.) [* Kristeller, ub. sup., pp. 498 sq.} 


that the Marquis should see him, but Francesco was bent on 
matters of more interest to his ambition ; and whilst Mantegna 
was drawing his last breath, met Julius II. at Perugia, and 
became generalissimo of Holy Church. The Marchioness, too, 
wrote coldly to her husband on the 21st : " You know Andrea 
died suddenly after you left." 1 The news had already been 
communicated in letters of melancholy import from Mantegna's 
children. Francesco Mantegna, from the place of his exile, 
begged for help especially to satisfy the Bishop of Mantua in the 
matter of the chapel. 2 Lodovico in October with more explicit- 

1 Isabella to Francesco Gonzaga, Sept. 21, 1506. (D'Arco, ii. 67.) 

2 Francesco Mantegna to Francesco Gonzaga, Sept. 15, 1506. (Codde, Pit. 
Mantov., p. 164.) 

8 Lodovico Mantegna to Francesco Gonzaga, Mantua, Oct. 2. (D'Arco, Delle 
Arti, ii. 70.) [* Kristeller, ub. sup., p. 499.] 

4 There are of course numerous pieces assigned to Mantegna which are 
by other hands. A list of these may be made as follows: (1) Bassano, Com- 
munal Gallery. Virgin and Child, fresco. (See passim in Montagnana.) (2) 
Belluno, town-hall. (See passim in Montagnana.) (3) Belluno, Casa Persicini. 
Virgin and Child between two angels, an injured piece with embossed ornament, 
of the school of Gentile da Fabriano. [* No longer traceable.] (4) Bologna, 
Galleria Zambeccari, No. 49 [* now Bologna Gallery]. Christ liberating Adam 
from the Limbus, perhaps the same panel registered in the Mantuan inventory 
of 1700 (D'Arco, Delle Arti, ii. 189). Six long lean figures of repulsive shape 
and face, coloured in a brownish tempera, unfinished and probably copied 
from a print. (5) Galleria Ercolani, No. 155. Crucifixion, small panel. (See 
passim, Zoppo.) (6) Cheltenham, Thirlestaine House, ex-North wick collection 
(now dispersed), No. 98 of the catalogue. Small triumphal processions, on panel, 
4 ft. 9 in. by 2 ft. 4 in., similar in style to another panel of the same size at 
Cobham Hall (see postea in the Friulan school) ; other so-called Mantegnas in 
this collection were not genuine. (7) Cremona, Museo Civico Ala-Ponzone. 
Bacchanal, tempera, copy from Mantegna's print, as Selvatico (Vasari, iii. 418, 
n. 1) has justly observed. (8) Ferrara, Conte Canonici. Christ in the Tomb, signed 
" Andreas Mantinea," a forgery (see antea in Carpaccio). (9) Florence, Galleria 
Pianciatichi, No. 298. Two small panels representing severally St. John the 
Baptist and St. Peter, by Cosimo Tura (see postea"). (10) Uffizi, No. 1121. Portrait of 
Isabella d'Este, Marchioness of Mantua (see postea in Bonsignori). (11) Hampton 
Court. The Annot. of Vasari quote Dr. Waagen's Works of Art and Artists in 
England for four pictures by Mantegna in this collection in addition to the Triumphs, 
but the subjects given are those of pictures in the catalogue of the gallery of 
Charles 1., one of which is at Madrid. (12) Liverpool, Walker Art Gallery, Roscoe 
collection, No. 28. Virgin with the dead Christ on her lap. This may be a part of 
a predella by Ercole Robert!, of which two pieces are in the Museum of Dresden. 
(See postea in the Ferrarese school.) (13) London, Earl Dudley. The Pieta. 
(See antea, Crivelli.) (14) Gosford House, Longniddry, Earl of Wemyss. Two small 
panels of St. Peter and St. Paul. (See antea in Montagnana.) (15) Mantua, Santa 


ness declared that the debts of his father were 200 ducats, 
that he owed 100 ducats for the chapel, which must be 
paid, and as the Cardinal Gonzaga had put an embargo on the 
contents of the atelier, he asked permission to sell the Christ 
" in scurto " and the Triumph of Scipio, which together with the 
St. Sebastian and the two pictures for the chapel might produce 
enough for an honest liquidation. 3 So perished in the midst of 
pecuniary troubles the greatest artist of his age, the favourite 
of princes temporal and spiritual, the titular painter of a court, 
and the presiding genius of the North Italian schools. 4 

Maria degli Angeli. The Assumption, tempera, on panel high up in the choir, a 
solitary figure of the Virgin in a glory of cherubs. This seems to be the centre of 
an altarpiece by some feeble contemporary of Mantegna ; the types are poor, the 
colour rosy. (16) Of the same period and style in Santa Maria delle Grazie, frescoes 
of the Nativity and of a Virgin of Mercy between St. Christopher and St. Onofrio. 
(17) San Sebastiano. On the front of this church we see traces of a fresco of the 
Virgin and Child, St. Sebastian, a bishop, and two kneeling personages. [* This 
painting has now been transferred to the Museo Patrio at Mantua.] Susani 
(Nuovo Prospetto di Mantova, 8vo, 1818, p. 75) assigns this to Mantegna, but of this 
opinion nothing can be said in confirmation. There are also here two half-lengths 
of apostles in rounds, but they are totally repainted. (18) Mayence. We look in 
vain for pictures assigned to Mantegna in the museum of this town. (See Annot. 
Vasari, iii. 430.) (19) Milan, Ambrosiana. Daniel and the Lions, monochrome 
by one of Mantegna's disciples. Nativity, assigned at different periods to Sqnar- 
cione, Pizzolo, and Mantegna ; this piece has a Lombard character and might 
recall the works of Bramantino. (20) Modena Gallery, No. 50. Lucretia with the 
dagger, two soldiers in rear. (See posted, Ercole Robert!) No. 498 (Cat. of 
1854). Bust of Mantegna, not genuine. No. 258. Crucified Saviour, Virgin, 
and Evangelist ; school of Van der Weyden [* now officially ascribed to the 
German school of the fifteenth century]. No. 54 (Cat. of 1854). Christ guarded 
by angels and two sleeping soldiers, not genuine. (21) Munich, Pinak., No. 1023. 
Virgin, Child, and Saints. (See passim in Bono of Ferrara.) (22) Oxford, Christ 
Church. Christ carrying his Cross. (Seepostea, Francesco Mantegna.) Canvas, with 
two heads on gold ground of B. van der Weyden. (23) Pavia, Galleria Malaspina. 
irgin, Child, St. Anthony Abbot, and St. Anthony of Padua, with the signature 
Andreas Man tinea pata-vinus pin. 1491," judged a forgery by Selvatico, and 
act to be seen when the authors visited this gallery. (See Vasari, Annot., 

. 428.) [* See postea, p. 403, n. 1.] (24) Rovigo, Galleria Comunale, No. 73. 
nail panel of Christ going to Golgotha, a caricature of the manner of Alunno. 
!j|25) Rome, Gallery of the Capitol, No. 101. Canvas, with figures under life- 
ijize of the Virgin and Child, SS. Peter, Lucy, and another female saint ; 
.eeble picture by some follower of the manner of Catena [* now officially 
pcribed to Catena]. (26) Doria Palace, No. 164. Christ carrying his Cross ; bust 
Hif hard thin colour, probably by Bonsignori, of which there is one replica at the 
lermitage called Palmezzano, and a second with the true name of Bonsignori 
the collection of Marquis Campori at Modena. (27) Same palace, private 


It has been supposed that the altarpieces in the chapel at 
Sant' Andrea were finished by Mantegna before his death, but 
the handling does not confirm this belief. They were probably 
by his pupils. One of them is a canvas in oil representing the 
Virgin and Child and St. Elizabeth with the young Baptist, 
St. Joseph to the left, St. Zacharias to the right, a repainted 
example of the decrepitude of the Mantegnesque school ; the 
other, likewise in oil, is a Baptism of Christ, overdaubed in most 
parts and perhaps by the sons of Mantegna. 1 They foreshadow 
the decline of Mantuan art to the level which it held before 
Mantegna's arrival. 2 A better specimen of the manner taught 

apartments and picture gallery, No. 140. (See antea in Parentino.) (28) Rome, 
Vatican Gallery. Pieta. (See antea in Gio. Bellini.) (29) Treviso, Galleria 
Comunale. Virgin and Child, half-length, by Gio. Bellini. (30) Turin Museum, 
No. 164. Virgin, Child, and young Baptist with five saints ; a fine picture and 
greatly repainted, may have been by Mantegna. (31 )t Library. Circumcision, 
miniature by Francesco Mantegna or Caroto. (32) Venice, Correr Museum, 
Sala XVI., No. 8. Christ crucified between the Virgin and Evangelist, panel. 
(See postea, Ercole Roberti.) (33) San Giobbe, half-length of the dead Christ. 
This is by one of the Vivarini. (34) Vienna, Liechtenstein collection. Bust- 
portrait of a man in a red coat and cap, not by Mantegna, though of the fifteenth 

Amongst pieces recorded by historians as works of Mantegna we miss the 
following: (1) Venice, Spedale degli Incurabili, sacristy. Virgin and Child. 
St. Joseph, and the Magdalen. (Boschini, Le R. fifin., Sest. di D. Duro, p. 21.) 
(2) Study of Ottavio de Tas^is. Pictures by Mantegna. (Sansovino, Ven. Desor., 
p. 377.) (3) Casa Francesco Zio. Mutius Scaevola burning his hand (Anonimo, 
p. 84), perhaps the same piece that afterwards came into Charles I.'s collection 
at Whitehall. (See Bathoe's catalogue, London, 1757, p. 167.) [* The picture in 
the Casa Zio was a small monochrome, and may therefore well be identical with 
the canvas which is now in the Print-room at Munich (see antea, p. 112, n. 3), 
The Whitehall painting, on the other hand, was on panel.] (4) Padre Anselmo 
Oliva. Christ at the Limbus. (Ridolfi, Le Marav., i. 116.) (5) Jacopo Piglietta. 
Virgin and Child in monochrome. (Ibid.) (6) Mantua, Ducal collection in 1627. 
Half-length of Christ carrying his Cross (yet this may be the picture at Christ 
Church, Oxford, which is mentioned postea). Head of St. Jerome, David 
and Goliath. Four pieces with Tobias, Esther, Abraham, and Moses. Ditto, 
inventory of 1665. Flight into Egypt, a portrait, a Virgin and Child, and 
Christ at the Limbus. (D'Arco, ii. 160, 164, 165, 183, 188, 189.) (7) Mantua, 
San Francesco. Portrait oC Louis XII. (? by Francesco Mantegna.) (8) 
A Flagellation, executed for Barbara of Brandenburg. (D'Arco, ii. 271.) (9) 
Bologna, Casa Zacconi. A Christ by Mantegna. (Lamo, Gratlcola di Bologna, 
p. 30.) 

1 In the same church is a canvas of the Entombment, a lifeless creation of the 
sixteenth century, and a Salutation, without a trace of the art of Mantegna. 

8 The reader may look into D'Arco, Delle Arti, etc., for notices of Mantuan 


by Mantegna is that displayed in the four Evangelists at the 
angles of the ceiling in the chapel of Sant' Andrea, 1 in which 
Mantegnesque character is mingled with something that reminds 
us of Costa. Were this the peculiar feature of the style 
acquired by Francesco Mantegna, we could assign to him with 
some propriety the Christ carrying his Cross under Mantegna's 
name in the museum of Christ Church at Oxford, 2 a modification 
of the same subject also under Mantegna's name in possession 
of Dr. Bernasconi at Verona, 3 and Christ appearing in the 
Garden to the Magdalen in the National Gallery. 4 

artists previous to the coming of Mantegna. In the Torre della Gabbia, now a 
private dwelling, there are remnants of pictures of Giottesque character, dating 
from the fourteenth century subjects : the Marriage of St. Catherine, the Cruci- 
fixion, Christ amongst the Doctors, and an Adoration of the Magi, all by different 
hands. Vasari says, Stefano da Verona, disciple of Agnolo Gaddi, painted at 
Mantua. Are these frescoes by him ? They are more Giottesque than those 
assigned to Stefano at Verona. There is further a rude frespo, half-length of the 
Virgin and Child and St. Leonard, in the chapel of the Incoronata in the Duomo 
of Mantua, a rude work inscribed : " Don Btolomeus de artusis de Cremona fecit 
fieri die 26 8 ... 1432." 

1 They are greatly injured, and reveal the influence, if not the hand, of Lorenzo 

2 Oxford, Christ Church. Christ carries the cross, followed by a soldier in a 
helmet, and preceded by three men. Canvas, 2 ft. 6 in. broad by 2 ft. ^ in. ; the 
Saviour open-mouthed, with a dry bony face and thorny hair, the helmeted soldier 
heavy and reminding us of the masks of Costa ; the drapery crumpled in zigzags, 
the tints of dresses sharply contrasted ; the flesh tints dull. This may be a piece 
mentioned in the Mantuan inventory of 1627 (D'Arco, ii. 156). 

3 Verona, Dr. Bernasconi. [* Now Verona, Museo Civico, No. 153.] Canvas, 
tempera, with figures one-third the life-size. Christ carries his cross; behind 
him a man in a yellow cloth head-dress. The art here is that of the foregoing, 
but perhaps a little better ; the colour is dim and brownish. 

4 London, National Gallery, No. 639, from the Duroveray and Beaucousin 
collections. Christ is in profile ; the treatment is fair, the colouring lively and 
rich. Francesco Mantegna may find a competitor for the authorship of this piece 
in Caroto. [* Two companion pieces of this work, representing the Eesurrection 
of Christ and the Holy Women at the Sepulchre, have subsequently been added 
to the National Gallery (Nos. 1106 and 1381). Closely allied in style to these 
works is a little Nativity belonging to Mr. Roger E. Fry of Guildford.] 

Of a Mantegnesque character, but not exactly like the foregoing : (1) Casa 
Susani at Mantua. Two angels on green ground, carrying the symbols of the 
passion. They recall the portraits in the Duke of Hamilton's collection. [* The 
present owner of these pictures is not known.] (2) -Santa Maria della Carita at 
Mantua. A saint erect in a niche. Canvas, tempera as above. In these three 
pieces the form is angular and the colour of thick surface. 

Of the lives of the Mantegnas, it may be sufficient to say that Francesco, the. 


Another craftsman who signs a limited number of Mantuan 
pictures at this time is Antonio of Pavia, whose productions, 
however, are not worthy of any particular attention. 1 

date of whose birth is unknown, painted much for the Marquises of Mantua, and 
especially in their summer-residences of Marmirolo and Gonzaga. He survived 
Andrea Mantegna more than ten years. Lodovico does not seem to have resumed 
the brush after the death of his father. The bust of Andrea Mantegna, by 
Sperandio of Mantua, was put up in the chapel at Sant' Andrea by his grandson 
in 1560 (see D'Arco and Codde). [* This bust is now ascribed to Gianmarco 

1 D'Arco justly says of this painter that he reduced Mantegna's art to a mere 
form. He is registered amongst the workmen at the Palace del Te in 1528 
(D'Arco, Delle Arti, i. 50). There is a canvas tempera by him in the Museo 
Virgiliano at Mantua representing the Virgin and Child between SS. Jerome, 
Anthony, Peter Martyr, and another saint. The forms of these figures are 
heavy ; the tempera is raw and mapped off in loud contrasts of light and shade, 
the style a mixture of Bartolommeo Vivarini and the Mantegnesque. The piece 
is signed " Ant. Papiesis p." In this manner we have the Conversion of St. Paul, 
an ugly piece in the Museum of Verona, No. 331, and a rude Nativity under the 
name of Mantegna, seen by the authors in the house of Mr. Mangini, an apothecary 
at Piove. [* In the opinion of the editor, Prof. A. Venturi is right in ascribing 
the former painting to Parentino ; see Madonna Verona, i. 48 sq.] Finally we 
notice an Annunciation between four saints, an altarpiece in double courses with 
scenes from the life oE the Virgin and of Christ in a predella, assigned to Antonio 
of Murano, in the church of Santa Maria di Castello at Genoa. In this, as in the 
Mantua piece, we see something akin to the manner of Andrea of Murano, such 
as we find it in the altarpiece of Mussolone. [* We now know, from a contemporary 
record, that the altarpiece at Genoa is by Giovanni Mazone d' Alessandria. See 
Alizeri, Notizie dei professori del disegno in lAguria, iii. 535 sqq. 

The Brera Gallery at Milan contains since 1899 an altarpiece (No. 194) 
representing St. John the Baptist between SS. Augustine and Ivo, signed " Ant. 
da Pavia p. Mantua MCCCCXiiii." This picture was formerly in the church of 
Santo Stefano at Novellara.] 



IT is difficult to realize the extent of Mantegna's influence on 
the painters of North Italy without a special study of the 
various schools which derived their importance from his teaching. 
The Venetians reformed their style in part on the models which 
he created ; the Paduans clung to his system with melancholy 
pertinacity ; and the Vicentines, the Veronese, and the Ferrarese 
adopted his manner with avidity. Of the Vicentiues, we think, 
history has said less than they deserved ; they were not artists 
of the highest class, nor were they men to achieve an European 
fame, but they had a genuine native power, which it is our duty 
to acknowledge and explain. Verlas, whose pictures, as we have 
had occasion to observe elsewhere, betray an approximation to 
Pietro Perugino, was not entirely devoid of Mantegnesque pecu- 
liarities ; and his countrymen Giovanni Speranza, Bartolommeo 
Montagna, and Giovanni Buonconsiglio were deeply imbued with 

No dates of Speranza's life have been preserved ; we only 
know that several churches at Vicenza boasted of his works in 
the seventeenth and even in the eighteenth century ; and Vasari 
states that he and Montagna were disciples of Mantegna. 1 Both, 
it is clear, were admirers of Mantegna, but it is doubtful 
whether he was personally acquainted with them. Verlas pro- 
duced his Madonnas in the first twenty years of the sixteenth 
century ; Speranza was probably his contemporary ; it is, how- 
ever, a moot question whether Verlas affected Speranza and 

1 Vasari, vii. 526. 

* Giovanni Speranza was bora in 1480, a natural son of the noble Battista 
Vajenti and Catarina de ladra. He married Elisabetta Castelnuovo, and died at 
Vicenza in 1536. (Bortolan, 8. Corona, p. 168.) 



Montagna, or whether Montagna and Speranza took some 
Umbrian character from independent sources. Two altarpieces 
by Speranza are in existence, one in the church of San Giorgio 
at Velo in the province of Yicenza, the other in the gallery of 
Vicenza, each of them inscribed with his name. At Velo the 
Virgin sits enthroned in a court, listening to the music of angels 
and attended by four saints : in a lunette, the Man of Sorrows 
and two angels ; the figures distinguished by length and slender- 
ness, and a strained grace not unknown to Verlas ; the flesh 
pale yellow without modulations, and ill relieved by spare dark 
shadow ; the angels of the upper course rivalling in dryness 
those of Bartolommeo Montagna and Buoriconsiglio. 1 The 
second, larger still, is a quaint reproduction of the Assumption 
assigned to Pizzolo in the chapel of the Eremitani at Padua, 
with a couple of adoring saints in the foreground, one of whom 
seems obviously by Buonconsiglio. We infer from this that 
Speranza studied Paduan art about the time of Jacopo Monta- 
gnana, and employed Bnonconsiglio as his assistant. He vainly 
tries to acquire the vigour of the Mantegnesque school, imitating 
it coldly and carefully but with childish exactness, avoiding the 
squareness and vehemence of its figures, but repeating withered 
and angular shapes and straight or broken drapery. His 
tempera has not the solid substance nor the metallic tinge of 
the Ferrarese, but a clear pallor and filmy surface of a dull rosy 
hue. 2 In other examples a closer relationship between Speranza 
and Montagna is manifested, especially in a half-length Virgin 

1 Velo. Panel, tempera, figures half the life-size, inscribed : " Js. Speratie de 
Vagentibus me pinxit." 

The saints are SS. George and Martin to the left, Anthony the Abbot and 
Sebastian to the right. There are large pieces injured in the breast and leg of 
the Saviour, the blue dress of the Virgin, and the dais behind the throne. The 
blue sky and part of the Virgin's mantle are repainted. There are marks of 
scaling and repainting in other parts also, and the colour is daily disimproving. 

2 Vicenza Gallery, No. 280, originally in San Bartolommeo of Vicenza (Vendra- 
mini Mosca's G-uida di Vicenza, i. 7 ; Boschini, I gioieli piUoreschi . . . di Vicenza, 
pp. 86-7). This panel, with figures about a third of life-size, is inscribed : " Joannes 
S . . . pinxit." It is greatly injured and discoloured. There is something very 
childish in the way angels support the arms or feet or sides of the Virgin. To the 
left St. Thomas kneels with the girdle, a figure treated with the power and in the 
style of Buonconsiglio ; to the right St. Jerome. The whole piece is in a pilaster 
frame with arabesques and grotesques. Above, the Eternal looks down. The 


and Child with a praying patron, seen by the authors in the 
Casa Nievo at Vicenza, where Umbrian composure and staid 
movement are combined with undeveloped form akin to that 
which marks the youthful creations of Montagna. In this piece 
Speranza is an oil-painter, nearly allied to the greatest of the 
Vicentines. 1 It puzzles us at last to distinguish his hand from 
that of Montagna ; and there is a Madonna, belonging to the 
Conte Agosti at Belluno, in which we hesitate to decide whether 
it be one of Speranza's last or an early one by his countryman. 2 
With this admission it is not meant to be affirmed that Montagna 
was the pupil of Speranza. They may have been companions, 
and at some period have commingled their styles. It would be 
rash to assert anything where dates are absolutely wanting. At 
Santa Corona and Santa Chiara of Vicenza two or three more 
specimens of Speranza are preserved 3 ; there is also a Madonna 

blue mantle of the Virgin is injured. In the lower framing are figures of the 

* Admitting that the type of St. Thomas shows a certain resemblance to those 
of Buonconsiglio, still the figure seems to the editor to be by the same hand as 
the rest of the picture. Besides, we now know that Speranza was the younger 
of the two artists, and that Buonconsiglio was settled in Venice when this 
painting was executed. 

1 Vicenza, Casa Nievo. Wood, oil, half-length of the Virgin behind a parapet 
on which the Child stands with cherries in his tunic. A green hanging intercepts 
the sky and landscape ; to the left a patron in prayer (bust). Done in oil at one 
painting, with spare colour of a reddish yellow but clear tint, inscribed " Joanne 
Sperancie pinxit " on the parapet. 

3 Belluno. Canvas, tempera, representing the Virgin (half-length) with the 
Infant on a parapet, sitting on a wbite cushion and holding his hand out to be 
kissed by a votary ; a hanging of gold damask intercepts the landscape and sky 
(retouched). The execution is too good for Speranza, not good enough for 
Bartolommeo Montagna. The Virgin has a soft regular head in Montagna's 
character, the votary seems by Speranza, and the Child is poor in form. [* The 
editor does not know where this picture is to be found at present.] 

3 (1) Vicenza, Santa Corona. Two panels at the sides of the first altar, left of 
the portal. Each contains a saint (the B. Giovanni da Schio and the B. Isnardo 
da Chiampo), one-third of life-size, the latter signed " Joanes Sperancia pinsit." 
In both the ground is repainted. The style here again is an approach to that of 
Bartolommeo Montagna. [* The B. Isnardo is also dated : 1512.] (2) Vicenza, 
Santa Chiara (see Vendramin Mosca's Guida, i. 23, and Gioieli, p. 51). Virgin 
and Child enthroned between SS. Francis and Bernardino, or Anthony of Padua. 
Much injured and restored, with a doubtful inscription on a cartello : " Opus 
Joannes Speraza 1441 "(?). [* This picture was in 1866 exposed for sale in the 
Scuola di San Rocco at Venice, and is now vmtraceable, See Borenius, The 
Painters of Vicenza, p. 92, n. 1.] 


with his name in the Casa Piovene at Padua, 1 and a Virgin with 
the Child and St. Joseph in the collection of Mr. Vernon in 
England 2 ; but they afford no further clue to his career. 

Bartolommeo Montagna had a larger grasp of principles than 
his Vicentine contemporaries. A born Brescian, or of Brescian 
parents, he began life independently between 1470 and 1480, 3 
having finished altarpieces as early as 1483, 4 and dwelling in a 
house of his own purchasing at Yicenza in 1484. 5 At a moment 
when, as we now discern, his style had not ripened to the 
fullness which it afterwards acquired, he was known to patrons 
beyond the limits of Vicenza, 6 and is noticed as taking employ- 

1 Padua, Casa Piovene. Half -length, with a patron in prayer, signed " Jo. 
Sperancia pin." but greatly repainted. [* The editor has not been able to trace 
this and the following painting.] 

2 No. 295 at Manchester Exhibition of 1857, inscribed " Giovanni Speranza," 
belongs to G. E. A. Vernon, Esq. [* Other extant works by Speranza are : 
(1) Budapest, Picture Gallery, No. 95. The Virgin and Child, signed " Joann . . . 
Sper . . . pinxit." (2) Milan, Brera, No. 224. The Virgin and Child between 
88. Mary Magdalen and Joseph, signed " Joanes Speratia pisit." (3) Vicenza, ex- 
monastery of 8an Domenico, refectory. The Crucifixion ; the Agony in the Garden. 
Frescoes, much injured ; executed in 1526. Cf. Borenius, ub. sup., p. 218.] 

In the style of Verlas and Speranza we have : (1) Padua Comune, No. 448. 
Virgin adoring the Child between St. Catherine and another saint. (2) No. 456. 
Small panel of the Virgin and Child. These are feeble clear pieces of careful 

Missing: (1) Vicenza, San Tommaso. Incredulity of St. Thomas, with a 
kneeling nun (Boschini, Gioielli, p. 54). (2) San Francesco. Virgin and Child 
between St. Joseph and St. Anthony of Padua, with a small Nativity in the 
Virgin's throne (ibid., p. 86, and Vendramin Mosca, i. 46). (3) San Giacomo 
(Carmelitani). Crucifixion of the Child St. Simonetto at Trent ( Gioieli, p. 106 ; 
Mosca, i. 52). (4) San Bovo. Virgin and Child between St. Paul and St. Bovo 
(Gioieli, pp. 126-7). (5) San Bartolommeo (?). Virgin between SS. John the 
Baptist, Augustine, Jerome, and Bernardino, with a predella containing the 
Baptism of Christ, the Marriage of the Virgin, and an Ecce Homo ; also the 
ceiling of the chapel containing the altarpiece " in the style of Speranza " ( Grioieli, 
p, 88) ; but Mosca says the ceiling is by Montagna (Mosca, i. 7). 

* He is called " Barth. Montagna q m Ant. ab Urcis novis pictore, et habit, in 
civ. Vincentiae," in a will, dated 1480, to which he was a witness. See Magrini, 
Elogio di B. M., ub. sup., p. 43. Orzinuovi is near Brescia. 

4 In the will of Gaspar Trissino, dated Vicenza, June 30, 1483, the testator 
orders a residue of five ducats to be paid to Montagna for a picture done by him 
for the church del Lazaretto. (Magrini, pp. 34, 43.) 

* Deed of purchase March 5, 1484, and will, post ea. (Magrini, pp. 34, 43-4.) 

* ' On August 15, 1482, Montagna was commissioned by the Scuola Grande di 
San Marco at Venice to execute two paintings for the house of that brotherhood, 
one representing the Deluge, the other the Creation of the World or some other 


inent at Bassano in 1487. 1 What he did at that time must 
necessarily have been of little account as compared with creations 
due to a more recent period. Amongst the earliest productions 
of his brush we count the Madonnas of the Lochis collection at 
Bergamo ; of San Bartolommeo, now in the gallery of Vicenza ; 
of San Giovanni IJarione, once in San Lorenzo at Vicenza : the 
first of which seems to have been executed in 1487, and the last 
not much later. In these and some other examples Montagna 
does not issue from the formal path familiar to the painters of 
his vicinity. He places the Madonna on a throne or in adoration 
between two standing saints, in cold or composed attitudes ; 
he is very careful, and shows diligence in minutiae of foreground 
or distance ; he has but little of the boldness of after-years. At 
Bergamo his figures are firm in movement ; they are outlined 
and touched without timidity or hesitation ; but the frames are 
slender and stiff, dressed in broken drapery unrelieved by broad 
shadow. The masks are in the quiet mould of Speranza's, and 
coloured in hard even tints of viscous tempera impasto. 2 The 

subject from Genesis. Sansovino states that Montagna began " the Ark of Noah " 
(Venetia, p, 286), but is silent as to the other picture. Whatever Montagna 
painted in the Scuola was destroyed by the fire which ravaged it in 1485. See 
also Borenius, ub. sup., p. 7. 

1 March 9, 1487, payment of 1. 6, soldi 4, aroh. com. of Bassano in Magrini, 
p. 44. We find no works of Montagna's at Bassano, but are reminded of his style 
in a Virgin and Child between two Saints, by old Bassano, in the Communal 
Gallery, a picture inscribed and with the date of 1519 (No. 2, Bassano Gallery). 

2 Bergamo, Lochis Gallery, No. 128. Small panel, very much flayed. Virgin 
and Child between SS. Sebastian and Roch, inscribed : " B. Mdtagna f . " ; but on 
the back of the panel we read : " M r Btolameus Motagna brixianus habitator 
Vincetia hanc depinxit, &c., 1487. ..." A cold-toned curtain behind the Virgin, 
a parapet behind the throne, and through the openings behind, sky and landscape. 
This picture belonged to Count Brognoli at Brescia in 1816 (Campori, Lettere, 
p. 418). 

* A fresco of the Virgin and Child now in the National Gallery (No. 1696) 
shows in composition, drapery, colouring, and the type of the Madonna a close 
affinity to the above panel. According to an inscription on the modern frame of 
the National Gallery painting, this was executed in 1481 for the choir of the 
church of Magre, near Schio. See Borenius, ub. sup., p. 10. In this connection 
we may also mention a number of other early Madonnas by Montagna in the 
Museo Civico of Verona (No. 396), the collection of Signora Fanny Vaeni of 
Venice, the Kunsthalle at Bremen (No. 16), the collection of M. P. Delaroff 
of St. Petersburg, the Museo Civico of Vicenza (No. 270), the Brera Gallery 
(No. 161 ; cf. postea, p. 132, n. 1), and the National Gallery (No. 1098). See 
ibid., pp. 15 sqq. 


Virgin adoring Christ between St. Monica and St. Mary 
Magdalen in the Gallery of Vicenza, 1 and the Madonna between 
St. Anthony of Padua and St. John the Evangelist at San 
Giovanni Ilarione, 2 are not less careful than that of Bergamo. 
An Umbrian repose dwells in the lazy calm of the dramatis 
personas, reminding us of Speranza and Cotignola ; but the faces 
have peculiarities by which Montagna is always distinguished, a 
long oval, though not a simple shape, a thin barrelled nose, 
arched brows, a small mouth with a round projecting chin, and 
eyes of great convexity guarded by broad and drooping upper 
lids. Such works as these testify to Montagna's undeveloped 
power, as he first entered on his profession, and prove him to 
have been bred in the local school of Vicenza. 3 In 1491 he was 
accounted the best amongst the masters of the town, and his 
name in public records is coupled with the flattering qualification 
of celeberrimus pictor.^ In close proximity to Venice, where the 

1 Vicenza Gallery, No. 257, from San Bartolommeo of Vicenza. Canvas. The 
Child lies on au elevation in a trellis through which a landscape appears. The 
foreground is abraded. This picture is mentioned in all the local guides. 

* We find the same blond and cool quality of colour as in the above painting 
in a number of other early works by Montagna, namely, a Madonna in the collection 
of the late Sir W. Farrer at Sandhurst Lodge, a Virgin and Child with St. John 
in the collection of the late Dr. L. Mond of London, a Madonna in the Metropo- 
litan Museum of Art at New York, Christ appearing to the Magdalen between 
SS. John the Baptist and Jerome, once in San Lorenzo of Vicenza and now in the 
Kaiser Friedrich Museum of Berlin (No. 44B), and a Madonna between four saints 
originally above the high altar of San Bartolommeo at Vicenza and at present in the 
Museo Civico of that town (No. 283) ; cf. posted, p. 134, n. 4. See Borenius, 
ub. sup., pp. 19 sqq. 

2 San Giovanni Ilarione, near Vicenza ; done for the Balzi-Salvioni family, and 
originally in San Lorenzo of Vicenza (Gioielli, p. 104; Ridolfi, Marav., i. 141). 
Wood, figures less than life-size. The throne is in front of a gilt pattern screen, 
behind which sky and trees. The Virgin's head reminds us by its affectionate air 
of Filippino Lippi. St. John is soft, after the fashion of Pinturicchio. The 
colours are worn away and altered by damp ; treatment, mixed oil and tempera ; 
inscribed : " B . rtholomeus Montagna pinxit." Three or four pieces in the dress 
of the Evangelist are scaled off. 

* 3 There is reason to think that even the earliest extant works by Montagna 
show the influence of various Venetian artists. They especially recall the 
Vivarini and Antonello. See Berenson, Lorenzo Lotto, pp. 47 sqq. ; Borenius, 
ub. sub,, pp. 31 xqq. 

4 A record of Dec. 16, 1488, relates to the purchase of lands near Vicenza by 
B. M. (Magrini, p. 34). His son Benedetto is noted as " magister pictor " in another 
record of May 22, 1490 (ibid., p. 34), and a third dated June 10, 1491, which is that 


Alinari photo.'] 

[Vicenza, Museo Civico. 


II. 126] 


Bellini held pictorial sway, lie soon learnt to appreciate the 
talents of its chief celebrities ; he became attracted by the charm 
of Bellinesque arrangement, and sympathized with the rugged 
nature of Carpaccio's art. A new force became apparent in him ; 
he acquired skill in delineation, a tendency to realism in nude, 
and resolute action. Under these altered conditions he produced, 
we may suppose, the Virgin and Child between St. John the 
Baptist and St. Onofrio, a dusky brown picture, once at San 
Michele and now in the Gallery at Vicenza, in which the lean- 
ness of his figures gains a strong significance. 1 But his style did 
not reach its true development till after he had visited Padua. 
In that city, to which he probably transferred his atelier for a 
time in 1491, he left broad traces. 2 He painted a fresco of the 
Crucifixion at Praglia, in which masculine development and over- 
weight of head reveal his contact with Montagnana ; and he had 

cited in the text, refers to the sale of lands previously purchased 1488 (ibid., 
p. 34). 

* Magrini states that the above-mentioned record of May 22, 1490, is to be 
found in the Atti of Pietro Revese in the Archivio Notarile at Vicenza. Yet the 
only document of 1490 which the said Atti contain is one dating from Dec. 16, 
in which Bartolwimeo Montagna, not Benedetto, appears as taking part in the 
negotiations about a sale which was concluded between the sons of Pietro of 
Brescia and Baldissera, the brother of Bartolommeo Montagna. It should be 
noticed that the terms " Bartholameo dicto Montagna " used in this record may 
through the contractions well have been read by a careless eye as " Benedicto 

1 Vicenza Gallery, No. 273, originally in San Michele of Vicenza (Ridolfi, 
ub. sitp., i. 141 ; Boschini, ub. sup., p. 45 ; and Mosca, ub. sup., i. 88). Wood, oil, 
greatly injured by scaling, inscribed : " Opus Bartholomei m . . . ." The scene 
is in a bower, as in No. 257 of the Gallery of Vicenza. There are pieces wanting 
in the Virgin's mantle, the frame and limbs of the Baptist. 

* Allied in style to this work is a half-length of the Virgin and Child in the 
Museo Civico of Belluno. See Borenius, ub. sub., p. 42. 

* 2 The account of Montagna's life and work between 1491 and 1496 given by 
the authors is not borne out by the facts. Firstly, as to the visit which he is 
supposed to have paid to Padua, there is absolutely no evidence that he was there 
in 1491 ; and it is only an assertion of some writers (the earliest being, I think, 
Rossetti, Descrizione delle pltture . . . di Padova, 1765, p. 143) that the series of 
portraits in the Vescovado was painted in 1494. We have nothing to prove that 
the fresco at Praglia was executed between 1491 and 1496 ; and the only fresco 
in the Scuola del Santo that can be ascribed to Montagna certainly belongs to a 
much later period of his life, as does also the pala in Santa Maria in Vanzo. 
Furthermore, we now know from contemporary records that the frescoes in the 
Cappella di San Biagio in SS. Nazaro e Celso at Verona were painted in 1504-6, 
not in 1491-3. 


a large share, we may believe, in the long series of portraits 
which decorates the hall of the episcopal palace. 1 With more 
versatility than Montagnana and greater facility for finish, he 
surpassed him also in truth and variety of movement, in a just 
application of perspective laws, and in appropriate cast of 
drapery. At the Vescovado, especially, he excels in the manage- 
ment of dress, to which he gives the Umbrian branching fold ; 
he contrasts tints with a bolder harmony ; and though his forms 
retain something of the bony rigidity and coarseness by which he 
and Montagnana are both distinguished, they are animated with a 
peculiar spirit, derived after a lengthened study from Carpaccio. 
It was not unnatural that his residence at Padua should have 
brought him into companionship with the ablest follower of the 
Mantegnesque style ; but the models of Mantegna himself 
necessarily occupied his attention ; and his admiration for them 
is reflected in all the frescoes and altarpieces which he subse- 
quently completed. Of these the most important at Padua is the 
Virgin and Child between four saints at Santa Maria in Vanzo, 
where the sternness and force of Mantegna are united to the 
dryness, sharpness, and bold balancing of primary tints familiar 
to Carpaccio. Melancholy composure in the regular head of the 
Virgin is ably contrasted with calm severity of mien in the saints, 
and the vestments are cleanly moulded to the frames as if they 
were of bronze. 2 

1 Padua. See antea in Montagnana as to the period and authorship of these 

Praglia. Fresco in the refectory, representing the Crucified Saviour 
between the Virgin and Evangelist ; the Magdalen at the foot of the cross, and 
to the right a kneeling figure. The fresco had been whitewashed and has been 
since recovered ; but the five lower figures are repainted, and the Eternal with 
angels in a lunette is but just visible. The outline of the Saviour is masculine 
and powerfully rendered in Montagna's fashion. The authorship of our Vicentine 
is affirmed by the Anonimo (p. 3). [* The Crucifixion has now been removed 
from the refectory to another room.] 

Vasari assigns to Montagna the Madonna of Mont' Ortone, but see antea in 

2 Padua, Santa Maria in Vanzo, high altar. The Virgin is enthroned in a 
portico, between SS. Peter, John the Baptist, Catherine, and Paul. Two angels 
play instruments at the foot of the throne, and there are three medallions in a 
lower framing, in two of which are poor figures of St. Lorenzo and St. Francis. 
On the stem of a pear on the foreground a cartello with the words : " Opus 
Bartolomei M5tagna." Canvas, oil, the flesh of a ruddy tinge laid in at one 


From Padua, where he produced much that has since 
perished, Montagna proceeded to Verona, whither he was called 
by the superintendents of an oratory founded in honour of San 
Biagio in the church of SS. Nazaro e Celso. In the summer of 
1491 the first mass had been read in the new building, to which 
the relics of St. Biagio were to be translated, and it was proposed 
that the cupola should be decorated by Falconetto, whilst 
Montagna furnished the picture for the altar of the apsis and the 
subjects on the walls and semidome. In 1493, at which time 
Falconetto was at his labour's end, Montagna also completed his 

painting after Carpaccio's manner. [* This is surely a comparatively late work by 
Montagna, as is proved by the soft colouring, and also by the landscape and the 
sentiment of the whole scene, which clearly reveal the influence of Giorgione 
and Titian. Akin to it in the type of the Virgin and the action of the Child as 
well as in the general characteristics of style is a Madonna in the collection of 
Signer Achille Cologna of Milan (signed "Opus Bartolomei Montagna"). See 
Borenius, ub. sup., pp. 72 sq.~] 

The Coronation of the Virgin, St. Lorenzo Giustiniani and other saints, a fresco 
in the apsis of Santa Maria in Vanzo, has been attributed to Montagna, but looks 
of a later date and done in the style of Girolamo del Santo (Brandolese, Pitt, 
di Pad.,?. 73). 

As missing we note : (1) Padua, Casa Marco da Mantoa. Head of the Virgin. 
(Anonimo, p. 25.) (2) Padua, Santo. Fresco of St. Giustina on a pilaster. 
(Anonimo, p. 8.) 

The Anonimo (p. 10) also assigns to Montagna frescoes in the Scuoladel Santo. 
These frescoes suggest some remarks. 

The subjects were given out to different painters at different times some 
of them 'are by Titian ; they are taken from the legend of St. Anthony of 
Padua and the beato Luca Belludi. There are but three in the series likely to 
suggest any doubts as to their authorship. 1, St. Anthony admonishes Ezzelino ; 
2, St. Anthony miraculously averts a Storm. These two frescoes are a mixture of 
the Squarcionesque and German ; the figures being coarse and vulgar, yet still 
distantly like those of Montagna. If he did this at his first coming to Padua, he 
improved greatly afterwards : the composition is poor ; there is a lack of life in the 
personages, though resolute action and bold execution are not quite wanting ; and 
the colours are reddish and rough. In the Admonition some groups suggest the 
artist's acquaintance with engravings by Lucas of Leyden. 3, St. Anthony 
appears to Luca Belludi. This is a wall-painting of the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, by a painter whose art recalls that of Filippo of Verona or 
Michele of Verona. The vulgarity of the figures exceeds anything of the kind in 
Montagna. [* The authors' hesitation in connecting any of these paintings with 
Montagna is indeed fully justified ; but there is a fresco in the Scuola del Santo 
which shows all the characteristics of Montagna's style, namely, that representing 
the opening of St. Anthony's tomb in 1350 (cf. Frizzoni, Notizia d'opere didisegno, 
p. 21). It is obviously a late production of the artist's, coming close to the 
pala of Santa Maria in Vanzo.] 

VOL. II 9 


part ; and though damp has all but obliterated his compositions, 
and local jealousy induced the Veronese to substitute a work of 
Bonsignori's for his, the fragments of both are still in existence, 
and of considerable value as mementoes of his manner. 1 In the 
sections of the semidome are St. Biagio and six companions, 
whilst the four walls of the apsis contain remains of incidents 
taken from the saint's legend, his solitude on the Argean mount, 
where beasts and birds flocked round him for a blessing, his cure 
of a cripple when led to prison, his torture with the card, and his 
execution. In the dim figure which centuries have darkened or 
abraded, and in the graven outlines which survive the scaling of 
the colours, we note Montagna's study of nature, his realism in 
portraiture, his firmness and precision in drawing. He reveals 
force without selection, and prefers wiry to fleshy models, though 

1 Verona, San Biagio. The chapel was founded on May 7, 1489, the first mass 
was read on the 23rd of June, 1491, and the walls were ready for painting at the 
end of the following July. (Di Santo Biagio, $c., venerato in SS. Nazaro e Celso 
di Verona, by Luigi Brusco, 12mo, Verona, 1834, pp. 59 sqq.) We have the 
authority of Moscardo (Historia di Verona, 1668, p. 95) and of Dal Pozzo (ub. sup., 
Pitt. Veronesi, p. 255) to the effect that the frescoes in San Biagio are by 
Montagna. The style alone proves it. That Falconetto's part was finished is 
proved by the account-books of San Biagio (Brusco, ub. sup., p. 65). [* The 
records of the payment of Montagna for the frescoes in San Biagio embrace 
the time between June 17, 1504, and Feb. 6, 1506 ; see Biadego, in Nuovo 
archivio veneto, ser. ii. vol. xi. pp. 116 sqq. Falconetto painted in San Biagio 
between 1497 and 1499 ; see ibid., pp. 110 sq.'} 

The altarpiece, of which the centre is missing, has been attributed without 
authority (Vasari, Annot., v. 330) to Girolamo dai Libri. 

In the first fresco San Biagio, seated in a white tunic and red mantle, gives the 
blessing to a bird ; he is surrounded by animals in a landscape. The figure is 
partly obliterated. In the second he cures a cripple, but much of the composition 
is lost. In the Torture some heads are preserved and have a fine portrait 
character. The Decapitation is quite ruined. Where colour remains it is in a 
reddish monotone. 

The parts of the altarpiece here preserved are panels in oil, with 
figures about half the size of life, the standing saints in a portico, the other 
panels half-lengths, one with St. Giuliana slightly injured, that in possession of 
Dr. Bernasconi [* now in the Museo Civico of Verona] slightly abraded in the 
hand of the saint to the right (a friar). The head of Christ in the Pieta is spotted. 

* This polyptych adorned originally the high altar of the church of 
SS. Nazaro e Celso, and has never been in the chapel of San Biagio. It is no 
doubt contemporary with Montagna's frescoes in that chapel. For its history, see 
Borenius, ub. sup., pp. 58 sqq. In 1507 Montagna finished an altarpiece for the 
church of San Sebastiano at Verona ; this painting is now in the Venice Academy 
(seepostea, p. 132, n. 4). 


his contrasts of light and shade are still strong and well made 
out. To these we add the altarpiece, of which the wings and 
upper course are separately exposed in the transept and sacristy 
of San Nazaro, and in the collection of Dr. Bernasconi. In the 
right transept, St. John the Baptist, accompanied by St. Benedict 
and the SS. Nazaro and Celso ; in the sacristy, the Saviour in his 
tomb supported by angels, St. Giuliana and a Franciscan martyr; at 
Dr. Bernasconi's St. Biagio and another saint. 1 In the Redeemer's 
lean and macerated frame and face, great power and a vulgar but 
dramatic expression ; in the saints strong relief and accurate 
proportion of shadow, finished form and serious energy of mien ; 
the colours, as in Carpaccio, sharp but harmonic in juxtaposition, 
the flesh tint low but fused and of enamel brightness. Bellini, 
Carpaccio, Mantegna, had all been studied by Montagna before 
producing this masterpiece ; and Antonello too, whose system of 
opaque treatment, with its metallic and glowing brilliancy, is 
followed here, as it is by Montagna's friend Buoncorisiglio, with 
great cleverness and effect. 

At the close of 1496 Montagna returned from his wanderings 
and settled down to constant duty in his favourite residence of 
Yicenza. 2 He devoted two years to a Madonna with Saints for 
the chapel of the Squarzi family at San Michele of Vicenza ; 3 he 
delivered an altarpiece of considerable dimensions to the neigh- 
bouring church of Sandrigo, 4 and accepted a contract for a picture 
in the Duorno from Cardinal Zeno ; 5 of these three pieces the 

* ' The last-mentioned picture is now in the Museo Civico of Verona (No. 76). 

2 In September 1497 he is witness to a will at Vicenza. (Magrini, ub. sup,, p. 34.) 

3 There are records of payment .for the Squarzi altarpiece monthly in the 
accounts of the Squarzi reprinted in Magrini (ub. sup., pp. 45-7), and a final state- 
ment of debt on Sept. 26, 1499, in which Bartolommeo Squarzi cedes to Montagna 
a piece of land in liquidation of all claims. The monthly payments above men- 
tioned are made to Philip and Paul, sons of Montagna, who, however, are not 
mentioned in his wills. 

4 Sandrigo. The altarpiece here represented the Virgin and Child between 
SS. Philip and James, and is noticed by Moschini ( Qulda di Venezia, ii. 607), with 
the false date of 1449. It is now missing. [* The editor has been able to identify 
this picture with one which some years ago was presented to the Glasgow Gallery. 
It is, however, only the work of a weak follower of Montagna. Borenius, ub. sup., 
p. 45.] 

5 Vicenza. The altarpiece of the Duomo represented the Virgin, Child, John 
the Baptist, and other saints ; it was finished in 1502, and is praised by Boschini 
(Gioielli, p, 4), and by Mosca (i. 30). It is now missing. 


Madonna alone is preserved in the gallery of the Brera at Milan. 
If at first Montagna appears of timid local habits, he now bursts 
out into the full swing of exuberant strength. His figures have 
the size of nature ; the Madonna with the Child in her arms sits 
on a rich throne in a vaulted portico, lighted by openings cut 
into lozenges or rounds ; in couples at the sides, St. Andrew and 
St. Monica, St. Ursula and St. Sigismund; on the pediment 
three angels with instruments. Without delicacy in the render- 
ing of form, Montagna strikes us here by energetic movement 
and bold expression. His outlines are very decisive, occasionally 
sharp and angular ; his drapery, broken by cross folds in the 
northern fashion, is artfully cast so as to leave flat planes at 
appropriate distances to suggest the under shape. His propor- 
tions are good ; light and shade are well balanced ; and the 
scale of tints in contrast, whether in dresses or in the marbles of 
the portico, is calculated with the raw sharpness and success 
habitual to Carpaccio. With this and with flesh of a reddish 
brown strongly relieved by dark warm grey, the altarpiece of the 
Brera seems to combine the vigour of Carpaccio and Signorelli 
with the muscular dryness of the Mantegnesques and of Diirer. 1 

In this stern way Montagna now proceeds almost uninter- 
ruptedly to the end. 2 Within the province to which his practice 
was now chiefly confined, 3 he found a constantly increasing number 
of patrons. He painted for San Rocco of Vicenza two altarpieces, 
now at Venice, in one of which the rude vigour of his style is 
almost as potently marked as at the Brera ; 4 for San Marco of 

1 Brera, No. 165 ; originally in the Squarzi chapel at San Michele of Vicenza 
(see antea, Gioieli, pp. 44-5 ; Lanzi, ii. 118 ; Kidolfi, Marav., i. 141). On the step 
of the throne : " Opus Bartholome Montagna ICCCCLXXXXVIIH." Canvas. 

In the same gallery, No. 161, a Virgin and Child between SS. Francis and 
Bernardino, classed as " an old Florentine," is by one of the Montagna, perhaps 
Benedetto. The picture was in San Biagio of Vicenza (see Gioieli, p. 95) ; it is now 
greatly damaged. [* In the current catalogue of the Brera Gallery this painting 
is ascribed to Giovanni Speranza. The editor, however, believes it to be an early 
work by Montagna. See Borenius, ub. sup., pp. 17 sq.] 

2 In Nov. (5) 1499 Montagna buys land at Cittadella, and lets it to the former 
owner (Magrini, p. 35). In Feb. 1503 he settles some outstanding accounts at 
Vicenza in the matter of the property ceded to him by the Squarzi (ibid., p. 35). 

* 3 Montagna worked in Verona between 1504 and 1506 (see antea, p. 130, n. 1), 
and still later in Padua (see antea, p. 128, n. 2). 

* Venice Acad., No. 80. Wood, m. 2'15 high by 1'62, inscribed with a retouched 
signature : ' Opus bartholom . . Montagna." Virgin and Child enthroned between 


Alinari photo.] 
II. 132] 

{.Milan, Brera. 



Lonigo, a characteristic votive picture since transferred to the 
Berlin Museum l ; for the church of Monte Berico, the Pieta 
dated 1500, one of those pieces in which models of rustic force 
are faithfully reproduced, and grimace accompanies the rendering 
of pain, and yet a strong feeling is created by impassioned action 
and clever drawing. 2 In a more quiet mood in the same year 
he finished the Nativity of Orgiano, 3 and the Madonna with Saints 
at Sarmego 4 ; in 1502 the Madonna of the Duomo at Yicenza 
ordered by Cardinal Zeno, and since lost 5 ; in 1503 the Virgin 
and Child of the Marchese Campori at Modena. There is some- 
thing half Bellinesque, half Mantegnesque in the air of the Virgin 
here ; a pleasing expression gives charm to her face, and it is 
a kindly thought to let the Infant free the bird in its grasp instead 

SS. Sebastian and Jerome ; the Child in a dancing motion, the Virgin heavy in shape, 
St. Sebastian a disagreeable type of a strong realistic nature. Tone olive, colour 
viscous, the arrangements of dais and accessories Carpacciesque. The Virgin's 
dress is injured. Magrini states that this piece was in San Rocco of Vicenza. 
[* Magrini is mistaken ; it was painted in 1507 for the church of San Sebastiano at 
Verona. Cf. postea, p. 135, n. 11, and Borenius, ub. sup., pp. 61 sq.] 

No. 78. Wood, m. l - 83 high by 1*61, originally in San Kocco of Vicenza. 
Christ between St. Koch and St. Sebastian, dry lean figures of a less rugged class 
than the foregoing. [* In the opinion of the editor this picture is too feeble 
for Montagna and can only be ascribed to his school. See Borenius, ub. sup., 
p. 91.] 

In the same class : Venice, Correr Museum, Sala XV., No. 39, half-length of 
a female martyr, injured and spotted. 

1 Berlin Museum, No. 44. Canvas, 6 ft. 6 in. high by 5 in., inscribed " Opus . . . 
Montagna," originally in San Marco of Lonigo, afterwards in the Solly collection. 
Virgin and Child between St. Omobuono giving alms to a man, and St. Francis, 
with a small St. Catherine and patron in front ; a dark-tinted picture with a certain 
monotone in the colours. 

2 Monte Berico. Canvas, oil, figures less than life-size. The Virgin with the 
dead body of Christ on her lap ; to the left Joseph, to the right the Magdalen and 
Evangelist ; distance landscape ; sky and foreground new, and the figures all more 
or less injured; inscribed : " Opus Bartholom. Montagna. MCCCCC V Aprile." 

A fresco of the Saviour in the Virgin's lap in the sacristy of this church, much 
restored, seems by Montagna. 

3 Church of Orgiano, near Vicenza. Canvas, figures all but life-size of the Virgin 
and St. Joseph praying at the sides of the Infant Christ, who is seated on the 
ground ; landscape distance ; inscribed on a cartello : " Opus Bartolomei Montagna 
MCCCCC." This is a repainted and injured work. 

4 Sarmego. Virgin, Child, the Baptist, and Evangelist; greatly injured. 
Magrini speaks of a small picture at Vicenza, dated 1502 (not seen). See 
Magrini, ub. sup., p. 35. 

5 See antea and Gioieli, p. 4. 


of flying it with a string l ; one hardly expects such a trait from 
a man so usually stern as Montagna. Another picture in the 
grand manner is the Virgin and Child attended by St. Onofrio 
and the Baptist, and three angels with instruments, in the Certosa 
of Pavia 2 ; yet another, of great mastery in the intertress of 
contrasted tints and the balance of light and shade, is the Pre- 
sentation of the Child in the gallery of Vicenza. 3 A number of 

1 Modena, Marchese Campori. Half-lengths, panel. The Virgin holds the 
Infant sitting on a parapet ; a green hanging intercepts the sky. With her left 
hand the Virgin holds a book on the parapet. This is a well-preserved picture in 
which the technical system of Antonello is applied, as it was by Buonconsiglio, 
in olive and semi-opaque but lustrous tones. Inscribed : " Bartholomei Montagna 
ac opus MCCCCCIII. die xm Aprili." [* This picture is now in the Modena Gallery. 
Allied to it in style are a number of Madonnas belonging to Mrs. Tate 
of London (cf. postea, p. 136), Lord Lucas, Signer Antonio Grandi of Milan, 
and the Museo Civico at Vicenza (No. 271), a Holy Family in the collection 
of Sir Hubert Parry at Highnam Court, Gloucester, and another in the Strassburg 
Gallery (No. 223).] 

2 Pavia, Certosa, above the sacristy door. Figures less than life, abraded. 

8 Vicenza Gallery, No. 263. Canvas. St. Simeon kneels as the Virgin, also kneel- 
ing, presents the Child to him; behind the Virgin (left) St. Joseph, behind 
Simeon a kneeling patron ; in a lunette St. Jerome. This picture was in San 
Bartolommeo (Gioieli, p. 90 ; Mosca, p. 5) ; it is signed " Opus Bartolameus (do) 
Montagna." The treatment is that of the school of Antonello da Messina, pro- 
ducing a low brownish semi-opaque surface of glowing aspect. 

4 Vicenza, San Bartolommeo. Virgin, Child, and three angels on a pediment 
between SS. John the Baptist, Bartholomew, Augustine, and Sebastian ; inscribed 
" Bartholomeus Motanea pinxit " ; on a predella, the fall of the idol, the casting out 
of a devil, baptism of a proselyte, St. Bartholomew beaten before the judge, de- 
capitation. This piece is scaled, abraded, and repainted, but still recalls Bellini 
in its arrangement, and Cotignola in the thinness of the forms. [* This picture 
is now in the Museo Civico of Vicenza (No. 283). It belongs to an early phase of 
Montagna's career. Cf , antea, p. 126, n. 1.] 

* Venice, Lady Layard. (1) Small fresco with half-lengths of Christ between a 
bishop and a female saint. Not without retouching, but strong in colour ; signed 
" Bartolomeus Motanea pinxit " ; originally in the Cappella Tanara at San Gio. 
Ilarione, near Vicenza. (2) A bust of St. John the Baptist on panel in oil, brown 
in tone, warm in shadow, firmly touched, and well preserved. 

6 England, late Northwick collection. Procession to Calvary. Canvas, with 
figures half-size of life, reddish in flesh tone. 

7 Louvre, No. 1393, half-length. Ecce Homo in the glowing tones like Buon- 
consiglio, fair if not select in nude. Small panel, inscribed on a cartello : 
" Bartholomeus Motagna fecit." (Shadow of torso retouched, ground dark, the 
signature much rubbed.) 

8 Vicenza, Santa Corona, second altar to the right. The Magdalen on a pedestal 
in an arched chapel, between SS. Jerome, Mary of Egypt, Monica, and Augustine ; 
in a predella, the communion of the Magdalen, Noli me tangere, and the Magdalen 


less important examples might be cited: at San Bartolommeo 
of Vicenza, 4 at Lady Layard's in Venice, 5 in the late North wick 
Gallery, 6 in the Louvre, 7 at Santa Corona, 8 in the Communal 
Gallery, 9 in the cathedral, 10 and at San Lorenzo of Vicenza. 11 The 
latest productions of the master are the Madorina and Saints of 
1517 in the Vicenza Gallery 12 and the Nativity of 1522 in the 

meeting a priest in the wilderness. The figures are not without grandeur ; the 
drawing is clear, and the tone warm and brown ; inscribed : " Opus Bartholomei 
Montagna." Canvas, with life-size figures. 

9 Vicenza Gallery, No. 274, formerly in San Biagio. Predella with scenes from 
the life and martyrdom of St. Biagio, once part of a large altarpiece representing 
the Virgin, Child, 88. Biagio, Francis, a bishop, Anthony of Padua, Bernardino, 
and Buenaventura (G-ioiell, p. 94). [* This picture is not by Montagna, but shows 
a most distinct affinity of style to the frescoes ascribed to Domenico Morone and 
his school in the library of the monastery of San Bernardino at Verona (see postea, 
p. 194). Cf. Borenius, ub, sup. t pp. 99 sq.~] 

10 Vicenza Duomo, chapel of St. Catherine. Virgin and Cbild between St. Mary 
Magdalen and St. Lucy. Canvas, with life-sized figures, signed " Ou . . . Bar . . . 
Montagna " ; a lunette representing St. Sebastian, Christ, and the Baptist, of the 
close of the eighteenth century. This is a picture of Montagna's old age, perhaps 
in part completed by his son Benedetto. 

In the Cappella Proto are remnants of a fresco of the Virgin adoring the Child 
with St. Peter, St. Paul, St. Joseph, and another saint. These remnants have been 
rescued from whitewash, and recall those of San Biagio at Verona ; the forms are 
fair and very precisely reproduced, but the colours are greatly altered. In the 
same chapel a kneeling portrait on a pilaster, a ruined figure of St. Anthony the 
Abbot, and a repainted one of St. James. 

11 Vicenza, San Lorenzo, Proto chapel. On the wall facing a tomb, itself of 
old decorated with paintings, are remnants of a scene from the martyrdom of 
St. Peter, apparently the removal of his body after crucifixion. The corpse is 
removed to the left ; there are spectators on foot, a guard on horseback, and others 
in front of some houses. Little more than the outlines remain, and we are reminded 
of the later frescoes of Mantegna at the Eremitani of Padua. 

Fragments of other frescoes, once in San Marcello, are now in the Scuola 
Elementaria at Vicenza, and suggest the same remarks as the fragment in the 
Layard collection. 

Verona. Dal Pozzo notices a Virgin between St. Sebastian and St. Jerome, dated 
1507, in San Sebastian at Verona. It was removed in 1716 and is now missing 
(Pitt. Veron., pp. 56-7, 262). [* Cf. antea, p. 132, n. 4.] Montagna was in Vicenza 
in that year, and received payments for work in the town-hall (Magrini, p. 35). In 
1508 he sells certain lands (ibid.~). 

12 Vicenza Gallery, dep6t ; originally in the church of Breganze, near Vicenza. 
Virgin and Child between SS. Peter, Anthony the Abbot, Paul, and a bishop ; once 
signed and dated 1517 (Magrini, p. 36) ; much injured, and in part by assistants. 
[* There is no longer a picture answering to this description in the Museo Civico of 
Vicenza, which, on the other hand, contains a Virgin and Child with the Infant 
St. John, signed " Opus Bartholomei Montagna pinxit 1520 12 Mazo." Borenius, 


church of Cologna, 1 both of them inferior to works of a previous 
time. At intervals he painted small half-lengths of the Madonna, 
of which several have been preserved, as if to prove that his 
vehemence could be tempered to a certain amount of delicacy and 
softness. Two of these are in Vicenza ; two more are in Venice. 2 

ub. sit<p., pp. 79 sq.] In the same collection a Christ at the Column, No. 228, remini- 
scent of that phase in Montagna in which he resembles Buonconsiglio and 

1 Cologna. We have the acknowledgment of debt from the Scuola di San 
Giuseppe to Montagna for the piece, from which it appears that it was ordered on 
the 21st of April, 1520, for eighty ducats. The deed of acknowledgment is dated 
Vicenza, Nov. 4, 1521. The picture, a small canvas in the transept, is inscribed 
" Bartholameus Montagna MDXXII. di xin. Marti." It is much injured by restoring 
the colour of a reddish brown, the figures short and vulgar. In the middle of the 
picture, the Infant Christ adored by the Virgin ; at the sides, St. Joseph, St. Sebas, 
tian, Job, and the shepherds ; in a lunette, Christ in the tomb between two angels 
between St. Nicholas and another saint. In a predella, the Marriage of the Virgin, 
the Circumcision, and the Flight into Egypt. 

2 Vicenza, Signer Jacopo Cabianca. The Infant is seated on the parape: 
before the Virgin. Two openings in the background expose a view of sky and 
landscape. Wood, oil, figures half the size of life. [* The present owner of this 
painting is not known to the editor.] 

Vicenza, Casa Tressino. Virgin and Child in a landscape ; inscribed " Opus 
Bartolomei Montagna." Panel, much injured. [* This might perhaps be the picture 
now in the collection of Signor A. Cologna of Milan ; see antea, p. 128, n. 2.] 

Venice, Signor Felice Schiavoni. Virgin and Child in a landscape. Arched panel 
in a pillared frame of the period, in oil, and a little raw. This is feebly treated as 
if with the assistance of Benedetto, and reminds us, as all poor Montagnas do, of 
the Cotignola. [* Possibly identical with the Holy Family now in the Museo 
Civico of Venice ; see posted."] 

Same hand : Virgin and Child in front of a green curtain. The Virgin prays 
with joined hands ; the Child holds a book. Marks of restoring are in the fore- 
head and cheek of the Virgin and in the forehead of the Infant. This, however, 
is a better picture than the foregoing. [* It was subsequently in the Samuelson 
collection, and belongs now to Mrs. Tate of London.] 

Kovigo, Galleria Comunale, No. 136. Virgin and Child with the boy Baptist. 
Later than Montagna and in the manner of Polidoro. 

Venice, Signor Eotamerendis. In the hands of a gentleman of this name, 
Magrini mentions a Christ in benediction, inscribed: "Opus Brmeus Motagna, 
Vincentia die 24 -m. Otbres 1507 " (Magrini, ul. suj>., p. 38). This is no doubt the 
same mentioned in Cicogna, Isor. Venez., iv. 386-8, as having been in San Giorgio 
at Venice. [* The painting under notice is now in the collection of Dr. Fritz 
Harck of Seusslitz, Saxony. The signature has been cleaned, and at present reads : 
"Opus Bartholom. Montagna (trace of a word) die 24 septembris 150" (last 
figure illegible). See Harck, in Archivio storico delV arte, ser. i. vol. ii. pp. 213 sq. 
The following extant paintings by Montagna still remain to be mentioned : 
(1) Bergamo, Galleria Morelli, No. 44. St. Jerome. Signed " Opus Bartholomei 


In October 1523 Bartolommeo died, bequeathing the bnlk 
of his property to his son Benedetto l ; he bequeathed to him 
also his practice ; but from 1528 to 1541, during which Bene- 
detto is known to have produced numerous altarpieces in Vicenza 

Montagna." (2) Cartigliano (near Bassano). Parish Church, chapel to the left. 
The Virgin and Child between SS. John the Baptist and Peter ; in a lunette, God 
the Father worshipped by two angels. (3) Englewood, New Jersey. Collection 
of Mr. Dan Fellows Platt. The Virgin and Child (4) London, collection of 
Mr. Edmund Davis. St. Jerome. (5) London, collection of the late Sir William 
Farrer. The Vestal Claudia ; a Marriage Scene. Tondi from a cassone. (6) Milan 
collection of Dr. G. Frizzoni. St. Jerome. (7) Milan, collection of Sig. A. Grandi. 
St. Sebastian. Signed " Opus Bartholomei Montagna." (8) Museo Poldi-Pezzoli 
No. 617, St. Jerome. No. 618, St. Paul. The Vestal Tuccia ; Bilia and Duilius 
(tondi adorning a cassone). (9) Paris, Louvre, No. 1394. Three Angel Musicians, 
Signed "Opus Bartholomie Montagna." (10) Venice, Caregiani collection. The 
Virgin and Child between SS. John the Baptist and Francis. Signed " Bartho- 
lameus Montag m pinxit." (11) Vicenza, Casa Franco. Christ bearing the Cross. 
The editor has not seen two single figures of SS. Bartholomew and Augustine 
which belong to the Duke of Norfolk and are ascribed to Montagna. They formed 
originally the insides of the shutters of the organ in San Bartolommeo at Vicenza.] 

There are several pictures of Montagna's missing ; others are incorrectly named ; 
some have not been seen by the authors. (1) Bologna, Galleria Ercolani. Virgin 
and Child and a distant landscape, inscribed : " Bartolamio Scholaro de Ze Be." 
This has been assigned to Montagna, but it is probably by another painter (Magrini, 
p. 36). It is now mislaid. (2) Venice, Scuola di San Marco. " Vi fu anco comin- 
ciata 1'arca di Noe da Bartolomeo Montagna " (Sansovino, Ven. Descr., p. 286). 
[* Cf. antea, p. 124, n. 6.] (3) Vicenza, Chiesa degli Angeli. St. Sebastian between 
SS. Roch and Bellinus : above, the Virgin and Child, SS. Francis and Anthony of 
Padua (Boschini, Gioieli, p. 75). Missing, as are likewise : (4) San Bartolommeo. 
Four large figures once on panels closing the great organs (Magrini, p. 39). 
[* Cf. antea.] (5) Vicenza, San Biagio. Virgin and Child between SS. Nicholas 
and John the Baptist, with two children playing instruments ( Gioieli, p. 92). (6) 
Nativity (Ridolfi, i. 141). (7) Carmelitani, chapter-house. Virgin and Child, 
crowned by two angels, between SS. John the Baptist and James ; two angels. 
(8) San Girolamo. Fresco of St. Jerome in the desert above the outer portal 
{Gioieli, p. 83). (9) Casa Gualdo. The whole house was decorated internally with 
frescoes by Montagna (Magrini, pp. 40-41). (10) San Felice. Here were four 
altarpieces of which the subjects are not given (ffioieli, p. 125, but see Benedetto 
Montagna). (11) San Lorenzo. Christ appearing to the Magdalen, St. Jerome, 
and St. John the Baptist (Gioieli, p. 105 bis\ [* Cf. antea, p. 126, n. 1.] (12) 
Crucifixion (Ridolfi, Marav., i. 141). (13) San Rocco. St. Roch, St. Sebastian, 
and an angel (Ridolfi, i. 141). (14) Scoletta di Santa Barbara. Virgin and Child 
between a bishop, St. Gottardo, and St. Job (Gioieli, p. 121). (15) San Tom- 
maso. Virgin and Child between St. Thomas, St. Augustine, and a male and 
female patron (Gioieli, p. 53). 

1 Montagna made two wills, one elated October 5, 1521, which is almost repeated 
in a second, dated May 6, 1523. There is no artistic interest served by the pub- 
lication of either. The first was drawn up by a lawyer, Francesco Zanechini, to 


and its vicinity, he did not exhibit anything like the talent of 
his father. 1 

In Giovanni Buonconsiglio, commonly called " il Marescalco," 
Vicentine art offers a new variety. This painter having, we 

whom Montagna "pro solutione dedit unum quadrum Virginis Marias" in 
margin of will of 1521 (Magrini, p. 49). To the will of 1523 the same notary 
makes this note in chalk : " Nota quod die Dominica XI : a mensis Octobris 
suprascriptus praedictus testator ex hac vita migravit . . ." 

1 We have seen (antea) that Benedetto was the son (he has usually been called 
the brother) of Bartolommeo Montagna. He seems to have acted as his father's 
assistant so long as his father lived. His own works date after Bartolommeo's 
death. [* This is not the case ; for in 1522 he is recorded as having painted by 
himself some frescoes in a chapel in Sant' Agostino at Padua. These paintings 
are now destroyed. See Moschetti, La prima revisione delle pitture in Padova e 
nel territorio, i. 25.] By him we have (1) a Virgin and Child between SS. Peter, 
Paul, Francis, and Anthony of Padua, in Milan, Brera, No. 159, inscribed : " Bene- 
detto Montagna pinxit, 1528," a dark-coloured panel, ruined by restoring, and dis- 
playing little beyond the decrepitude of Bartolommeo's art. (2) There is a Trinity 
between St. Monica and St. John the Baptist, in Vicenza, Duomo, canvas, oil, 
with figures all but life-size, inscribed : " Benedictus Montagna f . 1535," dark in 
tone, but better than the foregoing. [* This picture is now in the Museo Civico 
of Vicenza, No. 268.] (3) A Virgin and Child between St. Christopher and 
another (female) saint, assigned to Bartolommeo (Kidolfi, i. 141), is in Lonigo, 
Duomo (choir), inscribed with a new signature : " Benedetto Montagna m' a pense 
1541," ruined. Further, (4) Modena Gallery, No. 34 (Cat. of 1854). Virgin and 
Child receiving a flower from St. John the Baptist, three angels, signed and dated 
" 1548. M. B." Ugly and mechanical work, and if by Benedetto, which may 
be doubted, singularly like one by Bernardino Loschi. (5) Stuttgart Museum, No. 
509. Marriage of St. Catherine, assigned to Bartolommeo, but of the school and 
perhaps by the son. [* This picture is now labelled "North Italian school of 
the fifteenth century." It shows exactly the same characteristics of style as the 
Veronese paintings mentioned antea, p. 1 35, n. 9. (6) In Santa Maria del Carmine 
at Vicenza there is a Virgin and Child between SS. Sebastian and Anthony the 
Abbot, signed " Beneditus Montagna p." This is a poor work, imitated from 
the Squarzi altarpiece by Bartolommeo now in the Brera, and from the same 
artist's Madonna and Saints at present in the Venice Academy.] 

Missing : (1) Vicenza, Servi. Trinity with SS. Giustina, Christopher, John the 
Baptist, Anthony the Abbot, and another (female) ( Gioieli, p. 38). (2) San Biagio. 
Coronation of the Virgin, with St. Anthony the Abbot below, dated 1535 (Gioieli, 
p. 92, and Kidolfi, i. 141). Nativity, dated 1534, with a Conversion of St. Paul in 
a predella (Gioieli, p. 93). Virgin and Child between St. Peter and St. John 
Evangelist (Gioieli, pp. 93, 94). (3) Virgin and Child, St. Francis, and St. 
Bernard (? Milan, Brera, No. 161). See Boschini, Gioieli, p. 95. (4) Carmelitani. 
Virgin and Child, angel on the throne-step with a lute, two angels hanging the 
crown above the Virgin's head, St. Sebastian and St. Anthony the Abbot (Gioieli, 
pp. 106 8%.}. [* Cf. antea.~] (5) San Rocco. Virgin and Child between St. 
Sebastian and St. Koch (Gioieli, p. 118). (6) San Felice. Ridolfi assigns to 
Benedetto here : 1, Massacre of the Innocents ; 2, Virgin and Child between 


think, been assistant to Speranza, 1 felt the influence of the 
Padnan school, and subsequently took Antonello da Messina 
for his model. He was the contemporary of Montagna, with 
whom he had some general affinity of thought and of manner ; 
and he practised alternately at his birthplace Vicenza, at 
Venice, and in the neighbouring provinces. 2 Till very late in 
the fifteenth century he clung to tempera ; and one of the most 
striking of his works is that which he completed in that medium 
for San Bartolommeo of Vicenza. It is the production of a man 
well acquainted with the technical difficulties of his profession, 
familiar with the anatomy of the human frame, and so far 
advanced in study as to have acquired types and masks pecu- 
liarly his own. His subject is the favourite one of the Virgin, 
Evangelist, and Magdalen mourning over the dead body of the 
Saviour. He represents it in a sad sepulchral way, with great 
force of action and anguish of expression, and with strong 
realism. Endowed with searching powers and a truer feeling 
for colour than Montagna, he still wants attractiveness. The 
Saviour, in his conception, is an emaciated corpse, of good 
proportions and vulgar parts, rigid in death, and lean from 
suffering ; the Virgin wailing with the head of Christ on her 
lap, a woman of everyday aspect ; the Evangelist wringing his 
fingers with violence, a man of coarse nature ; the more placid 

SS. Felix and Fortunatus ; 3, SS. Floriau, Simplician, Prudentia, and Perpetua ; 
4, a picture with saints. These seem the four altarpieces assigned by Boschini 
(Gioieli, p. 125) to Bartolommeo. (7) Monte Berico (church of). Adoration of 
the Kings (Gioieli, p. 61). (8) Verona, private gallery at Sant' Elena al Duomo. 
St. Jerome in the Desert (Dal Pozzo, p. 284). (9) Padua, Sant' Agostino. Chapel 
by Benedetto, " fiol del Montagna" (Anonimo, p. 31). [* Benedetto Montagna 
was also active as an engraver. For a notice of his work in this capacity, see 
Borenius, ub. sup. t pp. 116 *##.] 

* ' Of., however, antea, p. 122, n. 2. 

* 2 Whilst still a comparatively young man Buonconsiglio went to Venice. 
Indeed, the earliest known document in which Buonconsiglio's name occurs, 
dated Jan. 22, 1495, shows him as residing in that town; and he made it his 
home for the rest of his life. He always, however, kept in touch with his native 
country : he executed pictures for its churches ; he paid the tax at Vicenza, 
where he possessed a house in the Contrada di Santa Corona. For some time 
during the second or third decade of the sixteenth century he was working at 
Montagnana near Padua. He was still living in May 1535, but was dead 
in 1537. See Ludwig, in the Berlin Jahrbuch, xxvi. Supplement, pp. 
Borenius, ub. sup., pp. 155-8, 193 $q. 


Magdalen, a portrait. The heads are all short and square, and 
with horizontal lines out of proportion long ; the features con- 
tracted into angles, and energetic as in Diirer ; the drapery 
clean in cast, but broken like Mantegna's. Skill is shown in 
chiaroscuro and reflections ; and broad effects are attempted by 
an application of evening light, especially to the landscape and 
clouded sky. The picture thus produces an impression of power, 
and yet it is unpleasant, from the earthy tinge of the flesh, the 
greenish brown tone of the surface, and the common air of the 
figures. If there be any other peculiarity in addition, it is that 
the hands are thin and small, and awkwardly cramped. 1 The 
difference between Buonconsiglio and Montagna at first may 
thus appear to have been confined to technical treatment, 
Montagna's colour being lucid, unbroken, sombre, and occasion- 
ally harsh ; Buonconsiglio's sombre likewise, but opaque. Their 
education in other respects seems to have been the same ; 
but whilst Montagna improved by studying . Carpaccio and the 
Paduans, Buonconsiglio changed under the influence of Antonello 
da Messina; and about 1497, when be delivered the Madonna 
with Saints to SS. Cosmo e Damiano at Venice, of which a 
fragment is still preserved in the Academy, he had turned his 

1 Vicenza Gallery, No. 279 ; formerly in San Bartolommeo ( Gioielli, p. 90; Mosca, 
p. 5). Panel, tempera, in a frame with monochrome arabesques, skulls, vases, tritons, 
and cupids. In a pinnacle St. Catherine (No. 278), and in two medallions at the 
upper corners the Virgin and Angel annunciate (Nos. 276, 275). Tt is character- 
istic of the execution that there is no trace of stippling or hatching in the tempera. 
The landscape of hills and rock is not without atmosphere, and has something 
in common with those of Lotto. The touch is resolute and given with a full 
brush. The Magdalen wears a fillet with pearls, and a tassel and veil over 
her hair. Her yellow dress is slashed and the bodice laced in front, the 
same dress as in a portrait at the Louvre, which we may assign to the master 
(Louvre, No. 1673, postea). On a cartello to the left: "Joanes Bonichosilii 
P. Mareschalcho." 

We may add to this early work at Vicenza the following : Vicenza, San 
Lorenzo, right transept. Christ crucified between the Virgin and St. John. 
Fresco. The Saviour is lean and bony, but drawn in the spirit of Buonconsiglio 
and Montagna. Two prophets in rounds, and three angels with the symbols of 
the passion below the Crucifixion, are monochromes by the same hand, showing 
the influence of Paduan teaching on the Vicentines. Mosca, i. 56, has no name to 
append to this fresco, which he calls "mediocre." [* Among the earliest extant 
paintings by Buonconsiglio may be classed a half-length of the Virgin and Child 
in the collection of Herr A. von Beckerath of Berlin, and a wing of a polyptych, 
containing two figures of saints, belonging to Mr. J. Annan Bryce of London. 


Alinan photo.} 

[Vicema, Museo Cirico. 




back on the old practice of tempera with steady resolution. 1 His 
attention was now very exclusively given to the alteration in 
mediums, and his types thus retain all their early characteristics ; 
but they become brighter and more glossy from the use of brown 
high surface and semi-transparent shadows and full-bodied 
lights. Practically, indeed, Buonconsiglio may be considered 
to have made better and bolder use of the new system than 
Luigi Vivarini, and to have been at least the equal in this 
sense of Basaiti, when Basaiti issued from the Vivarini 

There is every reason to believe that Buonconsiglio inhabited 
Venice constantly at this time, 2 for he adorned several of its 
churches and public buildings, and his name has been read 
in the registers of the guild of St. Luke. It is unfortunate only 
that so many of his pictures should have been lost or mutilated. 3 
To correct the absence or insufficiency of these we have the great 

1 Venice Academy, No. 602. Fragment of a large piece in SS. Cosmo e Damiano 
alia Giudecca, with a cartello let into the right corner containing the signature 
as follows : "1497 adij 22 decebrio Joanes Boni Chosilij Mareschalchus da Vicenza 
p." We have here half of three figures of St. Benedict, St. Tecla, and St. Cosmo, 
all but life-size ; the faces short, broadly shadowed, and well outlined, in the 
mould of the artist and of Montagna at San Nazaro at Verona. The outlines 
and shadows are high in surface and laid in over the ground flesh-tone ; lights 
ditto with copious fluid and semi-opaque colour. (See Zanotto, Pinac. Ven., 
fasc. 3, for the vicissitudes which this picture underwent.) The above-mentioned 
fragment was once in the Manfrini collection. [* A very important work by 
Buonconsiglio which also dates from 1497 is a Mystic Conception (the Virgin 
between SS. Peter and Joseph) in the parish church of Comedo, near Vicenza 
(signed " Boniconsilii Joa. fecit 1497 "). Borenius, ub. sup., pp. 167 sq. Other 
pictures showing Buonconsiglio in this phase of his career are the portrait of 
a man (perhaps the artist himself) in the Gallery of the Capitol at Rome (No. 147, 
signed "Zuane Mareschalcho p.") and an Ecce Homo in the collection of 
Mr. T. Humphry Ward of London (signed "Joanes Vicentinus pinsit "). Ibid., 
pp. 168 *.] 

2 Cf. antea, p. 139, n. 2. 

s Venice Acad., Nos. 601 and 602 (catalogue of 1867). Canvases, representing 
St. Mark and St. Jerome. These are part of a larger work, of which the lion of 
St. Mark was the centre, described by Zanetti (Pitt. Venez., p. 68) as in the 
Magistrate della Messetaria. The missing parts are a Magdalen and St. John 
the Baptist. Size, m. 0-78 high by 0-65. [The two first-mentioned pictures are 
obviously identical with those noted under Nos. 155 and 160 as SS. Matthew 
and Luke in the current catalogue of the Venice Gallery. They come, however, 
not from the Magistrate della Messetaria but from the Cappella dei Lucchesi 
in the Chiesa dei Serviti, and are the work of Girolamo da Santa Croce. The 


Madonna and Saints of 1502, originally ordered for the oratory 
of the Turchini, but now in San Rocco of Vicenza, 1 where we 
observe that he is not content to imitate Antonello's works 
technically, but appropriates his types and forms and mode of 
expression. The Virgin and Child are still broad in mask, with 
the vertical distances shortened to excess, but they are also 
fleshy and plump, and the form of the latter is very like that 
of Antonello in the Madonna of San Gregorio at Messina. 2 The 
nude St. Sebastian is more muscular than that of Antonello, 
but quite in his mould and character. We may believe that 
Buonconsiglio, for some years of his life, performed the duties 
of Antonello's assistant, and had a share in such pictures as the 
Pieta at Vienna, 3 the small Head of the Virgin in the Academy 
of Venice, 4 and some of the numerous figures of St. Sebastian 
preserved in Continental galleries. We might point out two 
of the latter especially as deserving of attention in this respect, 

painting executed by Buonconsiglio for the Magistrate della Messetaria is at 
present in the dep6t of the Imperial Gallery at Vienna. See Borenius, ub. sup., 
p. 185, n. 2.] 

Missing are the following : (1) Venice, San Domenico. Annunciation and 
Saints in two compartments (Boschini, Le Rio. Min., Sest. di Castello, p. 14). 
(2) SS. Gio. e Paolo. St. Thomas Aquinas and Saints (Boschini, Le Hie. Min., 
Sest. di Castello, p. 60). (3) Same convent, refectory. St. Dominic disputing 
with Heretics (Boschini, Le Ric. Min., Sest. di Castello, p. 67). (4) San 
Giovanni Evangelista. Scene from the legend of the cross (Sansovino, Ven. Desc., 
p. 284). [* This is the picture by B. Diana now in the Venice Academy (No 
665).] The St. Thomas is the only picture by Buonconsiglio mentioned by Vasari 
(iii. 650). 

1 Vicenza, San Kocco (Mosca, i. 107). Virgin and Child in a chapel deco- 
rated with mosaics, in front of a red hanging, between SS. Paul, Peter, Dominic, 
and Sebastian. Wood, figures life-size, not free from restoring, inscribed on a 
cartello : " Joanes Boni-Chonsili pinsit icccccu." This picture is sombre in tone 
and a little flat, and here and there neglected and puffy in outline. The shaded 
side of St. Sebastian's face is repainted, ditto the breast. The outlines are all sharp, 
the extremities those of poorer-class models. Treatment hard and horny from 
excessive use of vehicle, but still not without modulations. [* This picture has 
lately been transferred to canvas and is now in the Museo Civico of Vicenza.] 

* 2 In the opinion of the editor, the Child recalls Antonello's Bambino only 
as regards the poise of the head, while the forms seen quite different. These 
and the pose seem, on the other hand, strong] y reminiscent of the Infant Christ 
in Giovanni Bellini's San Giobbe pala, which has served as model also for other 
details of this composition. See Borenius, ub. sup., p. 170. 

3 Vienna, Imperial Gallery, No. 5. 

4 Venice Academy, No. 590. 


the full-lengths in the Lochis Gallery at Bergamo 1 and in the 
Casa Maldura at Padua. 2 Two votive altarpieces, St. Sebastian 
between St. Lawrence and St. Koch, in San Giacomo dell' Orio, 
and Christ between St. Jerome and St. Secondo in the Gesuati, 
at Venice, illustrate this period of Buonconsiglio's art, but they 
also prepare us for a further change in his manner. 3 From 1510 
to 1513 he was busy with the completion of three large works 
for altars in the cathedral of Montagnana. One of them repre- 
sents the Virgin and Child between St. Sebastian and St. Roch, 

1 Bergamo, Lochis Gallery, No. 222. Small panel, with St. Sebastian in a hip- 
cloth, bound to a tree, the left hand behind his back, the right above his head ; 
in a landscape with castellated houses. The figure is thin, and of a low tone in 
the flesh, the shadows high in surface. 

2 Padua, Casa Maldura. [* Now Piazzola sul Brenta, collection of the Conte 
Camerini.] St. Sebastian bound to the pilaster of a portico, through the arches 
of which a landscape appears. Panel transferred to canvas, oil, a little flayed, 
scaled and retouched. The landscape has the melancholy tinge of that in 
Buonconsiglio's Pieta at Vicenza. The figure is square and fleshy like his later 

* Since we now know that Antonello was in Venice perhaps only in 1475-6, 
and that he died in 1479, it seems hardly likely for mere chronological reasons 
that Buonconsiglio could have been his assistant. Nor can I see any grounds 
for connecting Buonconsiglio's name with the wonderful little Antonello at 
Bergamo, the copy from him at Venice, or the feeble Pieta at Vienna. With the 
fine St. Sebastian in the Camerini collection the case is different. The type and 
the rocky ground recall indeed Buonconsiglio. The attribution to Francesco 
Morone, which I hear that Dr. Frizzoni has proposed for this work, may, however, 
be the correct one, judging particularly from the analogies which this interesting 
canvas shows with Morone's St. Francis receiving the Stigmata in the Museo 
Civico of Verona (No. 348). 

3 (1) Venice, San Giacomo dell' Orio, right of high portal. St. Sebastian bound 
to a pillar in a chapel ; near him, erect, the two saints ; on a cartello the words : 
"Joanes Boni-Chosili dito Marescalcho p." The outlines here are not clearly 
correct, and the draperies seem flattened down as they might be in a bas-relief, 
the folds branching in Montagna's manner. St. Sebastian, a common mortal of 
bony but muscular shape, the head round and short. St. Roch flat-headed, with 
a pleasing face. The whole is well relieved by equal light and shade, and of 
glowing colour treated after Antonello's manner. (2) Venice, Gesuati ; originally 
in San Secondo, where Boschini took it for a picture by the Vivarini (Le Me. Min., 
Sest. della Croce, p. 63), afterwards at the Spirito Santo, and removed from thence 
during the restoring of the chapel. The Kedeemer in benediction stands on a 
pedestal, with the orb in his left hand, in a domed chapel ; San Secondo, in armour, 
holds a banner, St. Jerome a book. Wood, figures life-size ; inscribed in a cartello 
on the pedestal: "Joanes bonichosilij dito Mareschalco p."; much restored 
and repainted, and scaling in several places. Here we see the tendency (in the 
head of the Saviour) to imitate Romanino in the shortening of the vertical 
proportions of the face. Especially repainted are the blue mantle of Christ and 


and bears the date of 1511 l ; another, with St. Catherine on 
a pedestal attended by Tobit and the angel and St. Thomas 
Aquinas, is inscribed 1513 2 ; a third of greater size is the 
Madonna, in a chapel of rich architecture, with six saints and 
two boys playing instruments. All three betray a revolution in 
style 3 ; Buonconsiglio loses sight in some measure of Antonello, 
and acquires a tasteful brilliancy of colours by studying, if 
not Titian, at least Romanino. In the canvas of 1511, the 
St. Sebastian reminds us of young Titian, the handsome St. Roch 
recalls Rornanino ; and the rosy flesh and bright show of tints 
in dresses prove acquaintance with Lotto. The same features 
are more or less apparent in the St. Catherine of 1513 and in 
the larger Madonna with Saints, where great boldness and 
confidence are exhibited in the execution, and yet we notice 
occasional hardness not unnatural in a painter who imitates 
others. 4 It is in considering this stage of Buonconsiglio's 

St. Jerome's red cloak. This piece is engraved in Zanotto (Pinac. Ven., fasc. 3), 
who tells a long story of how it came to San Secondo. From this account it 
would be a production of a later date than those of Montagnana (1511-13), but 
the execution does not confirm this belief. 

1 Montagnana, Duomo, chapel to the left of the choir. Two angels hold a crown 
over the Virgin's head. Canvas, oil, figures almost of life-size ; inscribed on the 
step of the throne on a cartello, " MDXI. Joanes Bonic'osilis Mareschalco p.," and 
on a lower place, " Vincentius Montonus hoc. grat. obtent. ex voto obtulit " ; 
and a shield with a coronet and griffin rampant on a field gules. The colour has 
been abraded and retouched. 

2 Montagnana, Duomo, right of portal. St. Catherine on a pedestal looking up 
in a portico. Canvas, figures of life-size ; inscribed in a cartello on the pedestal : 
"MDXIII. (?one cipher wanting) Joanes Boniconli p." This piece is greatly 
injured by restoring (1732) ; the head of St. Catherine recalls those of Komanino ; 
the colours of copious impasto and rich tone. 

3 Montagnana, Comune. Virgin and Child with two boy-angels playing at 
the foot of her throne ; left, SS. John the Baptist, Jerome, and Peter ; right, Paul, 
Augustine, and Sebastian ; inscribed : " Joanes Boni. cosilij p." Canvas, figures 
life-size. The SS. Paul and Sebastian as in San Eocco of Vicenza; the treatment, 
however, broader and more modern. Note the ill-drawn feet of St. Paul, the eyes 
of the Virgin out of place from restoring, and the mantle of St. Peter new. The 
flesh is of Romanino's brown tinge, e.g. in the altarpiece of Santa Giustina of 
Padua. But this picture is ruined by restoring. Montagnana, Monte di Pieta. 
Here is a Virgin holding the Child in a standing attitude on a parapet. It is 
called by the name of Buonconsiglio, but too injured to justify an opinion (size, 

* 4 Buonconsiglio also painted some frescoes at Montagnana. One of them was 
formerly to be seen in the Hospitale Hierusalem of that town ; it represented the 


practice that we come to assign to him two very interesting 
portraits at the Lonvre, which have puzzled criticism up to 
this time : a female in red velvet with slashes and favours, 
a glove in one hand, a chain falling from her neck in the other, 
a fillet with letters binding her long hair; a man in a black 
cap and dark green damask dress, holding a letter addressed 
" Dn Bnardo di Salla." The sombre glow and hardish flatness 
of the flesh tint in the man, is produced by technical handling 
like that of Buonconsiglio. The warm and livid tone of the 
female's face, the modulation of the touch in the hands, seem 
to indicate a somewhat later execution ; something in the dress 
and colour suggesting Beltraffio or Costa, whilst the hands recall 
those of Francia ; and yet the costume is that which Buonconsiglio 
uses in the earliest of his pictures, and the treatment is that 
of his middle period. 1 

In 1519 we find our artist composing a Madonna with five 
saints and a patron, for the parish church of Montecchio 
Maggiore, near Vicenza; but there are proofs of his existence 
at Venice till much later. He is the author of the plates in 
The Triumph of Fortune by Fanti, published in 1526 2 ; he is 
proved by a document of 1527 to have been living at Venice, 
and as late as 1530 his name still appears on the register of the 
Venetian guild of St. Luke. 3 

Virgin and Child between some saints. The central portion has been transferred 
to canvas, and has lately come into the possession of the Venice Academy. 
Another proof of Buonconsiglio's activity as a fresoante at Montagnana is the 
great and admirable painting in the semidome of the choir of the cathedral, 
representing the Assumption of the Virgin. See Borenius, ub. sup., pp. 180 sqq. 

1 Louvre, Nos. 1519, canvas, m. O69 high by 0'53; and 1673, same measure, 
catalogued "unknown." No. 1519 has been assigned to Carpaccio, 1673 to 
Catena and others. [* The official attributions are at present, for Bernardo: 
Savoldo ; and for the Lady : Venetian school of the sixteenth century. The 
editor feels inclined to think that Bernardo and also the Man feeding a Hawk 
in Windsor Castle, which is doubtless by the same hand as the Louvre picture, 
show indeed the characteristic glowing colour of Savoldo ; while for the Lady 
the attribution to Bartolommeo Veneto suggested by Morelli (Die Gallerien zu 
Miinchen und Dresden, p. 223) seems perhaps nearest the mark, as is indicated 
by the general resemblance to the female portrait by Bartolommeo in the Perego 
collection at Milan, by the careful painting of the details of costume and the gold 
chain, etc. Though the two pictures are companion pieces of old, their style does 
not appear to point to a common artistic origin.] 

2 These plates are not by Buonconsiglio ; see Borenius, ub. sup., pp. 202 sq. 

3 Moschini (Guida di Venezia, ii. 569) says that Buonconsiglio's name was on 
VOL. U 10 


Isolated pieces in the much injured altarpiece of Montecchio 
reveal a growing relationship between Buonconsiglio's manner 
and that of a contemporary Vicentine, Marcello Fogolino. 1 

Fogolino is, we think, a native of the Friulan provinces, 
being perhaps descended from a family of craftsmen of which 

the register of the Venetian guild in 1530. [* He was the head of the guild in 
1531. See Ludwig, loc. cit., pp. 89, 92 sq. ; Borenius, ub. sup., p. 193.] The record 
of 1527 is a power of attorney drawn by the jeweller Calisto Anichino of Ferrara, 
appointing Giovanni Buonconsiglio his agent at Venice (Cittadella, Doc., ub. sup., 
p. 128). Buonconsiglio's son Vitruvio inhabited Ferrara (ibid., p. 112). [* For 
additional information concerning Vitruvio Buonconsiglio, see Borenius, ub. sup., 
pp. 195 sgq.~\ 

1 (1) Montecchio Maggiore, seven miles from Vicenza, traditionally the birth- 
place of Buonconsiglio, parish church. Arched canvas, oil, figures life-size. Virgin, 
Child, and two Angels holding the crown in front of a hanging ; the scene laid in 
a vaulted chapel. At the sides, left, the patron in profile in a black hat, SS. 
Gregory and Mary Magdalen ; right, a female, SS. Catherine and John Baptist ; 
on a cartello the words : " I (D) xviiii. Joanes Bonij ch . . . silij." This 
picture is scaled, and almost entirely repainted, but some original character 
is kept in the Infant Christ and angels. These in a certain measure remind us 
of Fogolino. (2) Tresto, province of Padua, ch. of Santa Maria. Virgin and 
Child crowned by two angels between SS. Matthew and Jerome, with two kneeling 
friars ; in a lunette, Christ in the tomb between three angels. Arched panel with 
figures under life-size. The character is that of a feeble Bellinesque, like Bissolo, 
but the drapery is curt, and the outline is given in the Vicentine manner, and 
this may be a very late creation by Buonconsiglio. [* The editor ventures, how- 
ever, to think that this is really a work by Bissolo ; the sweet, fleshy types, the 
mild colour-scheme, the slender trees, the general style, pleasing but forceless, 
seem so unmistakably his.] (3) Bergamo, Signer Eizoni. Virgin and Child, St. 
Joseph and another saint; much injured and dimmed, and signed (? genuine): 
" Joanes Bonichonsilij Marescalco " ; an unimportant piece. [* Present where- 
abouts unknown.] (4) Dresden Museum, No. 193. Virgin, Child, and Saints. 
Half-lengths, wood. This picture is either by Palma Vecchio or an assistant in his 
school. [* We still have to mention some works by Buonconsiglio, dating from 
the later stages of his career, viz. : (5) Bassano, Museo Civico, No. 124. St. 
Sebastian. (6) Bergamo, Galleria Carrara, No. 125. The Resurrection of Christ. 
(7) Breslau, Schlesisches Museum, No. 652. The Virgin and Child between SS. 
John the Baptist and Stephen. Signed " Joannes Bonij consilij dito Marescalcho 
a. p." (8) Florence, Palazzo Pitti, No. 338. The Virgin and Child with St. 
James the Greater and a Donor. (9) London, collection of Mr. T. Humphry 
Ward. The Virgin and Child with SS. Mary Magdalen, Peter, and Paul, and the 
boy St. John the Baptist. (10) London, sale at Christie's (March 23, 1910, 
No. 106). St. Michael slaying the Dragon. (11) Venice Academy, No. 715. The 
Virgin and Child between SS. John the Baptist and Catherine. Signed " Joanes 
Boni consili dito Mareschalco." (12) Vicenza, Museo Civico, No. 145, Christ 
carrying the Cross. No. 180, Concert.] We miss the following : Vicenza, San 
Michele. Virgin and Child (two angels holding the crown above her head), 
Angel and Tobit, SS. Gregory and Helen. (Mosca, p. 86.) 


Alinari photo.] ] 

[Vicenza, Museo Civico. 


II. 146] 


there are traces at Udine at the rise of the fifteenth century. 1 
One of the few records to which we can trust for elucidating his 
life describes him as of San Vito, 2 in the neighbourhood of which 
he spent some of his later years ; but his apprenticeship was 
made at Vicenza. 3 His pictorial career is not dissimilar from 
Buonconsiglio's in this, that whilst at first he displayed much 
of the Vicentine, he afterwards lost something of that manner. 
His juvenile efforts are no doubt those which remain at Vicenza : 
the Adoration of the Magi, a small tempera once commissioned 
for San Bartolommeo and now in the public gallery, and a 
predella with six saints in a private house. As a youth he was 
evidently brought up to admire the semi-Umbrian models of 
Verlas and Speranza. Careful execution and patient finish are 
marked features in the Adoration, into which he seems to have 
introduced his own portrait ; but these praiseworthy characteristics 
are counterbalanced by incorrectness of drawing and absence of 
relief and atmosphere, as well as by feeble monotony of types. 4 

1 In the Archivio Comunale at Udine, which, as well as the Archivio 
Notarile, has been thoroughly searched for us by the kindness of Signer Joppi, 
we find a record of 1410, April 17, in which Giovanni Fugulini, painter of Udine, 
is described as possessed of certain lands. 

2 See postea, p. 149, n. 2. 

* 3 A considerable number of documents relating to Marcello Fogolino have 
now been brought to light. Yet so far we only know of very few records showing 
Fogolino as staying at Vicenza. These date from 1519 and 1520 ; the following 
year the artist was settled at Pordenone, and it was probably from there that in 
1526 or 1527 he went to Trent (cf. postea, p. 150, n. 3). There can, however, be 
no doubt that Fogolino spent many years of his earlier life at Vicenza; con- 
temporary documents generally describe him as a Vicentine. 

4 Vicenza Gallery, No. 281; formerly in San Bartolommeo (Gioielli, p. 87; 
Mosca, i. 3; Kidolfi, Le Marav., i. 119-20). To the left, the Virgin and Child 
with one of the kings prostrate at her feet ; the usual personages behind the 
scene, in a landscape not without Peruginesque character. A youth holds a 
horse, on whose collar we read " Marcelos pintore," and on a cartello fastened 
to the Virgin's seat are the words " Marcellus fogollinus p.p." In a predella are 
the Annunciation, Birth of Christ, and Flight into Egypt. Small panel, tempera, 
of washy tint, without atmosphere, treated much like Buonconsiglio's earliest 
Pieta. [* Other works by Fogolino which were once in San Bartolommeo at 
Vicenza and now belong to the Museo Civico of that town are a bust of St. 
Jerome (No. 260) and two frescoes representing the same saint and a Pope. A 
Madonna in the Weber collection at Hamburg (No. 129) stands very close to the 
Adoration of the Magi at Vicenza. More mature if still comparatively early 
works by Fogolino are a Madonna and Saints formerly in Sant' Antonio at 
Camposampiero and now in the Mauritshuis at the Hague (No. 347) perhaps 


In the predella, originally at San Francesco of Vicenza, an im- 
provement is apparent ; and Fogolino, though still cold in his 
mode of treatment, already gains a glow of tone not unlike that 
of Buonconsiglio. 1 A Virgin and Child with Saints in the 
Berlin Museum ushers in a more settled manner. It was 
executed for a Vicentine church, and is a broadly touched picture 
with a substantial unbroken tint of a sombre shade ; a certain 
fleshiness and curtness of proportions may be observed in the 
figures ; and something in the modelling and air of the faces 
recalls Moretto da Brescia and Bernardino Licinio. 2 Fogolino 
and his countryman Bernardino have indeed been occasionally 
confounded, as we see in the Academy of Venice, where a 
Madonna and six saints in the style of the altarpiece at Berlin 
is catalogued under Licinio' s name. 3 But the chief variety in 

the closest approach of Fogolino to Montagna; and a full-length Virgin and 
Child in the Museo Poldi-Pezzoli at Milan.] 

1 Vicenza, Signer Luigi Robustelli. In the middle of the picture St. Francis 
receiving the. Stigmata, adored by the kneeling friar ; to the left, SS. Chiara and 
Peter ; right, Paul and another. This long predella is executed in the style of 
Buonconsiglio, and but for a certain rotundity in the types and coldness of 
execution, we might call it his. [* This picture is now in the Museo Civico 
of Vicenza (No. 259).] 

2 Berlin Museum, No. 47. Canvas, 8ft. 2f in. square. Virgin and Child between 
SS. Francis, John the Evangelist, Buenaventura, Anthony of Padua, Bernard of 
Siena, and Louis of Toulouse. Note the low unbroken mahogany tone, the short 
fat type of the Child, the curtness of the figures generally, and the coarseness 
of the articulations. Signed: " Marcellus Fogolinus p." Originally in San 
Francesco of Vicenza {Qioieli, p. 86; Mosca, i. 46; Ridolfi, i. 120). [* It is 
proved by records in the Biblioteca Comunale at Vicenza that Fogolino in 1519 
and 1520 was working (for part of the time with Speranza) in the church of San 
Domenico in that town. There still remain frescoes by him (representing 
apostles, saints, etc.) in the room behind the present church ; they are closely 
allied in style to the pala now at Berlin. A fresco of the Virgin of Mercy to the 
left of the main entrance of Santa Corona at Vicenza was, according to M. 
Bortolan (S. Corona, p. 287), executed in 1519 ; it is no doubt a work by Fogolino, 
as may be seen from the types and forms of the figures, the landscape, etc. The 
frieze of angels and view of Vicenza around a Madonna of the fourteenth 
century above the fourth altar to the left in the same church are no doubt rightly 
ascribed by the authors to Fogolino (see posted, p. 150) ; we may add that the 
two female saints painted al fresco on each side of this altar also display the 
characteristics of Fogolino's style. These paintings were probably executed in 
1519-20, when the altar in question is known to have been restored (Bortolan, 
ub. sup., pp. 270 .?#.).] 

3 Venice Academy, No. 164 ; said to have been in the Scuola de' Calzolai at 
Udine. Canvas, m. 2-37 high by 1-80. Virgin and Child between SS. Anthony, 


Fogolino is observable in votive Madonnas commissioned at 
Pordenone, and preserved to this day in the cathedral of that 
town. 1 One of these was contracted for by the Scuola di San 
Biagio at Pordenone, on the 15th of March, 1523, and represents 
the Virgin and Child between St. Biagio and St. Apollonia ; the 
other was delivered a little earlier to the superintendents of 
the cathedral, and is a Glory of St. Francis between St. John the 
Baptist and St. Daniel. It is very clear that Fogolino here 
commingles Friulan and Vicentine features with others derived 
from disciples of Raphael. The heads in the Glory of St. Francis 
are still reminiscent of Licinio, the handling is pastose and 
broad with swimming outlines and modelling, the drawing loose 
in flesh and in drapery. 2 In the altarpiece of San Biagio the 
Raphaelesque element is more marked, in the free motion of two 
angels crowning the Virgin, and in the action and shape of the 
Virgin and Christ, whilst the handling is bold as before. 3 It is 

Bernardino, Louis, Francis, Clare, and Buenaventura. The figures here also are 
square, short, and puffy ; the types and treatment like those at Berlin. [* This 
picture is now officially ascribed to Fogolino.] 

* ' On April 8, 1521, Fogolino was settled in Pordenone and had executed an 
altarpiece for the church of Pasiano, a village near that town. On April 21 of 
the same year he was commissioned to complete the frescoes in the church 
of San Lorenzo at Korai Grande which had been begun by Pordenone. Fogolino's 
work was valued by Pellegrino da San Daniele and the guardian of the monastery 
of St. Francis at Pordenone on August 3, 1521. See Joppi, in Monumenti storici 
publilicati della R. Deputazione veneta di storia patria, ser. iv. Miscellanea, 
vol. xii. Appendix, pp. 28, 80 sq. 

2 Pordenone, Duomo (San Marco), third altar to the right. St. Francis holds a 
cross ; the Baptist has the same symbol ; and St. Daniel, in an orange dress, with 
a lion at his feet, points to a scroll on which is written : " cum veniet S. Sanc- 
torum cessabit . . ." The figures all want shoulders. Here Fogolino may have 
been assisted by his usual journeyman, his brother Matteo. We trace this 
picture to him by the style and also indirectly by record. There is a contract 
dated June 29, 1523, in the Archivio Notarile of Udine, in which Marcello 
Fogolino of San Vito accepts a commission to paint, for Santa Maria at Visinale 
near Prata, the Virgin and Child between SS. John the Baptist and Paul, with 
the Eternal in a pinnacle ; and this picture (now missing) is to be equal in every 
respect to that of St. Francis in the church of San Marco at Pordenone. The 
surface of the altarpiece is dimmed by varnishes, the landscape dusky and re- 
touched ; the colour has the fat impasto of Bonifacio, and the drapery is a styleless 
imitation of Palma's. 

8 Pordenone, Duomo, of old in San Biagio. The contract for this canvas is in 
the Archivio Notarile of Udine, and dated March 15, 1523 ; the price was fourteen 
ducats. The execution is not so good as in the foregoing, and betrays the hand 
of an assistant, probably of Matteo Fogolino. It is of a rosy unbroken flesh tone 


not unlikely that Giovanni da Udine, who had been at Rome 
and was on the eve of returning thither (1523), had brought 
home a number of Raphaelesque designs, and thus altered the 
current of artistic fashion in Friuli. From Pordenone, Fogolino 
now revisited Vicenza, where he introduced his new manner 
into a frieze of angels in Santa Corona l and a Nativity in San 
Faustino, 2 combining in both examples, with the shallow bold- 
ness of an imitator, the plump forms and natural movements of 
the Raphaelesques with the broad treatment of the followers of 
Giorgione and Pordenone. 3 In later days chance brought him 
back into the north, 4 and we learn from a letter in his own hand 
that he was living in 1536 at Trent, and had been appointed in 

with little shadow, scaled in parts and restored. There is something in the 
treatment recalling Pordenone 's picture of 1515 in the Duomo of Pordenone. 

1 Vicenza, Santa Corona, fourth altar to the left as you enter. In the centre 
is an old Virgin of the fourteenth century, around which are a number of Fogolino's 
puffy angels, imitating in movement those of the Raphaelesques ; the colour is 
brown, even throughout, and of substantial impasto. 

2 Verona, Signer D re Bernasconi ; formerly in San Faustino of Vicenza (Gioieli, 
p. 43, and Ridolfi, Marav., i. 120) ; signed " Marcellus Fogolinus p." The Child 
in the foreground is very puffy ; the head like one of Mazzolino's, but the 
picture generally (it represents only the kneeling Virgin and St. Joseph in front 
of a house and landscape) recalls Giorgione, Pordenone, and Raphael alternately. 
We are reminded by the forms also of Gaudenzio Ferrari. Canvas, with figures 
under half life-size, not uninjured. [* This picture is now in the Museo Civico of 
Verona, No. 136).] 

In the same style, Louvre, No. 1159, half-length of the Virgin and Child with 
St. Sebastian ; but like an earlier work in which Matteo Fogolino might also 
have a share. 

* 3 As we have seen (antea, p. 148, n. 2), the painting at Santa Corona was 
probably executed in 1519-20. There is no proof that Fogolino went back to 
Vicenza after having painted the two altarpieces at Pordenone. He was in that 
town in May 1524 (Joppi, loc. cit., pp. 28, 83), and probably continued to live 
there for the next two years. Then, on Jan. 25, 1527, Marcello and Matteo Fogolino 
were sentenced by the court of Udine to exile from the Venetian territory on the 
charge of having killed Liberale, a barber of Belgrade (a village on the banks of 
the Tagliamento). The two brothers settled subsequently at Trent ; but by act- 
ing as spies over the plans and doings of the Imperialists, they succeeded in 
obtaining safe-conducts which enabled them to visit the dominions of Venice. 
The latest available record concerning Marcello Fogolino shows him as living 
at Trent in 1548. See Di Sardagna, in Monumenti storici pubblicati della R. 
Deputazione veneta di storia patria, ser. iv. Miscellanea, vol. vi. pp. 265 sqq. 

4 We find him and his brother buying land at Pordenone in the last days 
of January 1533. In the contract they are called: "M Marcello Pittore e M 
Matteo de Fogolinis Vicentini, abitanti in Pordenone." Acta Pier Ant. Frescolino, 
Arch. Notar. Udine. 


March of that year to make preparations of an architectural and 
decorative kind in certain edifices of the town and its neighbour- 
hood for the coming of King Ferdinand. 1 This letter leads us to 
search the churches of Trent and its vicinity; and there, in 
truth, are copious traces of his presence. In the Santissima 
Trinita we see the Madonna between St. Michael and five other 
saints adored by the kneeling figures of Andrea Borgo (d. in 
1532), and his wife, Dorothea Tonno (Thun). This picture was 
for many years an ornament of the chapel of the Thun family in 
the church of San Marco, and has been assigned to Moretto 
of Brescia and Romanino, both of whom are known to have 
practised in this part of Italy. We have already observed some 
common features in Moretto and Fogolino. There is no mis- 
taking here the puffy forms of the latter, his affection for 
Raphael's models, and his peculiarities of hand which differ 
from those of Moretto. 2 Equally characteristic and exactly 

1 " Car m. infiniti saluti. Avisovi como fui arzonti (? aggiunto) a treto 
(Trento) Li Signori del E. SS. gardinale subito me manda accrti (a certi ?) casteli 
del R. SS. gardenale a far provisi6 de adornar e frabicar p la venuta A la maista 
de Ee Fredinando el qual se dice che a questo mayo venira a Trento. Et al 
presente son ritornato a Trento. Et no no posuto interogare la cossa me cometesi 
p mis alisandro. Ma p lo primo meso le mandero al tuto cenza (senza) falo. 
Non altro Dio sia convui. 

" Adi 3 Mazo 1536 in Trento. 

" Statj di bona volgia ch de curto sperocfi mio fratelo matteo et tuti li soi 
compagni venira ha habitare a Pordeno come da primo & & & Credo en me 
intendati p ch mi veno movesto qualque parola quado iro a Pordeno. Al presente 
he in ordene vinti milia fanti todechi (Tedeschi) et fa vinti milia ratione no 

" Matteo si aricomada molta . . . 


" VOSTRO. " 
(Address) " Al molto mag co ns 

Bastiano Mantega car mo 
in PordenS " 

(and in another but contemporary hand) 

" Lta de m Marcello 


(We owe communication of this letter to the kindness of the Conte Pietro 
di Montereale, a great collector of Friulan records.) 

2 Trent, Chiesa della Santissima Trinita. Arched canvas. Virgin crowned by 
two angels, between SS. Michael, Chiara, Catherine, Eosa, and Buenaventura. In 
front, kneeling, the Podesta to the right, his wife to the left ; distance, sky and 


similar in method is the Virgin and Child between St. Andrew 
and St. Peter in the church of Povo, near Trent. 1 Nor is it 
improbable that frescoes in the rooms of the castle of Trent, and 
particularly a couple of ceilings, should have been painted by 
Fogolino, though assigned to Giulio Romano. 2 There is also an 
altarpiece in the Duomo of Trent, very like a work of our artist, 
and a house-front near the cathedral likewise in his style. 3 

landscape. Same style as in the later examples of Fogolino. [* Some years ago 
this picture was removed from 88. Trinita and passed into the possession of 
Prince Galeazzo von Thun und Hohenstein (of Rome and Povo). See Menestrina, 
in Strenna delV " Alto Adige," 1904, p. 13, n. 1.] 

1 Povo, near Trent. In a lunette, the Eternal ; in apredella, the Call of Andrew 
and James to the Apostlesbip, the Adoration of the Magi, and the Martyrdom of 
St Peter. Wood, arched ; style as before. Here again the brown unbroken line 
recalls Gaudenzio Ferrari. 

2 Trent, Castello, round hall. Four medallions, with frescoes of incidents from 
ancient history, lunettes with figures and tritons and allegories in the spandrils 
of each lunette, assigned to Giulio Eomano, and no doubt Kaphaelesque, but by 
Fogolino. In a room on the first floor within the court, and near the loggia, 
painted by Komanino, a ceiling divided like that of the Farnesina, with heathen 
divinities in the lunettes, and children in the central rectangle ; all boldly and 
effectively foreshortened. The character generally is like that of the immediately 
foregoing, but there is something more Ferrarese on the whole. 

It may be that these frescoes were done upon designs furnished by Giulio 
Komano, or some other Raphaelesque. [* We know from a contemporary docu- 
ment that the latter ceiling is by Dosso Dossi (Schmb'lzer, Die Freshen des 
Castello del Buon Consiglio, pp. 24 sqq.}. As to the former, there exists no record 
proving that it is the work of Fogolino, while there is documentary evidence to 
show that he executed many other paintings in this building and also that 
he painted in the adjoining so-called old castle. According to Herr Schmolzer, 
the following are the paintings by Fogolino which are still to be seen in the first- 
mentioned edifice : the arabesques on the ceiling of the great hall on the second 
floor, the friezes (of which only traces survive) on the principal front and the 
front facing the Court of the Lions, and finally the frescoes in the ex-tavern on 
the ground floor. In the old castle, the court is adorned with frescoes by 
Fogolino and his journeymen. Ibid., pp. 50 sqq. Herr Schmolzer ascribes the 
paintings in the round hall to Brusasorzi (pp. 53 sqq.).'] 

3 Trent, Duomo, Cappella Manci, altar to the right. St. Anne, the Virgin and 
Child, between 88. Nicholas and Vigilio, the latter presenting a wooden shoe 
to the Infant Christ. Canvas, very high up, assigned to Eomanino, not uninjured, 
and as far as one can see really by Fogolino. [* This picture has now its place 
on the left-hand side of the choir.] House-front, opposite portal of Duomo, with 
figures of horsemen. Missing : Vicenza, San Tommaso, altarpiece of high altar 
(Bidolfi, i. 120). [* Boschini, lib. sup., p. 53, ascribes it to Bart. Montagna.] In 
the Lochis Gallery at Bergamo (No. 126) is a miniature representing the celebra- 
tion of a mass (engraved in Rosini, t. xcvii.), a careful and tasty little piece, of 


good execution, which may well be by Fogolino, to whom it is assigned. 
[* Fogolino also executed some engravings, for notices of which see Passavant, 
Le peintre-graveur, v. 145 sqq., and Hind, Cat. Early Italian Jthigr., pp. 512 sqq.).~\ 

We may notice here, amongst other Vicentines of small interest, Petrus 
Vicentinus, of whom we have the following : Venice, Correr Museum, Sala XV., 
No. 29, bust of Christ at the column, a very ugly Mantegnesque piece, of opaque 
and earthy colours, a poor tempera on panel, signed in a cartello on a parapet : 
" Petrus Vicentinus pinxit." 

Another artist of Vicenza is Girolamo Vicentino, respecting whom we have but 
the following : Bergamo, Lochis Gallery, No. 25, bust panel, Christ carrying his 
Cross, in oil, a little better than the work of Petrus. This Girolamo may be the one 
who witnessed B. Montagna's will in 1523. His panel is inscribed: " Jeronimus 
Vicentinus p." [* Another work by this artist is a bust of St. Sebastian in the 
Castello Colleoni at Thiene, near Vicenza (signed " Hieronimus Vincentinus."] 



rpHERE are few cities of Northern Italy in which art was 
J- more effectually changed by Mantegna's example than 
Verona. After a brilliant period of activity, during which the 
noble principles of Tuscan composition were illustrated in the 
works of Altichiero and Avanzi, the traditions of the Florentines 
were neglected or forgotten, and the fifteenth century opened 
without a single painter of genius. Whilst Turone and his 
comrades preserved in their ateliers the lowliest precepts of their 
craft, it was vain to hope for pictorial progress. And yet there 
was now, as there ever had been, a demand for pictures of 
a better kind. The question was how such a demand could 
be satisfied, and by whom. The Venetians, in a similar position, 
had employed Gentile da Fabriano, a stranger ; the Veronese 
were more fortunate in finding one amongst their fellow- 
countrymen whose style bore the impress of Umbrian teaching. 
It has been held, indeed, that previous to the rise of Vittore 
Pisano, 1 the Veronese rose to a fair level of eminence under 
Stefano da Verona, whom Vasari describes as a pupil of Agnolo 
Gaddi 2 ; but there is every reason to suppose that this opinion 
is baseless, and that Stefano da Zevio, the contemporary or 
disciple of Pisano, is the only person of that name whose 
existence is beyond dispute. 3 

* ! Cf . postea, p. 155, n. 2. 

2 Vasari, i. 641 gq. and iii. 628 s%q. 

3 All paintings under the name of Stefano at Verona and in its neighbour- 
hood are of the fifteenth century, and are not of a style at all related to that of 
A. Gaddi. Had Vasari suggested Lorenzo Monaco or any other miniaturist 
as the master, he might find converts to the opinion that Stefano, or even Pisano, 
were taught in his school. Amongst the works which Vasari assigns to Stefano, 
there is not one in which we can trace as much Giottesque character as we find 



Pisano's birth and education are involved in obscurity. On 
the one hand, dal Pozzo mentions a Madonna in his own posses- 
sion inscribed with the date of 1406, from which it would appear 
that the painter called himself Vettor Pisanello de San Vi 
Veronese ; l on the other hand, Vasari asserts that Pisano was 
journeyman to Andrea del Castagno at Florence. 2 Both state- 
ments are open to grave suspicion, the form of inscriptions in the 
fifteenth century being unlike that which dal Pozzo has pre- 
served, the life of Castagno being in itself a contradiction of 
Vasari's theory. There is no insuperable objection to believing 
that Pisano spent some of his earlier years in Tuscany, however 
little his works may reveal of Florentine schooling. 3 Had it 
chanced that he followed the footsteps of Gentile da Fabriano, 
and after serving his apprenticeship in Umbria settled in the 
Tuscan capital, he would be the second of his class on whom the 

in those of Altichiero. We shall see that the theory of Veronese critics is 
untenable, according to which there are two painters of the name of Stefano, one 
the author of frescoes of the fourteenth, a second of frescoes of the fifteenth 
centuries. We shall enumerate amongst the works of Stefano da Zevio the 
wall-paintings at Illasi which have been assigned to his older homonym. 
(See C. Bernasconi, Studi sopra la Storia delta Pittura Ital., Dispensa viii. 
1865, Verona, p. 21.9). [* See also postea, p. 165, n. L] 

1 Verona, Casa de' Conti dal Pozzo. Virgin and Child between SS. John the 
Baptist and Catherine, and on a cartello the words : " Opera di Vettor Pisanello 
de San Vi Veronese MCCCCVI." (Dal Pozzo, ub. sup., pp. 9 and 305.) [* This 
picture is now in the depot of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum at Berlin. It 
is not by Pisano, but by some follower of Squarcione. See Von Tschudi, in the 
Berlin Jahrbuch, vi. 18 sqq.~] 

2 Vasari, ii. 682, iii. 5. In another place Vasari says it was a tradition in 
Florence that Pisano's early works were in the old Chiesa del Tempio at Florence 
(iii. 13). 

* s Much documentary information concerning Pisano has come to light since 
the authors wrote their account of his life and works. Of greatest importance 
are the records which lately have been discovered by Dr. Giuseppe Biadego 
(see Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di scienze, letter e ed arti, vol. Ixvii. pt. ii. 
pp. 837-59 ; vol. Ixviii. pt. ii. pp. 229-48 ; vol. Ixix. pt. ii. pp. 183-8, 797-813, 
1047-54). To begin with, it is proved by them that the Christian name of 
the artist was Antonio, not Vittore, as Vasari states. He was the son of Puccino 
di Giovanni di Cereto of Pisa and Blisabetta di Niccol6 of Verona. The first 
mention of him occurs in the will of his father, made in Pisa in 1395 (Biadego, 
ub. sup., vol. Ixix. pt. ii. pp. 1047 sqq.). He must then have been a mere infant if 
a statement in the Veronese Anagrafi (census returns) that he was thirty-six 
years old in 1433 is to be considered as approximately correct (ibid., vol. Ixvii. 
pt. ii. p. 839). There exists a record proving that in 1422 Pisano was settled at 
Verona, though temporarily staying at Mantua (see postea, p. 159, n. 5). 


principles of the great Florentines made no impression. Pisano 
was celebrated amongst his contemporaries for richness of poetic 
fancy in general delineation and superior skill in the drawing of 
animals. 1 Guarino, his countryman and panegyrist, affirms that 
he could represent the waves in motion or at rest, the sweat on 
the labourer's brow, and the neighing of horses ; but he dwells 
chiefly on the power with which he reproduced portraits, scenery, 
birds, and quadrupeds. 2 Porcellio, the scribe of Alfonso of 
Arragon, Basinio of Parma, and Tito Strozzi, are unanimous 
in the same strain. 3 

The high-flown character of this eulogy contrasts most 
curiously with the bare reality of Pisano's early style. In his 
youth, we think, he painted, for the convent of San Domenico, 
the Madonna at present in the Gallery of Yerona. The Virgin 
sits in the middle of a court with the Child on her lap, surrounded 
by a flight of diminutive seraphs ; the halo about her head 
is adorned with peacocks' feathers ; roses cling to a bower at the 
sides of the court ; a quail hops upon the Virgin's dress, and 
peacocks strut along. In the foreground St. Catherine, with 

1 " In pingendis rerum formis sensibusque exprimendis ingenio prope poetico 
putatus est." Facius (B.), De Viris Illust., 4to, Flor. 1745, p. 47. 

2 Guarino Veronese, after having been in Constantinople, Florence, and Venice, 
settled at Verona in 1422, where he was professor of Greek. In 1429 he was 
appointed by Nicholas III., Duke of Ferrara, private tutor to his son Lionel. He 
may have known Pisano at Verona and at Ferrara. His poem in praise of 
the latter is published in Bernasconi, II Piscina, etc., 8vo, Verona, 1862, p. 14). 
[* See now also Vasari, Gentile da Fabriano e il Pisanello, ed. by A. Venturi, 
pp. 39 sqq. ; and Biadego, ub. sup., vol. Ixviii. pt. ii. pp. 230 sqq.~\ 

3 Porcellio (Pietro), banished from Rome after 1434, by Pope Eugenius IV., for 
taking part in a popular outbreak, was secretary to Alfonso of Arragon, one of 
Pisano's sitters, in 1452. Basinio, born in 1425 at Parma, was professor of 
eloquence at Ferrara in 1448, and afterwards in the service of Sigismund 
Malatesta of Rimini. He might know Pisano at Ferrara and Rimini. He 
died in 1457. Tito Strozzi was born at Ferrara in 1422, and died in 1505. All 
these eulogists are therefore more or less connected with the Ferrarese court, 
where Pisano was a favourite. Facius, too, who wrote respecting him, was 
at Ferrara at the wedding of Alfonso's (of Arragon) daughter with Lionel 
in 1444. At that ceremony are known to have been present Porcellio and 
Guarino. The rhymes of Porcellio, Basinio, and Strozzi in praise of Pisano, 
are in the " Carmi Latini," ed. Cesare Cavattoni, 8vo, Verona, 1861, in Bernasconi's 
" II Pisano." [* See also Vasari, G 'entile da Fabriano, etc., ed. Venturi, pp. 61 sq. y 
55 sqq., and 52 sq.~] Another poet, Gio. Santi, alludes to Pisano in his Rhyme 
Chronicle, lib. xxii. cap. 91, " Et in medaglie et in pictura el Pisano." 


a crown of roses on her wrist, receives the palm of martyrdom, 
and listens to the chaunt of angels reading a psalter. The crowns, 
borders, flowers, and a fountain in the distance are embossed and 
gilt. Long and streaming draperies embarrass the frames, soft 
and tender harmonies of tint enliven the dresses ; shadow is 
carefully avoided, and the drawing is minute to a fault. Affected 
elegance and slenderness are combined in impersonations of the 
sex ; distorted action and short proportioned stature mark the 
angels ; in every face and shape a puerile forgetfulness of nature. 
That Pisano had just issued from a school of illuminators, like 
Lorenzo Monaco, or Pietro of Montepulciano, we might readily 
believe. 1 

Of a more truly graceful character and somewhat less infan- 
tile in treatment is a Virgin and Child, by Pisano, belonging 
to Dr. Bernasconi at Verona ; 2 of little additional power the 
Annunciation, St. George and St. Michael, on the sides of the 
Brenzoni chapel at San Fermo Maggiore. Having transferred 
the peculiar features of a miniaturist from parchment to panel, 
Pisano now extends a similar practice to wall-distemper, fol- 
lowing with melancholy exactness the path pursued a century 
before by the comrades of Lippo Memmi. We still observe the 
fashion of embossment, the fine tenuous outline, the slender air, 
and the shadeless flatness of previous examples ; we notice a 
continued partiality for birds and animals ; at the same time 
the germ of a new and important study. The regular propor- 

1 Verona Museum, No. 359. Wood, m. 1-29 high by 0-95, from the convent of 
San Domenico. The treatment is that of a miniature, the light of a rosy tinge, 
gently and minutely shaded to green by minute hatching. The Child is defective 
in shape ; the foreheads generally are high and convex, the hands spidery and 
coarse at the finger-ends ; the whole surface is now embrowned by time. [* This 
picture is surely too feeble for Pisano, though without doubt it betrays his 
influence. Cf. Zoege von Manteuffel, Die Gemdlde und Zeichnungen des Antonio 
Pisano aus Verona, p. 51.] 

2 Verona, Dr. Bernasconi. Small panel, gold ground. Two angels fly at the 
Virgin's shoulders ; a quail is at her feet. The Child is less lame than previously, 
and there is more genuine grace in the attitudes. This is perhaps the picture 
noticed by Persico (Descrizione di Verona, ub. sup., ii. 34) in the Galleria 
Sanbonifazio. [* The painting seen by the authors in the Bernasconi collection 
now belongs to the Verona Gallery (No. 90). It certainly resembles Pisano's 
work in many respects, though at the same time it differs considerably from it. 
It has, moreover, been largely repainted.] 


tions of the saints reveal Pisano's growing acquaintance with 
antique carved work and his wish to infuse into the tight dress 
of the period the simplicity of an older age. 1 In the Cappella 
Pellegrini at Sant' Anastasia, where he displays the prominent 
marks of his style, he seems to have acquired more ease in 
representing instant action, more correctness of outline, and a 
better knowledge of foreshortening. It is apparent that his 
attention was concentrated on heads ; and their portrait character, 
as well as the neatness with which they are finished, prepare 
us for the course which he afterwards took. We admire the 
spontaneity of movement in St. George with his foot in the 
stirrup, or the pleasing profile of the female saint near him, in 
a flowing dress and basket-cap ; we may praise good perspective 
in the horses, and contrast it with the childish absence of the 
same science in the landscape. 2 The care and trouble which 
Pisano bestowed on his subject are illustrated by the designs 
for some parts of it in the collection of the Archduke Albrecht 

1 Verona, ' San Fermo Maggiore, Cappella Brenzoni. The Annunciation is a 
fresco in the sections at the sides of a pointed tomb, on which we read the 
inscription : " Hie data Brenzonio requies post fata Jacob o Francisci que eadem 
marmora corpus habet ipse etiam patrijs cultor sanctissime legum junxisti cineres 
Bartolomee tuos. Quern genuit Russi Florentia Tusca Johanis istud sculpsit opus 
ingeniosa manus." The date of this tomb is variously stated : traditionally as 
1430 ; in Vasari, Annot., iii. 10, note 2, as 1420. At the side to the right, in a 
cartello, are the words " Pisanus pinsit." The Eternal sends the Infant in a ray 
to the Virgin. In the side pinnacle are St. George in profile and St. Michael. 
The colour has faded away and is partly scaled off, the wax embossments 
dropping, and dust clinging where it can. This is the art which influenced 
Giambono. [* The Brenzoni monument seems to have been erected about 
1430-35, and the frescoes of Pisano belong probably to the same period. 
Cf. Zoege von Manteuffel, ub. sup., pp. 9 sqq. t and Biadego, ub. sup., vol. Ixviii. 
pi. ii. pp. 242 sqq.~\ 

In this church are two fragments of fresco assigned to Pisano : above the 
entrance to the Cappella degli Agonizzanti, an Adoration of the Magi, of a period 
immediately subsequent to that of the painter ; above the portal, an Annunciation, 
possibly by Falconetto. 

2 Verona, Sant' Anastasia, Cappella Pellegrini. Vasari is all wrong in his descrip- 
tion of the subjects. St. George is here represented mounting to fight the dragon, 
who awaits him in the left-hand corner of the composition ; in the distance the 
sea and a ship, and incidents from St. George's legend. Beneath the principal 
scene is still a solitary figure of a pilgrim, the St. Eustachio mentioned by Vasari 
having disappeared. The fresco is high, and can be seen with difficulty. It is 
also covered with dust. A large piece above the dragon is wanting. Vasari 
mentions other frescoes in the chapel which have perished (iii. 


at Vienna, 1 and his conscientious study of nature in three figures 
drawn from life in the British Museum. 2 

Subsequent to the employment of Gentile da Fabriano at 
Venice (circa 1422), Pisano was entrusted with the execution of a 
fresco in the hall of the Great Council, which at the close of the 
century was replaced by a canvas by Luigi Vivarini 3 ; he was also 
invited by Filippo Maria Visconti to decorate some of the rooms 
in the castello of Pavia, 4 but he does not seem to have left 
Verona for any length of time till after 1435. His fame as a 
portrait-painter was then considerable, and an order is still 
preserved in the accounts of the house of Este which proves 
that he took a likeness for Nicholas III., Duke of Ferrara, in 
1435. 5 He afterwards visited Rome, 6 and during the pontifi- 

1 Vienna, under the names of Niccola Pisano and (!) Berna. Vellums with 
female heads, females with dogs, falcons, and quails. [* These drawings can only 
be ascribed to the school of Pisano (Wickhoff, in the Vienna Jakrbuch, vol. xiii. 
pt. ii. pp. clxxx sqq.}. There exist, however, several drawings by Pisano which 
were utilized by him for the Sant' Anastasia fresco. They are to be found in the 
Recueil Vallardi (a large collection of drawings chiefly by or after Pisano) in the 
Louvre, in the British Museum, and elsewhere. See Hill, Pisanello, pp. 92 sqq.~\ 

2 British Museum. Three full-lengths in the quaint costume of the time, 
signed " Pisanus f." Vellum, pen and ink. 

3 See Facius, ub. sup., and antea in Vivarini (Luigi). See also Sansovino, 
Yen. Descr., p. 325, and History of Italian Painting (1st ed.), vol. iii. p. 99, for 

proof that Gentile had done work at the Hall of Council previous to 1423. [* He 
seems to have painted there about 1409 ; see Colasanti, Gentile da Fabriano, 
pp. 10 sq. Nothing is known as regards the date of Pisano's fresco. For a 
discussion of several questions in this connection, see Hill, ub. sup., pp. 27 sqq.~\ 

4 Filippo Maria Visconti became Lord of Pavia in 1412, and died in 1447. The 
frescoes at Pavia are described by the Anonimo (ed. Morelli), p. 46, and mentioned 
by Ces. Cesariani, Vitruv., p. cxv. Breventano, in Anonimo, notes, p. 180, says 
this represented hunts and animals. 

a Precis of record furnished by the kindness of the Marchese Campori. 

* This document really records that Lionel, on Feb. 1, 1435, ordered two ducats 
of gold to be paid to a servant of Pisano because this servant had brought and 
presented to Lionel, in the name of his master, a likeness of Julius Csesar. This 
was probably a wedding-present, as Lionel was married to Margherita Gonzaga in 
the same month. See Vasari, Gentile da Fabriano, etc., ed. Venturi, p. 38; 
Hill, ub. sup., pp. 59 sq. On July 4, 1422, Pisano bought a piece of land at 
Verona ; we learn from the document in question that he was then staying at 
Mantua, but that his home was in the Contrada di San Paolo at Verona. On 
Aug. 10, 1423, the whole of the price of the house had been paid by Pisano 
(Biadego, ub. sup., vol. Ixix. pt. ii. pp. 801 sqq.}. At Verona, on July 8, 1424, 
Pisano's mother acknowledged a debt of 600 ducats to her son ; this sum had 
been bequeathed to him by his father (ibid., vol. Ixix. pt. ii. pp. 1047 sqq.). In 


cate of Eugenius IV. completed the series of subjects left 
unfinished at San Giovanni Laterano by Gentile da Fabriano. 7 
It is not improbable that he followed Eugenius to Ferrara, 
where the memorable Synod sat in which the differences of 
the Eastern and Western Churches were destined not to be 
appeased. 8 During his stay there in 1438 he was honoured 
with sittings for a medal by John Palaeologus, 9 and he enjoyed 
the favour of the Duke and his son Lionel, to whom he pro- 
mised a picture when he should have settled at Verona. 10 It 
has been supposed, and is by no means unlikely, that this piece, 
to which Lionel alludes in a letter to his brother, is that which 

1425 and 1426 Pisano was working at the court of Mantua (ibid., vol. Ixviii. pt. ii. 
p. 185). We know of no record of him from the next few years ; but in April and 
Nov. 1431, and in Feb. 1432, we find him at Rome, receiving payment for work in 
the Lateran (Vasari, Gentile da Fabriano, etc., ed. Venturi, p. 33 ; Hill, ub. sup., 
p. 49). In 1431 he seems, however, to have gone from Rome to Verona for a 
hurried visit, touching Ferrara on his way north (Vasari, ub. sup., pp. 36 sqq. ; 
cf. postea, n. 10). In July 1432 he received a passport from the Pope, Eugenius 
IV. (Vasari, ub. sup., pp. 36 sq. ; Hill, ub. sup., p. 56) ; and in 1433 he is mentioned 
in the Anagfafi of the Contrada di San Paolo at Verona (Biadego, ub. sup., 
vol. Ixvii. pt. ii. p. 839). * 6 Cf. the preceding note. 

7 Platina, Lives of the Popes, ad Martin V., Vasari, iii. 5 s%. ; Facius, ub. sup., 
pp. 47, 48. Vasari may be right in affirming (ii. 294) that Gentile da Fabriano 
and Pisanello were at Rome together with Masaccio, but this can hardly have 
been when Masaccio painted at San Clemente. 

8 Jan. 10, 1438, to Jan. 10, 1439. 

9 Giovio (Paul) to the Duke Cosimo, Florence, Nov. 12, 1551 (Bottari, Raccolta. 
ub. sup., v. 83), thinks this medal was done at Florence, but it is more likely that 
the statement in the text is correct, for Pisano's connection was altogether with 
the Ferrarese and not with the Florentine court. 

10 Lionel d'Este to Meliaduse, his brother (Maffei, Verona lllustrata, iv. chap, vi 
p. 278), says : " Pisanus omnium pictorum huiusce aetatis egregius, cum ex Roma 
Ferrariam se contulisset, tabulam quamdam sua manu pictam ultro mini pollicitus 
est, quamprimum Veronam applicuisset." 

* Maffei's transcription of the passage in Lionel's letter in which he speaks of 
Pisano is incomplete. It runs thus in Mr. Hill's translation : " Pisano, distinguished 
among all painters of this age, when he came to Ferrara from Rome, promised to 
me a certain picture painted by his hand in which was the image of the Blessed 
Virgin. And since the picture was at Rome in the hands of a certain friend of his, 
he offered, as soon as he should have come to Verona, to write to him in order 
that he might entrust it to you, to the end that you might send it to me instantly ; 
and at your going hence I for some reason forgot to tell you, as I wished." The 
date of this letter is Jan. 20, 1432; Meliaduse appears to have gone to Rome 
after Sept. 22, 1431, and we have seen (antea, n. 5) that Pisano was back in Rome 
by Nov. 27, 1431. Vasari, Gentile da Fabriano, ed. Venturi, pp. 36 sqq. ; Hill, 
ub. sup., pp. 51 sqq. 

vi.] ANTONIO P1SANO 161 

once belonged to the Costabili collection in Ferrara and is now 
in the National Gallery. 1 Almost the only specimen of Pisano 
in England, it represents a vision of the Virgin and Child in a 
round glory, with St. Anthony the Abbot and St. George in 
the foreground. There is no denying the vulgar character of 
the Infant, nor the tortuous cast of the drapery ; but a grim 
wildness distinguishes St. Anthony, and St. George is an exact 
reproduction of a knight in the broad hat, short cloak, and 
armour of the time. Even in this late phase of his practice 
Pisano's fashion of embossing continues. 2 In his special walk 
as a portraitist, we admire at Mr. Barker's in London the like- 
ness of Lionel d'Este, also a relic of the Costabili collection, 
a grave, even stern, profile of a youth with curly chestnut 
hair, coloured in pastose and highly fused tints 3 ; and we trace 
the influence of this art by the imitation of Giovanni Orioli, 
which hangs in the National Gallery. 4 Having returned to 

* ' Since we now know that Lionel's letter was written as early as 1432, it 
is difficult to identify the picture mentioned in it with the Madonna with 
SS. Anthony and George, which shows a very mature style. 

2 National Gallery, No. 776. Presented by Lady Eastlake. Wood, tempera, 
19 in. high by 11^ in. Inscribed " Pisanus p." Before its restoration under the 
care of the late Sir Charles Eastlake, the preparation was laid bare in the cowl 
of St. Anthony and the armour of St. George. [* As to Pisano's studies for this 
picture, see Hill, ub. sup., pp. 157 </<?.] 

8 London, Mr. Barker. Wood, tempera, bust, half the size of life, and fairly 
preserved. The profile to the right. [* This picture is now in the Galleria Morelli 
at Bergamo (No. 17). It dates very likely from the forties (see Hill, ub. sup., 
pip. 151 sqq.}. To an earlier phase of Pisano's career (circa 1435) belongs a portrait 
of a young lady in the Louvre (No. 1422 bis} ; it represents probably Ginevra, the 
daughter of Niccolb III. of Este (cf. ibid., pp. 70 sqq.). Another work by Pisano 
which we may ascribe to about the same period as the last-mentioned painting is 
the Vision of St. Eustace, in the National Gallery (No. 1436 ; see ibid., pp. 62.?^.).] 

4 London, National Gallery, No. 770. Wood, tempera, 1 ft. 9 in. high by 
1 ft. 3 in. ; also from the Costabili collection. Profile to the left, outlined with less 
finish and more mechanically than that by Pisano. Above the head we read : 
" Leonellus Marchio Estesis " ; on a parapet : " Opus Johanes Orioli." Purchased 
from Sir Charles Eastlake's collection. Orioli is obviously a pupil of Pisano, 
and keeps his style better than Bono Ferrarese. His flesh is warm and neatly 
finished with hatchings ; his surface is harder than Pisano's, and has a glassy 
transparence like that of Matteo da Siena. 

* This painter was a member of the Savoretti family of Faenza. The earliest 
record of him dates from 1443; his death occurred between Jan. 23, 1473, and 
Sept. 24, 1474. He received payment for the above portrait on June 21, 1447. 
See BaLlardini, Giovanni da Oriolo. 

VOL. II 11 


Verona, Pisano paid occasional visits to Ferrara during the 
reign of Lionel. He received offers from the conrt of Mantua, 
as appears from a letter addressed by Paola Malatesta to 
Giovanni Francesco Gonzaga in May 1439, 1 and perhaps in 
consequence of these offers he came to Mantua, 2 carved the 
medal of the Marquis and his daughter, and painted the chapel 
and pictures noticed by Facius 3 ; but even at the time of his 
connection with the Gonzagas he kept his interest at Ferrara, 
and there is an extant decree in which Lionel of Este orders a 
vessel to be got ready to take Pisano, " pittore eccellentissimo" 
to Mantua. 4 The paucity of works during these later years is 

1 D'Arco, Delle Arti, ub. sup,, note to i. 38. The Marchioness causes a promise 
of 80 ducats to be made to Pisano. [* See, however, Vasari, Gentile da Fabriano, 
etc., ed. Venturi, pp. 44 sq."] 

* 2 He was probably at Mantua by this time. See postea, n. 4. 

8 De V. lllust., ub. sup., pp. 47-8. The medal of Cecilia Gonzaga, daughter 
of Giovanni Francesco, is dated 1447. 

4 Kecord favoured by the kindness of the Marchese Campori. 

* This document is dated Aug. 15, 1441. Pisano seems to have left for Mantua 
on the following day (Vasari, Gentile da Fabriano, ed. Venturi, pp. 47 sq.). In 
1438 Verona was stricken by the plague, and many Veronese citizens fled to 
Mantua to escape it. The Marquis of Mantua, Gianfrancesco Gonzaga, was the 
commander-in-chief of the army of the Venetian Kepublic, which from the year 
1437 had been at war with the Duke of Milan. In July 1438 Gianfrancesco, how- 
ever, went over to the side of the Duke of Milan, and forced all able-bodied 
Veronese within his domains to join his army, and forbade the others to leave the 
Mantuan territory without his permission. A Duoale of Sept. 30, 1439, granted 
amnesty to all the Veronese who had fled to Mantua, provided they returned to 
Venetian territory, but for the present they were to stay a Padua citra (Vasari, 
Gentile da Fabriano, etc., ed. Venturi, pp. 42 sqq. ; Hill, ub. sup., p. 61). Pisano 
appears to have been at Mantua by this time, but did not avail himself of the 
amnesty ; on the contrary, we learn from a document of 1441 that he was 
among those Veronese who followed the Marquis of Mantua when he entered 
Verona, after this town had, on Nov. 17, 1439, been captured by the troops of the 
Duke of Milan. A few days later Verona was recaptured by the Venetians, and 
Pisano returned to Mantua (Biadego, ub. sup., vol. Ixvii. pt. ii. pp. 841 sq.). On 
May 11, 1440, we find him at Milan (Biscaro, Arcliivio storico lombardo, ser. iv. 
vol. xv. pp. 171 sqq.). From the beginning of 1441, at any rate, Pisano seems to 
have been at Ferrara. He executed there a portrait of Lionel of Este which, in the 
opinion of Niccol6 III., was inferior to one painted immediately afterwards by 
Jacopo Bellini (Vasari, ub. sup., pp. 46 sq. ; Hill, ub. sup., pp. 138 sq.}. On Aug. 16, 
1441, Pisano apparently returned to Mantua (cf. anted'). On the 9th of the same 
month the Council of Ten had enacted that all the Veronese fuorusciti must return 
before the end of the following month if they wanted to benefit by the amnesty. 
Pisano did not obey even this second command. On Feb. 7, 1442, the Council of 
Ten published a list of those Veronese who had not yet returned but who were 


but partially accounted for by supposing that leisure was 
required for making the dies of the numerous medals produced 
about this period. Of these we can only say that they are 
famous, and that they deserve to be so ; for Pisano's pro- 
ficiency in frescoes and panels was greatly inferior to that 
which he attained as a medallist. 1 It has been argued with 
almost successful ingenuity that Pisano did not survive 1455.* 
He certainly did not die before, as there are payments to him 
for a picture by order of the Duke of Ferrara in that year. 3 

allowed to do so until the end of March. In this list is mentioned "Pisano 
pictor." (See Vasari, ub. sup., p. 42 ; Hill, ub. sup., pp. 61 sq.) Only now Pisano 
thought fit to go to Venice and seek pardon. On Oct. 17, 1442, his case came 
before the Council of Ten. The public prosecutor asked that Pisano's tongue 
with which he had slandered the Venetian Government should be publicly cut 
between the columns in the Piazzetta, whereupon he should be banished from the 
dominions of Venice. The Council, however, was more leniently disposed to- 
wards the artist, and simply forbade him to leave Venice and to sell anything 
without its permission. (See " Archivalische Beitrage " in Italienische For- 
scJiungen, iv. 120 sq.). Only a month later, on Nov. 21, Pisano asked the 
Council of Ten for permission to go to Ferrara to settle his affairs there ; 
this was granted to him on condition that he should not go either to Verona or 
to Mantua; he was, moreover, not to stay away for more than two months 
(Biadego, ub. sup., vol. Ixvii. pt. ii. p. 842). Both of these restrictions seem 
afterwards to have been removed ; for after Pisano, on Feb. 15, 1443, had left for 
Ferrara, he seems to have remained there until Nov. 1443 (Vasari, ub. sup., 
pp. 48 6'#.) ; and he is also mentioned in that year in the Veronese Estimi as 
living in the Contrada di San Paolo, where, as we have seen, he already had his 
home in 1422. He is also mentioned in the Estimi of 1447, and there exist other 
documents which prove that he was at Verona in 1445 and in 1446 (Biadego, 
ub. sup., vol. Ixvii. pt. ii. pp. 845 sq.). He continued, however, to work for Lionel, 
and received payments from him in 1445 and 1447 (Vasari, ub. sup., pp. 51 sq. ; 
Hill, ub. sup., p. 141). In 1448 Pisano went to Naples and entered the service 
of King Alfonso I., who on Feb. 14, 1449, granted him a yearly salary of 400 
ducats (ibid., pp. 59 sq. ; Hill, ub. sup., pp. 194 sqq.}. 

1 There are 28 known medals by Pisano : (1) Nicolas Piccinino ; (2-10) Lionel 
d'Este, with different obverse (1444); (11, 12) Sigismund Malatesta (1435); 
(13) Pietro Candido Decembrio ; (14) Vittorino da Feltre ; (15) Filippo Maria 
Visconti (died 1447) ; (16) John Palseologus (1438) ; (17-21) Alfonso of Arragon 
(1448) ; (22) Francesco Sforza, Lord of Cremona ; (23) Gio. Francesco Gonzaga ; 
(24) Cecilia, daughter of the foregoing ; (25) Lodovico Gonzaga III. ; (26) Mala- 
testa Novello, Lord of Cesena ; (27, 28) Inigo d'Avalos. Porcellio, in his verses, 
alludes to a medal of himself by Pisano (Tre Curmi, ub. sup., p. 20). [* As to 
Pisano's medals, see now especially the already quoted monograph by Mr. Hill.] 

* II Pisano, ub. sup., pp. 6-8. 

J In a memorial of 1455, in the archives of Modena, we read: "Pixiano 
dipintore, de dare adi xvn. de Agosto Due 1 cinquanta d'oro." Payment for 


The last undertaking in which he may have been busy at 
Verona is a series of greatly injured compositions in a chapel 
at Santa Maria della Scala, now used as a bell-room. Within 
a comparatively short period twenty-eight frescoes there were 
recovered from whitewash, in a ruined or nearly ruined con- 
dition. A signature was found which gave rise to animated 
debate according as the fragments were assumed to mean 
" Stefanus " or " Pisanus." To discuss the merit of the 
frescoes in their present state is useless, and all we can do is 
to take them as representing the school of Pisano. 1 One 
circumstance favours the belief that he had a share in them 
the circumstance that four rounds in the thickness of the 
windows reproduce the medals of John Palaaologus, Lionel of 
Este, Sigismund Malatesta, and the freebooter Piccinino. 2 

It was almost a necessary consequence of Pisano's importance 
in the eyes of artistic patrons that other Veronese painters 
should be overlooked; and yet any amount of neglect would 

a picture ordered by the Duke. (Favoured by the kindness of the Marchese 
Campori.) [* The correct date of this record is 1445. See Vasari, ub. sup., p. 51.] 
In a letter from Carlo de' Medici to Giovanni de' Medici, dated Rome, Oct. 31, 
without the year, we find that Pisano's medals were on sale at Rome. Carlo writes 
that he has bought thirty in silver : " da un garzone del Pisanello che mori a 
questi di " (Gaye, Carteg., i. 163). It is a pity we do not know the year of the 
missive. [* It is undoubtedly 1455 ; but, as Prof. A. Venturi remarks, " che morl 
a questi di " might refer to " garzone," not to " Pisanello." Flavio Biondo speaks 
of Pisano in 1450 as still living; whereas Bartolommeo Facio in 1455-6 mentions 
him as dead. See Vasari, ub. sup., pp. 62 sqq. ; Hill, ub. sup., pp. 211 sqq.~\ 

* } These paintings are now proved to be by Giovanni Badile; see posted^ 
p. 167, n. 3. 

2 We have seen what remains of all the paintings by Pisano. At Venice and 
Rome, as well as at Mantua, nothing is left ; at Verona little. We register as 
missing the following, premising that panels assigned to Pisano at San Francesco 
of Perugia are, as has been shown elsewhere, by Bonfigli or Fiorenzo (History of 
Italian Painting, 1st ed., iii. 150). Facius mentions a St. Jerome adoring the 
Crucifix and a Wilderness in which are many animals. 

Guarino, in his eulogy, alludes to portraits as distinct from medals ; and to a 
St. Jerome in his possession, which may be the same alluded to by Facius. (See , 
the lines in II Pisano, ub. sup., pp. 14-16.) 

Basinio (Tre Carmi, ub. sup., p. 35) describes a portrait of Vittorino da Feltre 
as distinct from the medal, and speaks of medals of persons hitherto unknown ; 
to have been portrayed by Pisano, e.g. Giovanni Aurispa and Paolo Toscanella. 

* An Adoration of the Shepherds ascribed to Pisano was in 1632 in the 
collection of Roberto Canonico of Ferrara (Campori, Raccolta di cataloghi, 
p. 109). 


have been justified by the poverty which the Veronese school 

Stefano da Zevio, when borne on the municipal register at 
Verona in 1433, was upwards of forty years of age 1 ; he was 
therefore the contemporary and follower of Pisano, rather than 
his pupil 2 ; but, unlike Pisano, who progressed, Stefano disim- 
proved as he proceeded, so that his style at last became a 
caricature. A miniaturist and grandfather to Girolamo dai 
Libri, 3 himself a miniaturist, he left but few examples behind 4 ; 
enough, however, to cast suspicion on the praise of Vasari and 
Donatello. There are fragments of a Virgin and Child, with 
St. Christopher and seraphs, on the front of a house in the 
Strada di Porta Vescovo 5 ; a Trinity and Glory of St. Augustine, 

1 By this register he is proved to have been born in ] 393 (Bernasconi, Studi, 
ub. sup., p. 226). He cannot therefore be the pupil of Agnolo Gaddi any more 
than he can be a disciple of Liberale da Verona (see Vasari, iii. 632). [* There 
can be no doubt that Bernasconi wrongly quotes the document to which 
he refers ; this is obviously an entry in the Veronese Anagrafi of 1425, in 
which Stefano is described as fifty years old (see Gerola, in Madonna Verona, ii. 
150 sq. ; Cervellini, ibid., iii. 97 sqq.}. From this we must infer that he was born 
about 1375, and it is therefore not impossible in itself that he was a pupil of 
Agnolo Gaddi, who died in 1396. Stefano is also mentioned in the Veronese 
Estimi in 1425 and 1433; in 1434 he seems to have been staying at Castel 
Brughier, near Trent ; and in 1 438 Tommaso Salerno of Verona mentions in his 
will an altarpiece ordered by him from Stefano for Sant' Anastasia and not yet 
finished. The fate of this work is unknown. (See Gerola, ub. gup., ii. 151 sqq.) 
\ It may be pointed out that there is no older authority for the appellation " da 
Zevio" than Panvinius (Antiquitatum Veronensium libri octo, p. 171), whereas 
the artist in contemporary records is called either simply Stefano or Stefano of 
Verona (cf. Gerola, ub. sup., ii. 158 sqq.).~] 

* 2 The record in the Veronese Anagrafi of 1425 mentioned in the preceding 
note proves that Stefano was nearly twenty years older than Pisaiio. 

3 In the Veronese Anagrafi of 1492 we find Franciscus Miniator, fil. q., Stefani a 
Libris, who is the father of Girolamo dai Libri (Bernasconi, Studi, note to p. 30). 
[* Stei'ano dai Libri is not identical with the artist now under discussion (Gerola, 
ub. sup., ii. 163, n. 1). 

4 Verona. We notice as missing here : frescoes at Sant' Antonio, San Niccol6, 
on the front of Santa Maria Consolatrice, in the choir and in the Chapel of the 
Sacrament at Sant' Eufemia ; panels, St. Nicholas with saints and a predella in 
Sant' Eufemia. 

Mantua : frescoes in San Domenico, in San Francesco, and on a house-front, 
and a Madonna in the church of Ognissanti, dated 1463 (?) (Vasari, i. 641 sq., iii. 
&2&sqq., v. 274; dai Pozzo, ub. sup., pp. 11, 12). [* Cf. postea, p. 167, n. 1.] 

5 Verona, Strada di Porta Vescovo [* now called Via XX Settembre], No. 5303. 
Inscribed to the left of the throne : " Stefanu pinxit" ; the lower part obliterated. 
[* This fresco has now been transferred to the Museo Civico of Verona.] 


with copious attendance of saints and cherubs, above the side- 
portal of Sant' Eufemia at Verona l ; at Rome and Milan there 
are pictures on panel unmistakeably his a Madonna in the 
Palazzo Colonna, 2 and an Adoration of the Kings dated 1435 
in the gallery of the Brera 3 ; in a church at Illasi, near Verona, 
part of a Virgin and Child in fresco. 4 From the contemplation 
of these pieces we rise with the conviction that the author was 
bred in a school of illuminators of which Verona was the cradle 
and the nursery. Without the power to shake off the rigid 
rules of a very old craft, he blindly followed the beaten path, 
exhausted every trick of minute finish, and forgot the sound 
principles of draughtsmanship, modelling, and selection ; clinging 
to embossment as a means for simulating relief, he made no use 
of the simpler process of chiaroscuro; his canvases and wall- 
paintings were wanting in correctness of drawing as well as in 
staidness and dignity of expression ; and if ever they had 
attraction, they derived it from the rosy pallor of flesh gently 
heightened with grey, or the frequent introduction of birds and 

Beneath Stefano again are Giovanni Badile, Girolamo 
Benaglio, and Cecchino, who need only be mentioned in proof 

1 Verona, Sant' Eufemia. St. Augustine sits in a recess, under a canopied 
throne, at the sides of which we read : " Stefanus pinxit." Some of the saints 
that are preserved are in the soffit of the recess. The front of the wall above, and 
the lower part of the fresco, are deprived of painting. The head of St. Augustine, 
too, is nearly gone. 

2 Rome, Palazzo Colonna, No. 130. Small panel, tempera. The Child takes a 
rose from the Virgin ; angels in air seem to pray, others give offerings of roses 
and flowers, and one at each corner of the foreground plays a musical instrument. 
The light soft tempera seems to contain a mixture of wax. 

3 Milan, Brera, No. 223. Panel, tempera, m. 0'72 high by 0'47, inscribed : 
"Stefanus pinxit 1435," and catalogued as Stefano Fiorentino (!) This is the 
composition of which the original type was given by Gentile da Fabriano, with 
embossments and no relief by shadow. The draperies all end in trains ; as 
usual, a multitude of animals. [* This painting is now officially ascribed to 
Stefano da Zevio.] 

* Illasi, near Verona. Virgin and Child and angels, and two saints in pattern 
framings ; parts of fresco, now in a chapel to the right in the parish church. At 
the Virgin's feet a peacock. This is the lowest phase and the latest of Stefano's 
art, yet cited as a proof of the existence of an older Stefano (see Maffei, Verona 
Illust., and Bernasconi, Studi, p. 220). [* In San Fermo at Verona there are some 
fragments of frescoes by Stefano, mentioned also by Vasari (iii. 631). Cf. Gerola, 
ub. sup., ii. 154.] 


of the weak state to which the art of Verona was reduced at 
the time of Mantegna. 1 Bat it is important to bear in mind 
that, small as the place may be to which they are entitled in the 
annals of Verona, some of these, such as Girolamo Benaglio and 
his followers, Francesco Benaglio 2 and Moroncini, introduced 
new models of proportion into the school, a larger cast of the 
human frame and limbs, a new technical treatment, colour of 
more lively tints, and shadows of greater intensity than before. 
Of Badile there are records extending from 1418 to 1433, 3 
and an authentic picture in the Gallery of Verona. 4 Girolamo 

1 We might think also of Vincenzo di Stefano, of whom Vasari speaks as the 
master of Liberale da Verona, assigning to him a Madonna in Ognissanti of 
Mantua, dated 1463, which we learn from dal Pozzo to have been by Stefano 
(Vasari, v. 274 ; dal Pozzo, p. 12). If we accept Vincenzo as an artist who has 
existed, we may mention a fresco attributed to him at Verona. It is part of the 
decoration of the monument of Cortesia Serego, dated " Anno Do. Mccccxxxn," 
in Sant' Anastasia. Subject, the Eternal in the midst of cherubs, angels, of which 
some are obliterated, SS. Dominic and Peter Martyr. The style is that of Stefano 
exaggerated, as in Nerito, and is not unlike that of Giambono. [* It is not 
unlikely, as Dr. Gerola ingeniously suggests, that Vasari, when speaking of 
Vincenzo di Stefano, made one person of that name out of Stefano da Zevio 
and Niccol6 Solimano of Verona. The Madonna at the Ognissanti of Mantua 
mentioned above seems to be identical with a still extant fresco by the latter 
artist, signed "Nicolaus de vona pinxit 1465." See Gerola, ub. sup., ii. 155*^.] 

* 2 Francesco Benaglio was really the father of Girolamo Benaglio. See postea, 
p. 168, n. 1. 

8 Bernasconi, Studi, pp. 224-5. [* Giovanni Badile belonged to a family which 
for a period of about two hundred years from the fourteenth century onwards 
yielded a great number of painters ; one of its scions was Antonio, the master of 
Paolo Veronese. Giovanni is first mentioned in 1409, and made his will in 1448. 
He is the author of the frescoes in the Cappella Guantieri in Santa Maria della 
Scala at Verona, mentioned antea, p. 164; they were ordered in 1443. See 
Simeoni, in Nuovo arcMvio veneto, ser. ii. vol. xiii. pp. 152 sqq., and Thieme and 
Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Mldenden Kilnstler, ii. 335.] 

4 Verona Gallery, No. 373 ; originally in San Tommaso Cantuariense. Virgin and 
Child between SS. Anthony, George, James, Peter Martyr, a bishop, and Thomas ; 
a kneeling patron at the Virgin's feet; inscribed: " Johes Baili"; m. 0-94 high 
by m. 2-0 long, wood. This is a light washy tempera with short and deformed 
figures, showing the art of Stefano in the last stage of its decline. [* It seems 
probable that the above signature is an eighteenth-century forgery. Until 1803 
this polyptych was in San Pietro Martire at Verona. See Gerola, ub. tup., ii. 
166 sqq.] In the same manner, same gallery, No. 364, St. Nicholas presenting a 
patron to the Virgin and Child in presence of St. Andrew. No. 374, inscribed : 
" Hoc opus fecit fieri sor Lucia de Frachanzanis, MCCCCXXVIII." Virgin and 
Child between SS. Martin and George ; in pinnacles, the Virgin, St. Gabriel, and 
St. Michael, 


Benaglio, who was more prolific, inscribed one of his altar- 
pieces with the words : " Hieronymus Benalius q. Francisci anno 
1450," 1 and Cecchino's Madonna in the cathedral of Trent 2 is 
supposed to be of the same period. Of Francesco Benaglio it 
is stated that he completed a fresco at Santa Maria della Scala 
in 1476 3 ; but there is no chronology of his life, 4 and an altar- 

1 Verona. This was a fragment representing four singing angels (dal Pozzo, ub. 
sup., p. 10). His manner is illustrated by the following : Verona Gallery, No. 368, 
panel with St. Cecilia between SS. Tiburtius and Valerianus, under niches in 
front of a skirting into which medallions of emperors are let in. Nos. 353, 354, 
88. Rustico and Fermo ; the figures slender and affected, of a dull tempera tone. 
No. 372, Virgin and Child between SS. Catherine and Maria Consolatrix. No. 385, 
Virgin and Child between SS. Sebastian and Biagio. No. 369, Virgin and Child 
between SS. Peter and James. All these are in the same feeble style. By the 
same band, No. 380, Virgin and Child between St. Denis and Mary Magdalen, 
with the Eternal in a gable ; catalogued Antonio Badile, and of the school. 
No. 360, under the name of Francesco Benaglio, and dated 1487, a Virgin, 
Child, and saints between SS. Sylvester and Benedict, with the Crucifixion in 
a lunette and a predella representing the Entombment, the symbols of the 
Passion, and SS. Catherine and Lucy, from the church of San Silvestro. 
Recorded in the Ricreazione Pittorica (ub. sup., p. 17) is a Marriage of St. 
Catherine by Girolamo Benaglio in the church of San Piero Maggiore at Verona. 
See also dal Pozzo, ub. sup., p. 260. [* Recently discovered documents prove 
that Girolamo Benaglio was the son of Francesco Benaglio; he is stated to 
be twenty-three years old in 1492. The signature reported by dal Pozzo was 
therefore either incorrectly read by him or a forgery. No authenticated works 
by Girolamo are known to exist. See Simeoni, in Nuovo arcJiivio veneto, ser. ii. 
vol. v. pp. 255 sqq. ; Gerola, ub. sup., ii. 178 sqq.~] 

2 Trent Cathedral, sacristy. Virgin and Child between SS. Vigilius and 
Sisinius. Wood, tempera, inscribed on the intermediate pilaster : " Cechinus de 
Verona pinxit." Dr. Bernasconi adds the ciphers 1454, which are not on the 
picture (Studi, p. 234). [* It has now its place in the Museo Diocesano at Trent. 
Cecchino witnessed two wills in 1439 (Biadego, ub. sup., vol. Ixviii. pt. ii. p. 243, 
notes 2 and 3), and appears to have been still living in 1464 (Zannandreis, Le 
vite deipittori . . . veronesi, p. 39). He was dead in 1480, as Dr. Gerola kindly 
informs me.] 

3 Dal Pozzo describes it as representing four saints at the sides of a miraculous 
Virgin, and inscribed : " Francescus Benalius pinxit, 1476." The four saints were 
SS. Bartolommeo, Zeno, Girolamo, and Francesco (dal Pozzo, p. 10, and ^Ricreazione 
Pitt., p. 114). The altar of the miraculous Virgin was renewed and the figures 
were removed in 1738 (Persico, Descr. di Verona, ub. sup., pt. i. p. 211). [* Cf., 
however, Gerola, ub. sup., ii. 177.] Persico also says that there were frescoes all 
but obliterated in his time on the fa9ade of Santa Maria della Scala also by 
F. Benaglio. 

* * Francesco Benaglio is described as being forty years of age in the Anagrafi 
of 1472. In 1475, with another painter named Martino, he helped two Veronese 
noblemen to take vengeance on the noble Cristoforo Sacramoso by painting the 


piece with his signature bears no date. We may gather from 
his works that he would not have forsaken the elementary 
manner of Girolarno but for the coming of Mantegna. In a 
fresco filling the principal space in the Cappella Lavagnoli at 
Sant' Anastasia of Verona, a number of lanky saints are set in 
a stiff cluster before some houses and a landscape of water and 
islands. 1 The painter seems bred in the atelier of Girolamo 
Benaglio. Defying at once all rules of perspective and draughts- 
manship, yet careful to a fault in his execution, he rises to the 
level of Dierick Bouts in the Flemish or of Matteo of Gualdo in 
the Umbrian school. He clings distantly to the traditions of 
Pisano, and has perhaps a dim notion of the budding greatness 
of the Paduans. If Francesco Benaglio be the author, he also left 
us the Madonna under the portico leading to the Cortile dei Tri- 
bunali at Verona, 2 and the saints in the pilasters at the entrance 
of the Pellegrini chapel in Sant' Anastasia. 3 In a spirit more 
nearly related to the Paduan, and under the influence perhaps of 
Mantegnesque examples, he may have carried out the decoration 
of the altar sacred to St. Vincent Ferrerio in the same church, 
unless we should suppose it due to the bolder hand of Falconetto 
or Liberale. 4 That he gradually adopted Mantegnesque masks 
and accessories is clear in the Madonna with a choir of boys on 

front of his house with obscene subjects. The two artists were punished by four 
months' imprisonment. Francesco Benaglio was dead in 1492. See Simeoni, loc. 
dt., pp. 252 gqq. ; Gerola, ub. &up., ii. 179 sqq. 

1 Verona, Sant' Anastasia. The subject is obscure, the fresco injured ; above 
it, a Crucifixion and other things, probably by Moroncini ; the rest of the chapel 

3 Verona, portico leading from the Piazza de'Signori to the Cortile dei Tri- 
bunali. Fresco, Virgin and Child, the latter curly-headed and in benediction ; a 
long lean figure. [* Now in the Museo Civico of Verona.] 

1 Verona, Sant' Anastasia, Cappella Pellegrini. St. Bernardino and another 
saint in niches, with medallions of emperors and saints in the pediments and 

4 Verona, Sant' Anastasia. Fresco of St. Vincent Ferrerius above a carved 
Crucifixion. At each side of St. Vincent Ferrerius, SS. Peter and Paul imitating 
statues on brackets ; in an imitated recess soffit, angels ; and on the imitated arch, 
medallions of emperors ; below, at the sides of the Crucifixion, remains of saints, 
as well as remnants of figures in niches on the imitated pilasters at the sides. 
The whole of this decoration is assigned to Mantegna, but the art is that of a 
Veronese of the old school assuming the Mantegnesque. The colour is dull and 
dirty, and there is much accessory ornament embossed, 


a wall of the Via de' Scrimiari, 1 as well as in two figures of the 
Veronese Gallery. 2 His last and most absolute phase of repro- 
duction is that illustrated in San Bernardino, where a Madonna 
with attendants and children is a counterpart of Mantegna's at 
San Zeno. 3 He might claim, indeed, as author of this and other 
pieces, the name of the Zoppo of Verona. 4 

Still lower in the scale of Veronese art is Domenico de' 
Moroncini, 5 whose signature is appended to a Madonna in a 
house of the Contrada Cantarane at Verona, 6 and whose frescoes 
in the Cappella Lavagnoli at Sant' Anastasia give a sort of 
superiority to those of Francesco Benaglio. 7 

From this point the Veronese school assumes a more de- 

1 Verona, Via de' Scrimiari. Virgin and Child in a throne with falling garlands 
of leaves and four children singing open-mouthed ; to the right and left much 
injured and in part obliterated (engraved in Pietro Nanin's Affreschi di Verona, 
fol. Verona, 1864). 

2 Verona Gallery, Nos. 344 and 345. St. Francis and St. Bernardino, panel 
temperas, originally in San Clemente of Verona (knee-piece). The figures are thin 
and feeble, as in Sano di Pietro or Vecchietta ; the tempera flat and light. 

* * We now know that this work was completed as early as 1462. See Simeoni, 
Verona, pp. 153 sq. 

4 Verona, San Bernardino. Virgin enthroned ; the Child, adored by a kneeling 
figure of St. Bernardino ; at the sides, SS. Peter, Paul, Francis, Anthony, Louis, 
and Buenaventura. The throne and pillars of the court imitate those of Man- 
tegna ; the figures are dry and unrelieved by shadow ; the dresses in lively and 
sharp contrasts. The picture, on the whole, is half Umbrian, half Mantegnesque. 
It is inscribed : " Francescus Benalius pinxit." In the same spirit, under the name 
of Marco Zoppo, is the following : Verona Gallery, No. 350, wood, tempera, half- 
length Virgin with the Child and the boy Baptist on a parapet, and two boy- 
angels. The red-brick tone of thick substance has, no doubt, suggested Zoppo's 
name, but the painter is Francesco Benaglio. [* This picture is now labelled 
" Francesco Benaglio ? "] Amongst missing pieces is the following : Verona, 
San Lorenzo, the Virgin, Mary Magdalen, and Disciples wailing over the dead 
body of Christ (Persico, pt. i. p. 75). [* This painting is probably identical with 
one which now belongs to Signor Cesare Laurenti of Venice and which is repro- 
duced in Madonna Verona, v., plate facing p. 194.] 

* 5 Dr. Gerola suggests (ub. sup., ii. 108 sq.) that Domenico de' Moroncini 
is identical with Domenico Morone. 

6 Verona, Contrada Cantarane, No. 5381 [* now 51 Via Niccol6 Mazzaj. 
Virgin adoring the Child between St. Christopher and Mary Magdalen, inscribed : 
" Opus Dominici de MoroCini." Wall-painting, with some of the fanciful char- 
acter apparent in Liberale. [* This fresco is dated 1471.] 

7 Verona, Sant' Anastasia, Cappella Lavagnoli. Crucifixion^ and the Call of 
James and Andrew to the Apostleship. The drawing is very incorrect indeed. 

Besides the above we note : Verona Gallery, Nos. 399, 400, tempera on panel, 


cided character, and has marked currents and subdivisions. 
Imitation of Mantegna, superficial in Liberale, Falconetto, and 
Giolfi no, becomes searching in Bonsignori and Caroto. Domenico 
Morone, Girolamo dai Libri, Francesco Morone, and Paolo 
Morando feel the spur of emulation, and strive as draughtsmen 
to rival Mantegna ; whilst, as colourists, their style is altered 
by the influence of Montagna. 

Liberale enjoyed advantages unknown to some of his con- 
temporaries. He was born in 1451, and trained to be a 
miniaturist. 1 Having left Verona at an early age, 2 he went 
round the convents ; found employment first amongst the Bene- 
dictines of Mont' Oliveto near Siena, and then accepted service 
from the governors of the Siena cathedral. For several years 

representing SS. Bartholomew and Roch, probably by Moroncini. [* These 
paintings belong to the same polyptych as those mentioned antea, p. 170, n. 2.] 

Moroncini's art is continued by Dionisio Brevio, of whom there is a Pieta, 
No. 375, and a Nativity, No. 299, in the gallery under notice. Brevio is a painter 
of the middle of the sixteenth century ; and dal Pozzo notices an Adoration of 
the Shepherds by him, signed : " Dionysius Brevius Veronensis fecit anno 1562 " 
(dal Pozzo, ub. sup., Aggiunta, p. 5). [* According to Dr. Gerola, it is not 
certain that the two above-mentioned pictures in the Verona Gallery are by 
Brevio. An authentic work by him is a painting of St. Michael in the chapel 
of the Stringa family at Caprino, near Verona; it is signed and dated 1531, and 
stands near to G. F. Caroto. See Gerola, in Becker and Thieme, ub. sup., iv. 600.] 

Less modern is Bernardino da Verona, of whom there are notices at Mantua 
(D'Arco, ub. tup., pp. 38-9, and Gaye, Carteg., i. 334-6), and the possible author 
of a Virgin and Child annunciate, SS. Zeno and Benedict in San Zeno, ascribed 
by old guides to Bernardino da Murano. The style is an approximation to that 
of the Veronese Domenico Morone, or Liberale, so far at least as one can judge 
from the miserable condition of the surface. [* These paintings are now in the 
Museo Civico of Verona (Nos. 363 and 366). The Bernardino da Verona mentioned 
above was probably a brother of Francesco Bonsignori. See Tea, in Madonna 
Verona, iv. 137 sq.] 

1 Liberale's full name is " Liberale di Maestro Giacomo dalla Biava da Monza." 
In the account-books of Siena (Milanesi, Doc. Sen., ii. 384 sqq.) he is commonly 
called " Liberale di Jacomo da Verona." Vasari's statement that he studied 
under Jacopo Bellini cannot be supported, for obvious reasons (Vasari, v. 274). 
He was born in 1451, as is proved by the registry (Anagrafi) of Verona for 
1492, in which he and his family are described as follows : " Liberalis pictor 
[aged] 40 ; Zinevria, eius uxor, 25 ; Lucretia, eorum filia, 2 ; Hieronyma, eorurn 
filia, 1 ; Joannes famulus, 16 " (Bernasconi, Studi, p. 245). [* The various state- 
ments as to the age of Liberale contained in the Veronese Anagrafi do not tally 
with each other. It seems, however, very likely that Liberale was born about 
1445. See Gerola, ub. sup., iii. 27.] 

* 2 He was still at Verona in 1465. Gerola, ub. sup., iii. 28. 


previous to 1477 he pored over graduals and antifoners, painting 
all the subjects of the New Testament in succession, and wasting 
a prodigious amount of patient labour in minutiae and details. 1 
His miniatures are justly considered masterpieces of their kind, 
being bright and careful, and unusually spirited in movement ; 
but when he came back to Verona, and abandoned vellums 
for panels, the faults evolved by his training became disagreeably 
apparent. We shall find little interest in following his progress 
step by step at Siena or at Chiusi, where the miniatures of the 
Benedictines are now preserved ; to speculate on the course 
of his journeys, or inquire whether he visited Florence or Venice, 
would be as useless as it is to ask when he turned homewards. 
It is sufficient to state that Liberale was umpire for the municipal 
council of Verona on a question of art in 1493, and that there 
are dim signs of his existence till 1515. 2 Of all the pictures 
which he finished one alone bears his name and the date of 
1489, and it is obviously not the first that he undertook when 
he gave up miniatures. We may therefore assume that he 
was living between 1480 and 1490 at Verona, when he delivered 
the Adoration of the Magi in the Duomo, to which Giolfino 
furnished the wings and lunette. One might fancy that the 
artist was a comrade of Lucas of Leyden, he exaggerates 
attitude and face so quaintly, and such is the fritter of his 
drapery. His action is strutting ; his drawing very careful, yet 
unsound and puffy ; his bright colours thrown together without 

1 Liberale and his apprentice, Bernardino, received from the monks of Mont' 
Oliveto for three years' labour, to Dec. 28, 1469, 1,324 lire, 15 soldi, and 4 denari 
(Vasari, ed. Le Monnier, Annot., ix. 169). From 1470 to April 1476 Liberale 
received payments from the superintendents of the Siena duomo (Milanesi, 
Doe. Sen., ii. 384-6, and Vasari, ed. Le Monnier, Annot., vi. 180, 213-6, 219-21, 
345 and foil.). Particularly fine are the miniatures of Mont' Oliveto, now at 
Chiusi. There is also a very fine and animated miniature of Christ supported 
in the tomb by the Virgin and others, assigned to Mantegna, in possession of 
Don Domenico Kicci at Treviso. It shows Liberale's art more advanced and 
expanded than at Chiusi. [* The present owner of this miniature is not known 
to the editor.] A miniature of the Adoration of the Shepherds by Liberale was 
of old in the Moscardi collection at Verona (Persico, ii. 34). 

2 Bernasconi, ub. sup., pp. 238 sq., and Vasari, ed. Sansovino, v. 274, n. 1. 

* Liberale was back at Verona in 1488 (Fainelli, in L'Arte, xiii. 220), and is 
mentioned in the Veronese Estimi of 1492, 1502, 1515, and 1518, and in the 
Anayrafi of 1492, 1502, and 1518. He married thrice, the last time in 1525 when 
about eighty years old. He was dead in 1529. See Gerola, ub. sup., iii. 31 sqq. 


attention to harmony or distance, and the background full of 
exuberant detail l ; like most Veronese, he is fond of intro- 
ducing rabbits, dogs, and other animals. In the same violent 
and restless way Liberale composed the Nativity, Epiphany, and 
Death of the Virgin, a predella in the bishop's palace at Verona, 
reminding us of Filippino Lippi in figures of the Virgin and 
Child, of the northerns in homely ugliness of masks, and of 
Taddeo Bartoli in vehemence of movements and sharpness of 
tinting. An an executant he gains breadth and freedom, and 
the fault of minuteness seems to leave him. 2 His aim now is 
to copy Mantegna as faithfully as the peculiarities of his style 
will allow ; and of this we have a notable instance in the 
Madonna of Casa Scotti at Milan, where but for the sombre 
olive of the complexions and the copious detail we might almost 
admit that the name of the great Paduan is appropriate. It 
has seldom indeed been the good fortune of persons who gain 
a dishonest livelihood by forging signatures to come so near 
the mark as in this case. With the words " Andreas Mantinea 
p. s. p. 1461," in gold letters on the Virgin's pedestal, many 
persons might without incurring grave reproach be deceived, 
and yet it is very clear that Liberale was the painter. The 
composition, heads, and drawing are all Mantegnesque in 
Liberale's inferior manner ; the arrangement is cold and formal, 
the outline lacks scientific correctness, the drapery is cut into 
zigzags, detail is minutely carried out and profuse, colour deep, 
hurtling, and in oil. 3 Still more marked in its imitation is 

1 Verona, Duomo, Capp. Calcasoli (dal Pozzo, p. 233; Ricreazione, p. 7). 
Small panel, oil. 

2 Verona, Vescovado. In the Nativity he shows that he has seen Filippino's 
pictures. The detail of a female with a fowl in her hand and a dog with a rat 
is very trivial. The passion and grimace in the Death of the Virgin are almost 
German in their realism. 

1 Milan, Casa Scotti ; formerly in possession of the Duca Melzi, and assigned 
by Geheimrath Dr. Waagen to Mantegna, who says (Raumer's Taschenbuch, 
ul. sup., p. 526) it is probably that done by Mantegna for the Abbot of Fiesole, 
though Vasari describes that of Fiesole as " dal mezzo in su " and this is a full- 
length (Vasari, iii. 394). Arched panel. Virgin enthroned in a high stone 
chair, the back of which is capped with a medallion imitating bronze and 
representing the Presentation in the Temple. In a frieze beneath the medallion 
an imitated relief of the Judgment of Solomon, and in other parts of the same 
frieze, which runs round the whole throne, other subjects, as e.g. the Salutation 


the panel with three angels bearing the symbols of the Passion, 
seen by the authors in the house of Signor Antonio Gradenigo 
at Padua 1 ; what betrays Liberale is a shiny livid flesh-tint, 
garish contrasts in dresses, and a rudeness of extremities to 
which Mantegna was a stranger. As he gains confidence and 
enjoys an experienced freedom of hand, his style becomes more 
characteristic ; his figures assume a better proportion, and are 
more strongly relieved by shadow, his faces are less coarse, 
and the old incorrectness of drawing in some measure disappears. 
Of this improvement we have an example in the Glory of 
St. Anthony at San Fermo 2 ; in that of St. Jerome in the 
chapel alia Vittoria 3 ; and even in that of St. Metrone at Santa 
Maria del Paradiso 4 at Verona. In some of the saints at the 
Vittoria, as in a St. Sebastian at the Brera 5 and its replica in 

at the base. On the arms of the chair four angels playing and singing ; at the 
foot of the throne a pink in a flower-pot, and two boys playing instruments; 
distance, sky and landscape. This is evidently the centre of a larger picture. 
In the sky some modern has painted in a Virgin and Angel annunciate. [* The 
editor agrees with Dr. Malaguzzi Valeri (Pittori lombardl del quattrocento, pp. 
45 sqq.') in ascribing this work to Butinone in view of the close resemblance of 
style which exists between it and the picture by Butinone at Isola Bella.] 

1 Padua, Casa Antonio Gradenigo. Lunette panel, assigned to Mantegna, 
but suiting the description given by Vasari of part of an altarpiece by Liberale 
in the Cappella del Monte di Piet& at San Bernardino of Verona (Vasari, 
v. 274 *#.) Tne colour is lustrous olive in flesh and horny. The heads recall 
those subsequently painted by Caroto. 

2 Verona, San Fermo, Cappella Sant' Antonio. St. Anthony of Padua on a 
pedestal, between St. Nicholas of Bari, St. Catherine, and St. Augustine, all but 
life-size, with a distance of sky and trees. Wood, oil, with a good mass of shade, 
a bold easy handling, good proportions, and fair masks, the whole outlined 
without excessive angularity. 

8 Verona, Cappella del Comune alia Vittoria. St. Jerome on a pedestal 
between St. Francis and St. Paul ; landscape distance, figures life-size, in panel, 
oil. Same character as above, but more mannered in outline. [* This picture is 
now in the Museo Civico of Verona (No. 625).] 

4 Verona, Santa Maria del Paradiso, often called San Vitale. Arched panel, 
oil, figures life-size. St. Metrone on a pedestal between St. Anthony of Padua, 
and St. Dominic under an arch, through which a distance of sky is seen. The 
figures are greatly repainted, especially in the flesh parts ; but the character was 
evidently that of the foregoing. 

Milan, Brera, No. 177. Panel, in oil, figures life-size, m. 1-80 high by m. 0-95. 
The saint is bound with his arms behind his back to a gnarled and leafless tree. 
In the distance a canal and gondolas, betraying Liberale's acquaintance with 
Venice. The hip drapery is papery; the form bony, but freely drawn from a 
common model ; the face looking up, well foreshortened. 


the Museum of Berlin, 1 we are distantly reminded of wild types 
peculiar to Botticelli and Filippino, or of bony nude like that 
of the Pollaiuoli. It is only when we revert to subjects of 
grieving that the more disagreeable aspect of Liberale's art 
recurs. He is passionate, conventional, and grimacing in three 
or four representations of Christ Entombed, the best of which 
is in San Leo at Venice, 2 the most careless in the Torrigiani 
gallery at Florence, 3 the most ambitious a fresco in Sant' 
Anastasia at Verona. 4 In the latest years of his career he 
was neglectful, and gave himself up to a conventional bravura 
that diminishes the value of his works. Of this class we might 
mention several, such as the Assumption of the Magdalen in 
the sacristy of Sant' Anastasia, 5 the Holy Family and Nativity 

1 Berlin Museum, No. 46A. Replica of the foregoing, same size. 

2 Venice, San Leo. Above the side-portal, panel in oil of Christ in the tomb, 
bewailed by four angels. This panel is probably the same which Vasari mentions 
in the Cappella del Monte di Pieta at San Bernardino of Verona, and of which 
the lunette has been noted in Casa Gradenigo at Padua. The drawing is all in 
curves, mannered, and incorrect. (Vasari, v. 274, 308.) Another example of the 
same kind, with a greater number of figures, is in Verona, San Lorenzo. Wood, 
oil, greatly repainted, and inferior to the above. 

8 Florence, Casa Torrigiani. Wood, very defective, but inscribed: " Libalis V." 
The tone is dark olive ; had Liberale never done better than this, he might be 
called the Margaritone of Verona. 

4 Verona, Sant' Anastasia, chapel de' Buonaveri, third altar to the right of 
the entrance. The subject here is done in fresco. The Saviour is about to be 
lowered into the tomb in a winding-sheet by eight figures. Above is a statue 
of the Eternal in a glory of painted angels ; the whole in an imitated recess, in 
the vaulting of which saints are placed at intervals. Of all the frescoes in this 
chapel mentioned by Vasari (v. 275), this is all that remains. The ceiling, or 
what there is of its paintings, is very much below the parts above described ; 
but even this is damaged by dirt and dust. 

8 Verona, Sant' Anastasia. Arched panel, once on tbe altar of the chapel just 
described (Vasari, v. 275). The Magdalen on a cloud between two angels, all 
in tortuous movement. Below, St. Catherine and a female saint with a scapular. 
The colour is grey and brown without modulations, the figures life-size. There is 
something reminiscent of Signorelli and the Sienese in the treatment. The 
foreground is slightly injured. In this church are assigned to Liberale an altar 
in the Cappella Conti with gilt and coloured statues, and a basement on which 
there are three scenes from the Passion the road to Calvary, the Saviour dead 
on the Virgin's knees, and the Sermon on the Mount and ten figures of saints. 
The altar is inscribed : " MCCCCCX mensis Marci." This is a very rough pro- 
duction in a very dark place, and not at present in the character of Liberale's 
usual pieces. (Persico, i. 18.) 


in the Verona Gallery, 1 the Madonna with Saints in the Berlin 
Museum, 2 and a couple of house-fronts. 3 

1 Verona Gallery, No. 275, m. 0-75 high by m. 0-70. Wood, half-lengths of 
the Virgin and St. Joseph adoring the Child between them on a red cushion ; a 
poor specimen of Liberale. Same Gallery, and once in San Fermo Maggiore, 
No. 430, m. 1-40 high by m. 1-55. Adoration of the Shepherds, with St. Jerome 
to the left. Here too we trace an exaggerated reminiscence of Signorelli's art. 

2 Berlin Museum, No. 1183. Wood, oil, 5ft. 3 in. high by 4ft. ^in. Virgin 
enthroned with the Child erect on her knee between St. Lawrence and St. 
Christopher, in the foreground two kneeling monks ; inscribed : " Liberalis 
Veronensis me fecit 1489." This is an unpleasant piece, with much Sienese 
smorphia, of an unbroken semi-transparent olive tinge. The forms are bony 
and defective, the masks ugly, the throne grotesque. 

We may notice also the following : Verona, Dr. Bernasconi [* now Museo 
Civico, No. 176]. Adoration of the Magi. This is supposed to be one of the 
doors of the organ at Santa Maria della Scala, once painted by Liberale 
(Vasari, v. 275 .$.). It is now too much repainted to warrant an opinion. 
Of an Adoration of the Magi in monochrome in the sacristy at Santa Maria 
della Scala there is nothing to be said. There are, however, other organ-doors 
(canvas, tempera, with figures above life-size) in San Bernardino of Verona, 
assigned by Persico (i. 116) to Giolfino, and by Dr. Bernasconi to Domenico 
Morone (Studi, p. 240). They hang near the clock on the wall of the church, 
are dated "Ano Dmi MCCCCLXXXI" (not 1483), and represent on one side St. 
Francis and St. Bernardino, on the other St. Louis and St. Buonaventura. The 
rude energy and the peculiar forms of the heads, as well as the air of the figures, 
are those of Liberale. Two angels playing in the imitated pediment above the 
first-named saints are also boldly thrown off like Liberale's in the Cappella 
Buonaveri. Morone is more under control than the painter of this piece. The 
two last-named saints now hang apart ; all four are repainted in oil. 

* Verona, fronts of houses on Piazza delle Erbe ; engraved in Nanin, itb. sup., 
Nos. 9, 10. (1) Coronation of the Virgin, and the temptation of Adam and Eve ; 
(2) an Eternal and fragments above a Holy Family which is probably by Caroto. 
The first of these facades is very obviously by an illuminator. One mentioned 
by Vasari is lost (Vasari, v. 279). [* In addition to the works by Liberale 
mentioned by the authors we may notice the following : (1) Budapest, Picture 
Gallery, No. 96. The Virgin and Child. (2) Fiesole, Villa Doccia, collection 
of Mr. H. W. Cannon. No. 4, St. Sebastian ; No. 5, St. Anthony of Padua ; 
No. 6, The Virgin and Child with Saints. (3) London, National Gallery. 
No. 1134, Madonna with two Angels; No. 1336, The Death of Dido. (4) 
Munich, Aeltere Pinakothek. No. 1495, Pieta. (5) Rome, collection of the 
late Dr. L. Mond. The Visitation. (6) Stockholm, University Gallery. The 
Virgin and Child with four Angels. (7) Verona, Museo Civico. No. 204, The 
Nativity; No. 377, Pieta; No. 723, Madonna with two Angels; No. 798, St. 

Of missing works the following is a list : (1) Verona, San Bernardino, Cappella 
della Compagnia della Maddalena. Frescoes. (Vasari, v. 276.) (2) Santa Maria 
della Scala. Virgin, Child, SS. Peter, Jerome, and two other saints. (Eicreaz^ 
p. 113, and dal Pozzo, p. 251.) (3) Sant' Elena. Virgin and Child, St. Catherine 


It has been said of Giovanni Maria Falconetto that he was 
overrated as an architect and underrated as a painter. 1 In the 
former capacity he certainly acquired fame ; in the latter the 
public of his time believed that he had no extraordinary merit. 
He was born in 1458 and died in 1534 2 ; and during the long 
course of his career he never apparently handled the brush except 
when forced to drop the compass. Vasari illustrates this leaning 
to a particular study by relating that when Falconetto was at 
Rome, struggling to acquire the principles on which the old 
Romans built, he hired his services for a certain number of days 
a week to masters who gave good wages, and spent the rest of 
his time measuring and copying old edifices. 3 He gained such 
a thorough insight into the methods of the ancients that he was 
enabled to revive them subsequently in his own country. He 
was therefore no creative genius. As a painter he shows a spirit 
not unlike that of Liberale for its force and energy, but altered 
so as to suit the habits of a decorator. For appropriate distribu- 
tion and judicious setting with the aid of linear perspective, he is 
to be commended ; and his tact in making personages and 
architecture subordinate to each other might lead us to believe 
that the Anonimo is right in calling him a pupil of Melozzo da 
Forll, 4 but he differs from Melozzo in this, that his figures are 

and St. Elena, dated 1490. (Persico, i. 49.) (4) San Giovanni in Monte. Circum- 
cision. (Vasari, v. 277.) (5) San Tommaso Apostolo (?). Panel. (Vasari, 
v. 278 sq.) (6) San Fermo, Cappella San Bernardo. St. Francis, and scenes from 
his life in a predella. (Vasari, v. 279.) (7) Galleria San Bonifacio, previously 
in Casa Moscardi. Virgin giving the Breast to the Infant Christ. (Persico, 
ii. 32. ) (8) Casa Vincenzo de' Medici. Marriage of St. Catherine. (Vasari, 
v. 279.) (9) Bardolino on the lake of Garda (ch. of). Altarpiece. (Vasari, 
v. 278.) 

1 Bernasconi, Studi, p. 257. 

2 Ibid, and Vasari, v. 325. 

* Vasari's statement that Falconetto was 76 years old in 1534 (the year of his 
death according to the same author) is contradicted by the Veronese Anagarfi. 
These are not always in agreement with each other when giving the age of Fal- 
conetto ; but the earlier of those mentioning him (dated 1472, 1481, and 1489) 
point with remarkable consistency to about 1468 as the date of his birth (cf. 
Gerola, ub. sup., iii. 117). He was still living in 1533 (see Gonzati, La Basilica di 
S. Antonio, i. 162), but is recorded as dead in 1541 (Gerola, ub. sup., iii. 118). 

8 Vasari, v. 319. If it be true that he lived twelve years in Rome, as Vasari 
says, he must have been there till close upon 1420. [* Compare the preceding 

4 Anonimo, p. 10. 
VOL. II 12 


sacrificed to the space in which they are enclosed ; and the space 
itself is arranged in a somewhat servile imitation of classic models. 
The earliest attempt of this kind is that which he made for the 
chapel of San Biagio at SS. Nazaro e Celso during the year 1493. 1 
The knack of bringing plain walls to look highly ornamented is 
not possessed by many, and requires fertility of expedients and 
familiarity with the intricacies of architecture. Falconetto is at 
home in these respects. He makes the cupola appear higher 
than it is in reality by simulating a series of curved recesses con- 
taining saints in perspective above the cornice ; the rest of the 
surface he divides into panellings framing prophets and fore- 
shortened angels, subordinate to the Eternal in the centre. A 
handsome frieze runs round the under edge of the cornice ; and 
as the chapel opens by arches on one side into the church, on 
the other into the apse, and at the two remaining points into 
subsidiary chapels there is room for farther deceptions by 
creating artificial niches and brackets in lunettes and spandrils, 
and introducing bas-reliefs and statues. 2 All this reminds us of 
Melozzo and Palmezzano, and there is no denying that the effect 
it produces is imposing from the breadth of the parts, the correct- 
ness of the distribution, and the science with which perspective 
is applied ; but Falconetto's are inferior to Melozzo's productions 
of a similar kind, because the human frame is treated too much 
as a block, and classic forms are misapplied or overcharged. 

It is scarcely matter for surprise that Falconetto's habit of 

1 See antea. 

* It is proved by contemporary records that these frescoes were executed in 
1497-9. Biadego, in Ntiovo arcJiivio veneto, ser. ii. vol. xi. pp. 120 sq. 

2 Verona, San Biagio. The cupola is all monochrome. In the pendentives and 
beneath figures of the Evangelists by Morando we read : "Jo. Maria Falconetus 
pinxit." In the lunette to the right, as you enter, there are four monochromes 
round a circular window, i.e. the Sacrifice of Abraham, the Death of Abel, Adam 
and Eve, and at each side of the window two niches containing St. Jerome 
and St. Anthony the Abbot. Below that, on brackets, St. Jerome and another, 
St. Koch and St. Sebastian, the two latter all but gone. There are also here and 
there figures of angels. In the lunette above the entrance arch an Annunciation 
by Morando, and two saints in episcopals in niches ; and below, the same arrange- 
ment as before, but much damaged from abrasion and scaling. In the lunette to 
the left, a Child on a pedestal supporting the frame of the circular window, and 
two saints. Lower down, an Adoration by some unknown hand, and a panel with 
the Madonna and Saints by Mocetto. This panel partly conceals an inscription 
closing with the date MCCCCLXXXXIII. 


copying the antique should have conveyed to superficial observers 
the impression that his work was Mantegna's. There is a large 
house-front in his manner on the Piazza San Marco, 1 and remnants 
of another, called the Casa Tedeschi, 2 at Verona, respecting which 
these erroneous impressions prevail ; and yet the art displayed is 
very much below Mantegna's, and only suggests his name because 
the theme and costumes are of the old time and the treatment is 
monochrome. It is characteristic of the figures that they are 
neither correct in action nor in outline ; and, aping the antique, 
they are long, lean, exaggerated in movement, and without style 
in draperies. In other paintings by Falconetto, he shows affinity 
with Liberale arid Pisano, and this is a feature apparent on more 
than one of his church frescoes, for instance in the saints and 
victories in San Fermo Maggiore, 3 in the Annunciation above the 
altar of the Emilii chapel at the Duomo, 4 and the religious 
allegories executed in 1509-16 for San Pietro Martire of Verona. 
The latter, indeed, are Falconetto's masterpieces, fanciful which 
may be due to the caprice of the person who ordered them but 
free and bold in contour, and less deformed by mannerism than 
usual. We may note in a Madonna, transfixed by an unicorn, a 
soft inclination of head, an affected grace of movement, and a face 
moulded in the Umbrian fashion ; in certain portraits an air of 
nature, and in the treatment a finish and flatness that betray 
some connection with the Veronese miniaturists. 5 

1 Verona, house on Piazza San Marco, corner of the Vicolo di San Marco, 
No. 835 [* now 1, Piazza San Marco]. The representations are Eoman contests, 
victories, sacrifices, and allegories, imitating the classic ; hasty and incorrect in 
drawing, all on blue grounds, the greater part of which are bare to the red 

2 Verona, close to Santa Maria della Scala. There is little here besides broken 
outlines and pieces of a Koman harangue. 

8 Verona, San Fermo Maggiore, first altar to the right of the entrance. 
Outer wall, representing two saints seated, and two victories in the spandrils 
of the arch. 

4 Verona, Duomo, Cappella Emilii. Fresco of the Annunciation. (The two 
panels of St. James and St. John here are in the manner of Francesco Morone.) 
[* The neighbouring chapel (the Cappella Calcasoli) contains large decorative 
frescoes by Falconetto, brought to light after the publication of the first edition 
of the present work, and signed " lo. Maria Falconetus de Verona pi. M.D. ill. die 
primo Septernbris." See Meyer, in Kunst- Ckronik, ser. i. vol. xi. coll. 81-85, 99-104.] 

5 Verona, Oratorio del K. Liceo Scipione Maffei, of old San Giorgio e San 
Pietro Martire. Lunette, fresco, with figures above life-size, representing the 


In pictures on panel, of which a few by our artist are preserved, 
we also observe some singular varieties l : Augustus and the Sibyl, 
in the Museum of Verona, a caricature of old statuary, grotesque 
in the action, and false in the drawing of the parts 2 ; a Virgin 
and Child with Saints, much repainted, beneath a fresco of the 
Pieta in the Maffei chapel in the Dnomo a mixture of Liberale, 
Mantegna, and Bellini. 3 

Falconetto's closing days were exclusively devoted to archi- 
tecture. Having been a partisan of the Imperialists daring their 
sway at Verona, he was obliged to retire to Trent after their 
surrender in 1517. 4 From thence he returned after a couple 

Annunciation, surrounded by allegories too childish for description ; at the corners 
two kneeling portraits of the patrons, Hans Weineck and Gaspar Kiinigl. Several 
figures of animals in fair drawing prove that Falconetto clung to the study which 
characterized Pisano and Stefano. The figures are outlined very strongly and 
hardly, and yet with boldness. The Virgin recalls Pisano's in the panel of the 
Madonna with St. Catherine at the Museum of Verona (No. 359). 

1 We have not seen : Verona, San Giuseppe. Virgin and Child between 
SS. Augustine and Joseph (Persico, i. 90), dated 1523. 

2 Verona Gallery, No. 358, from the Santissima Trinita, m. 1-52 high by 1'53. 
Wood, tempera, full of gold embossment. Poor as this is, it still has the air of a 
work by Falconetto ; and yet we might desire to think it is by some imitator of 
his manner. 

8 Verona, Duomo, Cappella Maffei, mentioned by Vasari (v. 318). The Pieta, a 
lunette with ten figures, has been assigned to Liberale ; but the forms are a little 
less rough than his. Still it is difficult to judge correctly of a fresco painted at a 
considerable altitude, ill-lighted and dusty. 

The altarpiece now on the side-wall of the chapel represents the Virgin and 
Child enthroned, between SS. John the Baptist, Jerome, Andrew, and a saint in 
episcopals. Wood, figures all but life-size, greatly repainted. The Baptist 
is very like one of Liberale's figures. The predella, representing the Expul- 
sion of Joachim, the Appearance of the Angel to Joachim, and the 
Nativity of St. John, is probably by Bonsignori, to whom some guides assign 
it (Rossi, Nuova Guida di Verona, 8vo, 1854, p. 23). It has a decided Man- 
tegnesque character. [* The pala has now its place in San Giovanni in Fonte ; 
the predella is in the Cappella di San Michele in the cathedral.] We may add 
notices of the following : (1) Berlin Museum, No. 47A. Death and Assumption of 
the Virgin. On gold ground, wood, figures one-third of life-size. Here is the 
slender class of personage and the bold pose of the manner of Liberale ; the form 
a little mannered in outline, and detailed in Falconetto's usual way. [* Count 
Carlo Gamba has proved that this is a work by Andrea del Castagno, finished in 
1449 for the church of San Miniato fra le Torri at Florence. See Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle, Hist, of Paint, in Italy, ed. Douglas, iv. 134, n. 5.] (2) Verona, 
Sant' Elena. Christ at the Tomb. Ascribed to Falconetto, not to be admitted as 
a genuine work without hesitation. 

* * This is what Vasari tells, and it may be true ; but contemporary documents 

vi.] GIOLFINO 181 

of years to Padua, where he was patronized by Alvise Oornaro, 
and there he built houses, lodges, and some of the city gates ; 
his last employment being that of superintendent of the chapel 
of the Santo, where his sons were also engaged. 1 

Of Giolfino, who was Falcorietto's contemporary, a very short 
sketch will suffice. It would serve no useful purpose to enumerate 
and to criticize minutely his pictures and frescoes in Verona. 
We may describe them generally as productions of a low class ; 
the earliest from 1486 upwards carefully treated but coarse, the 
later ones bold, vulgar, and freely handled. Liberale and Pacchia, 
or Beccafumi, are the artists of whom his chief productions 
remind us. He is coarsely Raphaelesque at last, after the 
fashion of Gaudenzio Ferrari. 2 

Vasari has related of Francesco Bonsignori that he was born 

only prove that Falconetto was at Trent before 1517. He painted the organ of 
the cathedral in that town in 1507-8, and restored an altarpiece in the same 
church in 1514 (Cervellini, in Madonna Verona, iii. 138). On the other hand, he 
is mentioned in the Veronese Anagraji of 1517 and the Estimi of 1518 (Gerola, 
ul>. sup., iii. 118, 116). 

1 Consult Vasari, Bernasconi, Stitdi, and Gonzati's La Basilica, ub. sup. 

2 The last date of Giolfino is 1518. Vasari only knew him as Niccolo Ursino 
(vi. 374). [* We now know that he was born about 1476 and died in 1555. 
See Gerola, in Madonna Verona, iii. 42.] 

Works that we might notice are the following : (1) Verona Museum, originally 
in San Francesco di Paola, No. 240. Half-length Virgin and Child. (2) Duomo. 
Wings and lunette of Liberale's Adoration of the Magi. (3) Santa Maria della 
Scala. Behind the pulpit, frescoes of a brownish tone ; injured, but of a broad 
style. (4) Same church, a Descent of the Holy Spirit, dated 1486, repeated in 
(5) Sant' Anastasia, Cap. Minischalchi. This recalls Pacchia on account of the 
exaggerated movement of the figures ; the colour is dull, melancholy, and un- 
broken ; inscribed " MDXVIII," with a monogram N.T.V. (Nicolaus Julphinus 
Veronensis) interlaced. In a predella is a scene from the life of St. Dominic. 
[* The signature and date on the Pentecost in Santa Maria della Scala are 
undoubtedly forgeries ; see Gerola, nb. sup., iii. 41 #.] (6) Again in Sant' 
Anastasia, the Redeemer in air, and below, SS. Erasmus and George, done with 
great freedom, but much injured. (7) San Bernardino, Cappella degli Avanzi, 
or di Santa Croce. Christ before Pilate, Christ in the act of being crucified, and 
the Resurrection ; in another part of the chapel, the Capture. These are all done 
very freely and boldly, the last-named with great care on a surface of great 
polish and smoothness. (8) Verona Gallery, No. 249, originally in San Matteo. 
Arched panel. Virgin in Glory, St. Matthew and St. Jerome, and a bust of a 
patron in prayer. Panel with life-sized figures dulled by varnishes. (9) Santa 
Maria in Organo, Cappella Santa Croce, to the right of the choir as you enter. 
Hexagonal chapel, with frescoes of the Last Supper, the Fall of the Manna, 
the Communion of the Apostles ; in lunettes six saints, and in semidome ten 


in Verona in 1455, and was taught at Mantna by Mantegna. 
After a certain time his proficiency was such as to attract the 
attention of the Marquis Francesco Gonzaga, who, in 1487, gave 
him a house and a salary. 1 We might be led by this narrative 
to believe that Bonsignori was Mantegna's pupil, which would be 
a grave mistake. Those productions of his manhood which bear 
the dates of 1483 to 1488 are of the Veronese school, and would 
prove that he underwent Mantegna's influence after he had 
acquired a manner of his own. Even before 1483 he finished a 
certain number of compositions in which local teaching may 
be discerned. The Virgin and Child in a landscape between 
St. Anthony the Abbot and the Magdalen, in the church of San 
Paolo at Verona, is to be classed amongst his elementary 
productions. 2 Thin regular forms in the Virgin and Child, 
combined with rigidity and smorphia, remind us of Girolamo 
Benaglio ; a resolute pose in the Magdalen recalls Liberale, 
whilst overweight of head, a grim but expressive face, and large 
rude extremities are properly characteristic of Bonsignori himself. 
The tempera is copiously moistened with vehicle but dull in 
tone ; the outline, if incorrect, still careful and bold. Bonsignori 
here is a better artist than Benaglio, with less vehemence and 

angels ; outside the entrance arch the Ascension , and on each spandril a prophet. 
These are in Giolfino's Eaphaelesque style. (10) In the nave of the same church 
four scenes from the Old Testament, and three rounds, reminiscent in style 
of works by Peruzzi or Daniel da Volterra. (11) In the same style, the front of 
Casa Pasquini, opposite the Via Ponte Rofiol, No. 1758, representing a frieze with 
gambols of cupids, the Seasons, and other figures (engraved in Nanin, No. 36). 
Also : (12) Verona, Santo Stefano [* now Museo Civico, No. 2062]. Virgin and 
Child, and boy Baptist, recalling the Kaphaelesque, SS. Jerome, Placida, Francis, 
Maurus, and Simplician ; a feeble dull piece (figures life-size). (13) Berlin 
Museum, No. 1176. Canvas. Virgin and Child between four Saints. Much 
movement may be noted in the figures here, the angels recalling those of Moretto 
da Brescia. 

Giolfino had a brother, Paolo Giolfino. By him is a Virgin and Child between 
four Saints (No. 304) in the Gallery of Verona. The style is similar to that 
of Niccolb Giolfino, but poorer. [* Dr. Gerola has shown (itb. sup., Hi. 37 *<?#.) that 
there never was a painter called Paolo Giolfino.] 

1 Vasari, v. 299 sq. The pictures of this painter being usually signed 
Bonsignorius, show that Vasari is wrong in calling him Monsignori. [* This 
form occurs, however, occasionally in contemporary records. See Biadego, 
loc. tit., xi. 123 ; Tea, in Madonna Verona, iv. 137.] 

2 Verona, San Paolo, described in old guides as by an unknown painter, but 
mentioned as Bonsignori's by Vasari (v. 304 .?.). 


spirit than Liberate. 1 A crucified Saviour, in the gallery of 
Verona, presents a specimen of good ordinary nude, of fair and 
slender proportion, whilst the profile bust of a donor in the right- 
hand corner of the picture, well drawn, with a true harmony of 
parts, broadly modelled and neatly blended in a silver-grey key 
of tempera, gives promise of that degree of perfection which 
Bonsignori afterwards exemplifies in the portrait of the National 
Gallery. 2 These pieces are, we think, the natural forerunners of 
that which bears the painter's name and the date of 1483 in the 
house of Dr. Bernasconi at Verona, a small panel half the size of 
life, in which the Infant, lying on a marble table with his feet 
towards the spectator, is adored with joined hands by the Virgin. 3 
No longer confined to the narrow circle of Veronese art, 
Bonsignori now exhibits some acquaintance with the models 
of Montagnana, Montagna, and Buonconsiglio, drawing nude 
with a certain knowledge of the laws of foreshortening and pro- 
portion, and with the broken energetic line of the Paduans, but 
with his full share of vulgarity and coarseness in masks and 
extremities. His drapery, though angular or tortuous, is cast 
with a certain judgment ; his colours are brown, smooth and 
glossy, as colours are in which copious vehicle is used. It is not 
to be asserted that Bonsignori up to this point had lessons from 
either of the Vicen tines Montagna or Buonconsiglio ; for the 
former visited Verona later, and Buonconsiglio, as far as is 
known, never came to Verona at all ; but he is more like them 
than he is like Mantegna; and this is quite as apparent in a 
large Madonna with Saints, painted for San Fermo of Verona in 
1484, as in pictures of an earlier time. There is a good profile 
of a patroness at the edge of the frame of this altarpiece, which 
illustrates Bonsignori's usual attention to careful drawing and 
accurate shading ; but the figures are not less short and bony 

* l As Mr. Berenson has shown (Lorenzo Lotto, pp. 39 sqq.), this and other works 
by Bonsignori reveal a strong influence from Luigi Vivarini. It seems therefore 
probable that Bonsignori studied for some time at Venice under that painter. 

2 Verona Museum, No. 361. Canvas, m. 1-15 high by 0'80, catalogued School 
of Mantegna. The left side of the torso repainted ; distance, hills and sky ; the 
whole dulled by varnishes. 

1 Verona, Dr. Bernasconi [* now Museo Civico, No. 148]. Panel with half- 
length Virgin, one -half the life-size. Tempera, on a dark green-brown ground, 
upon which one reads in the upper part to the left ; " Franciscus 
pinxit, 1483 " ; the flesh of an olive complexion. 


and not less vulgar in face than those of other altarpieces of the 
same period. 1 An improvement may be seen in a bust-portrait 
of 1487 in the National Gallery, where we are reminded of 
Masaccio by the breadth of the modelling, and of Ghirlandaio by 
the precision with which the forms are given and shadows are 
defined ; but of Mantegna's teaching there is no trace. 2 That 
some impression had been made upon Bonsignori by the works 
of Mantegna after 1484, is proved by a Madonna with Saints, 
dated 1488, in San Bernardino of Verona, where the Infant 
Christ erect on the Virgin's knees, and a couple of angels at the 
sides of the throne, imitate the slender type of the great Paduan ; 
but the change is very partial, and is not to be observed in 
the wild thickset frame and coarse extremities of the attendant 
St. Jerome, nor in the homely squareness of the standing 
St. George. 3 We may therefore assume that up to 1488 at least 
Bonsignori was not at the court of the Gonzagas. The frequent 
recurrence of his Christian name in the Mantuan correspondence 
of the years 1490 and 1491 might lead us to suppose that he was 
already employed at that time in the decoration of the country 
palace of Marmirolo ; some uncertainty might be caused by our 
inability to distinguish Bonsignori from Francesco Mantegna 4 ; 

1 Verona, San Fermo, wall to the left on entering the portal [* now Museo 
Civico, No. 271], Canvas, distemper, with figures just under life-size. The 
Virgin adores the Child lying on her lap. To the left St. Onofrio, growling and 
showing his teeth, and St. Jerome ; to the right SS. Augustine and Sebastian ; 
distance, sky ; at the bottom of the picture a female profile seen to the shoulders ; 
on a cartello : " Franciscus Bonsignorius V6nensis p. 1484." 

2 London, National Gallery, No. 736. Wood, tempera, 1 ft. 4J in. high by llf in., 
formerly in the Cappello Museum at Venice; inscribed on a cartello : " Franciscus 
Bonsignorius Veronensis p. 1487" (Maffei, Verona Illustr., ub. sup., pt. iii. 
ch. vi.). The cartoon for this portrait, squared for use, being larger (2 ft. 11 in. 
by 2ft. 4| in.), is in the collection of the Archduke Albrecht at Vienna, under the 
name of Gentile Bellini. [* It is now officially ascribed to Bonsignori. This 
likeness may have been painted in Venice, as the sitter is proved by his dress to 
be a Venetian senator. Bonsignori is probably also the author of the great 
polyptych above the second altar to the right in SS. Giovanni e Paolo at Venice ; 
see Berenson, ub. sup., pp. 43 sqq., and antea, i. 196, n. 4.] 

* Verona, San Bernardino, second altar to the right. Wood, mixed tempera 
and oil, figures life-size ; inscribed on a cartello : " Franciscus Bonsignorius 
VSn. p. MCCCCLXXXVIII." The Virgin's head is renewed, those of SS. George and 
Jerome retouched, also the head of the angel on the arm of the throne to the right s 
and the left leg of the Infant Christ. Through two windows the sky is seen. 

4 Gaye, Carteggio, i. 298 and 309. 


but these doubts are removed in the correspondence of 1495-6 
where Bonsignori, as Francesco da Verona, works in the new 
palace of Gonzaga, and is sent to the Giarole near Fornovo 
to sketch the ground on which the Marquis Francesco was 
defeated by the French. 1 He was busy, in 1506, at the Last 
Supper in San Francesco of Mantua, including portraits of the 
Marquis and his family, and went to Venice with one of Francesco 
Gonzaga's agents to copy a geographical model of Italy in the 
ante-chamber of the ducal palace. 2 

A sufficient number of Bonsignori's masterpieces at Mantua 
has been spared to justify the opinion that at the close of the 
fifteenth century he diligently studied and came at last to imitate 
Mantegna. One of the most interesting proofs of this is the 
lunette in the Brera at Milan, representing St. Louis and 
St. Bernardino holding the Name of Christ, a canvas once on the 
pulpit in the Franciscan convent of Mantua, in the refectory 
of which Bonsignori executed the Last Supper. 3 His style, if we 
judge of it by this specimen, was cleared of its old coarseness ; 
his figures were drawn in truer proportions and more perfect 
shape ; he evidently knew more of anatomy and perspective ; he 
draped his personages better, and gave them a calmer and more 
amiable air; yet whilst following Mantegna's models, he pre- 
served a certain impassiveness and monotony, a coldness and 
accuracy that make him of kin with Spagna or Timoteo Viti. 
Several pieces of almost equal merit illustrate this second phase. 
The best are the Virgin and Child with Saints at Lady Layard's 
in Venice, 4 the Christ carrying his Cross in the Doria Gallery at 

1 Gaye, i. 331-3, 335-6 ; D'Arco, Delle Arti, ub. sup., ii. 36, 39. [* Bonsignori 
was surely in the service of the Marquis in 1492, as is proved by a letter from 
him, published by Braghirolli {Letter e inedite di artisti, p. 21.) 

The Kaiser Friedrich Museum at Berlin possesses a full-length figure of 
St. Sebastian by Bonsignori (No. 46 c), signed " Zoane Batista de Antonjo 
Banbasato a fato fare 1495 (?)."] 

2 Vasari, v. 301 ; D'Arco, Delle Arti, i. 57, and ii. 68, 63 sq., 71. Sansovino, 
Ven. Desc., p. 323. The fresco is lost. 

8 Milan, Brera, No. 162. Canvas, tempera, lunette, m. 110 high by 1-70; the 
figures quite Mantegnesque, the colour pale and cold. Note high finish and 
a good definition of form. 

4 Venice, Lady Layard. Oblong on coarse canvas, with figures a little over 
half life-size, oil. The Virgin stoops over the Babe in swaddling clothes which she 
presses to her breast. To the left a young friar and aged saint ; to the right 
St. Anne and a young saint with curly locks and the palm of martyrdom ; half- 


Rome, 1 and replicas in possession of Count Paul Stroganoff 
at St. Petersburg 2 and the Marquis Campori at Modena. 3 Their 
chief feature is a Leonardesque simplicity of shape, a certain 
want of animation, caused by careful surfacing and outline, 
and the absence of strong shadow or modulations. We might 
assign to the same period an interesting portrait of Isabella, 
Marchioness of Mantua, under Mantegna' s name at the Uffizi, 4 
and a profile ascribed to Piero della Francesca at the Pitti, 5 
in which the Mantegnesque of Bonsignori is combined with some 
of the softness peculiar to Lorenzo Costa. Costa, we shall see, 

lengths, not quite free from restoring, and a little blind in consequence. The 
imitation of Mantegna is very apparent in the saints to the right and in the Babe. 
The same groups of other saints (Bernardino, Francis, Elizabeth, and another) 
and a similar Virgin and Child are in possession of Count Colloredo at Goritz, 
having been originally in the palace of the Gonzaga in Mantua. This piece, 
however, is much repainted, and we cannot say that it is not an old copy. 

1 Rome, Doria Gallery, No. 164. Panel, in oil ; figure a little under life-size ; 
bust, on dark ground. Christ with face three-quarters to the left, smooth in surface, 
hard, unbroken, and recalling Palmezzano, under the name of Mantegna. 

2 St. Petersburg, Count Paul Stroganoff. Panel, oil, same size as foregoing, 
called Beltraffio, the face retouched. 

* Modena, Marchese Campori, under Bonsignori's name. Life-size, well 
preserved, softer in tone, more finished, and with something recalling Costa in the 
treatment. [* This painting is now in the Gallery of Modena. Several other 
versions of the same composition are in existence. Prof. A. Venturi gives good 
reasons for ascribing some at least of these pictures to Giovanni Francesco 
de'Maineri of Parma, who worked about 1500 (see L'Arte, x. 33 sqq.). In this 
connection we may mention the bust of a man in armour (perhaps Lodovico 
Gonzaga), formerly in the Sciarra collection in Rome, and now belonging to 
Mr. Widener of Philadelphia. In spite of its Mantegnesque air, it is surely a 
work by Bonsignori, coming close to the busts in the National Gallery and at 
Bergamo ; the signature " An. Mantinia pinx. anno MCCCCLV " is of later date. 
Cf. Morelli, Die Gal. z. M. u. Dr., p. 231.] 

4 Florence, Uffizi, No. 1121. Wood, life-size. Bust with front face, in gala 
dress, with a cincture and a jewel on the forehead. Distance, a landscape touched 
in gold. Dress, blue and gold check pattern. Very careful, but not by Mantegna, 
to whom it is assigned, the manner being that of Bonsignori in the Mantegnesque 
style. On the back of the panel the words : " Duchessa Isabella Mantovana moglie 
del Duca Guido." Injured by varnishes and retouching. There is much here of 
Bonsignori's cold carefulness of finish. [* This is a portrait of Elisabetta 
Gonzaga, who was married in 1489 to Guidobaldo I., Duke of Urbino. It is now 
labelled "Veronese School." See Delaruelle, in L'Arte, iii. 147 sqq.~\ 

5 Florence, Pitti, No. 371. Panel, bust, m. 0-45 high by 0-35 ; profile to the left 
of a female, with a cincture and jewel, in gala dress, her hair falling out of a net, 
on green ground (repainted) ; the outline very fine ; well-treated tempera with 
'minute hatchings. 


was a Ferrarese, tempted to settle at Mantua by the Gonzagas. 
His manner affected Bonsignori very materially, and it is to his 
influence that we attribute the last change in Bonsignori's style. 
The period in which this change occurred is not easy to define 
accurately, but it no doubt took place shortly after the arrival of 
Costa in 1509. 1 In a portrait of a man in the Pitti, attributed 
to Giacomo Francia, we observe well-proportioned forms and a 
melancholy expression rendered with a regularity of outline 
recalling the Leonardesques. The spirit in which this handsome 
work is done is closely related to that displayed in the portrait 
of Isabella at the Uffizi ; the finish is more skilful, the tone 
warmer, but the hand seems that of Bonsignori under the charm 
of Costa's creations. 2 A more striking proof of the extent to 
which the painting of one master may affect those of another, 
is to be found in the Christ going to Calvary, attended by the 
Marys, at the Museum of Mantua, 3 where Bonsignori divests 
himself entirely of the characteristic features of his youth, and 
throws upon his canvas a series of small slender figures, to which 
in most cases he gives a tender and not unpleasant conventional 
air, suggesting reminiscences of the Umbrian school and of Costa. 
Better executed is the Vision of Christ to the nun Ozanna, a 
large canvas in the Mantuan Museum, 4 and the Virgin and Child 

* ' Costa probably came to Mantua in 1506. 

2 Florence, Pitti, No. 195. Bust, wood, m. 1-3 high by 0-17, oil. Figure of a 
man, full face in front of a window, in a cap. The face of a regular oval, of soft 
melancholy expression, softly tinted, with much blending, but without modulations. 
[* This is a portrait of Guidobaldo I., Duke of Urbino. Delaruelle, ub. mpJ] 

* Mantua Gallery, originally in Oratorio della Scuola Segreta (D'Arco, i. 57). 
Canvas, oil ; injured by time and restoring. Christ has fallen under the weight 
of the cross. The Magdalen supports the transverse beam. In rear the Virgin 
in a fainting fit. This is a conventional picture in arrangement, wanting in life 
and power. The treatment is cold and careful. [* Closely allied to this work is 
a beautiful head of a female saint in the Museo Poldi-Pezzoli at Milan (No. 628).] 

4 Mantua Gallery, originally in San Vincenzo. Canvas, oil, figures all but life- 
size. In the centre the nun with her feet on a monster, attended by five kneeling 
companions. On clouds to the right and left of the central figure are Christ 
carrying his cross and an angel with a lily. The figures are well proportioned and 
not ungraceful. There is something of the Peruginesque and of Costa, especially 
in the drapery, which falls and winds so as to give the form in the Umbrian 
fashion. The figures all seem portraits, very carefully done, .and light in tone. 

In the same mixed style of the Mantegnesque and Costa are six small subjects 
from the triumph of Scipio in one frame, belonging to the heirs of the Susanni 
family at Mantua. [* Present whereabouts unknown.] 


between Saints, delivered to the chapel of San Biagio at Verona 
in 1519, 1 the last effort of Bonsignori previous to his death. 2 

More abundant in production but of the same stuff as 
Bonsignori, Giovan Francesco Caroto fills a large place in the 
annals of Verona. Born in 1470 and apprenticed early to 
Liberale, he was soon removed to Mantua, where he took an 
active share in the later productions of Mantegna's atelier. 3 

He is described as so perfect an imitator that his panels were 
accepted as Mantegna's own ; and this is perfectly credible. 4 In 
a number of Madonnas belonging to Continental collections, his 
manner closely resembles that of his master, and apart from 
certain childishly realistic features, they are interesting examples 
of Caroto's youth. The Virgin and Child with the young Baptist, 
in the Gallery of Modena, for instance, represents the Virgin in 
a landscape adorned with lemon-trees, the Child on her knee 

1 Verona, San Biagio. This picture was ordered in 1514 and delivered in 1519 
(Di San Biagio, etc., ub. sup., p. 63), and a predella was made for it by Girolamo 
dai Libri. The Virgin is in air with the Infant Christ ; below, SS. Biagio, Sebas- 
tian, and Juliana ; a child at St. Biagio's side holds the card. Canvas, oil. The 
figures are graceful enough ; the drapery and nude are fair ; the colour, though 
dulled by restoring, being warm and blended. We are reminded of Costa and 
Francia in their Kaphaelesque phase. In the same manner: Mantua (near), 
Chiesa delle Grazie, Cappella Zibramonti. Canvas, oil, representing St. Sebastian ; 
all but life-size, but much injured by scaling, and possibly done with the help 
of an assistant. Less in the character of the master : Verona, Duomo, sacristy. 
St. Lawrence and St. Stephen. Two arched panels, too poor to be by Bonsignori. 
[* As for a portrait by Bonsignori in the Galleria Lochis at Bergamo, see antea, 
p. 109, n. 2.] 

Missing: (1) Portraits of Frederick Barbarossa ; Barbarigo, Doge of Venice; 
Francesco Sforza and Maximilian, Dukes of Milan ; Emperor Maximilian ; Ercole 
Gonzaga, afterwards cardinal ; Federico Gonzaga ; Giovan -Francesco Gonzaga ; 
Andrea Mantegna ; Count Ercole Giusti (Vasari, v. 300 sq., 307) ; and the King 
of France (D'Arco, ii. 36). (2) Virgin and Child, half-lengths (Vasari, v. 305). 

a Vasari, v. 305. Bonsignori died in 1519. He had two brothers, ascribed to 
one of whom (Fra Girolamo Bonsignori) is a fresco of the Virgin and Child, 
cut from the wall, now in the sacristy of San Barnaba at Mantua. There is a 
Lombard character in this work, which dates from the first years of the 
sixteenth century ; the forms are good and well rendered, the faces are pleasing, 
and the colour is soft. This Lombard character might be expected of a man 
who, as we know, copied the Last Supper of Leonardo at Milan (Vasari, v. 306, 
and vi. 491). [* As a matter of fact, Bonsignori had four brothers, all of whom 
were active as artists. For notices of them see Tea, loc. cit, pp. 137 sqqJ] 

3 Vasari, v. 280. [* The Veronese Anagiafi prove that G. F. Caroto was born 
about 1480. In 1502 he is mentioned in the Estimi of Verona. See Simeoni, in 
Z'Arte, vii. 65 *#.] 4 Vasari, ub. sup. 


raising her veil. One of her hands, armed with a thimble, holds 
a needle, at which she is looking, whilst the other grasps a piece 
of muslin. There is some art, perhaps too much apparent art, in 
the arrangement ; but the movements, suggesting study of antique 
statuary, and the dry slender proportions of the figures as well 
as the drawing, drapery, and modelling, are very manifestly 
adapted from Mantegna. The Infant Saviour and Baptist are 
quarrelling for a twig, and grimace in the true Mantegnesque 
style. 1 The same subject is repeated, with more ease, in Casa 
Maldura at Padua, the young Baptist being omitted 2 ; and 
simpler forms of the Virgin and Child illustrating this period of 
Caroto's art are in the Staedel Gallery at Frankfort 3 and in the 
Berlin Museum. 4 The treatment of which the best test is at 
Frankfort is hard in flesh and garish in drapery, the faces being 
of a monotonous red-yellow with little half-tone, the dresses 
strongly contrasted and confusedly frittered in fold. We may 
believe that the painter of these pieces produced works on Man- 
tegna's designs that might and did pass for Mantegna's, and 
Caroto is possibly the assistant to whom we partly owe less grand 
but gayer creations by Mantegna, such as the Noli Me Tangere 
and the Madonna with Saints of the National Gallery, the Virgin 
with half-lengths in the Museum of Turin, and the miniature of 
the Circumcision in the library of the same city. 6 On his return 
to Verona, which took place previous to 1508, Caroto's manner 

1 Modena Gallery, No. 492. Wood, oil, m. 0-50 high by 0-40. In a scroll beneath 
the Infant Christ's arm : " I. Franciscus Charotus MCCCCCI." The only parts of this 
picture not repainted are the red tunic of the Virgin, the landscape and lemon-trees. 
[* Closely allied to this work is a Madonna belonging to the Hon. Evelyn Saumarez.] 

2 Padua, Casa Maldura. Canvas, oil, figures one-quarter of nature. The Saviour 
here holds a pair of scissors. Inscribed to the right : " lo. F. Charotus f ." Flesh 
restored and colour much altered by various causes. [* This picture is now in the 
Academy of Venice (No. 609).] 

3 Frankfort, Staedel, No. 21. Wood, oil, 1 ft. 10 in. high by 1 ft. 5 in. ; inscribed 
on the pedestal on which Christ stands : " F. Charotus." Some of the opaqueness 
here is no doubt caused by restoring. This panel was in the Baranowski collection. 

4 Berlin Museum, No. 40. Wood, oil, 2 ft. 3 in. high by 1 ft. 6 in. The Child 
on a parapet, a dish of fruit near him. Below the parapet two half-lengths of 
angels playing instruments ; very Mantegnesque in air not quite so opaque as at 
Frankfort, but dulled by varnishes. [* It seems doubtful whether this picture is 
by Caroto. There is a strong Venetian element in it ; Morelli (Die Gal. z. M. u. 
Dr., p. 19) ascribes it to Basaiti ] 

8 National Gallery, Nos. 639 and 274. Turin Museum, No. 164 (and see antea). 


took a local tinge more reminiscent of Liberale's and Giolfino's 
than it had been before 1 : we shall find that his heads are broad, 
round, and high in forehead ; the cheeks being fall, the lips thick 
and tumid, the nose protuberant, the eyes large, open, and distant, 
the brows high and arched features conspicuous from the slender 
character of the frames and the weakness of the limbs. 

Another marked peculiarity of Caroto's drawing is a frequent 
abuse of curves, exaggerating the projection or depression of 
muscles according as they are prominent in the calf and thigh 
or lost in the joint at the knee and ankle. This tendency gives 
his outline an artificial swell which is very unsatisfactory. This 
and other habits of Caroto might be illustrated with great 
copiousness in the Virgin adoring Christ and attended by saints, 
a picture with fair modelling in the flesh tints, and two or three 
other canvases of the same calibre, in the Museum of Verona 2 ; 
but to judge of the painter more fully we must examine his 
frescoes in the Spolverini chapel at Sant' Eufemia of Verona, 
where he produced scenes from the book of Tobit with some 
of the power of the moderns. The compositions are skilfully 
balanced, and the personages are natural in movement and 
expression, but the colour especially is entitled to commendation 
for a warmth and blending distantly like Correggio's. Three 
archangels between St. Lucy and another female on the altar 
enable us to detect that Caroto was not unacquainted with the 

1 The author of the Ricreazione describes a Glory of St. Catherine between 
SS. Koch and Sebastian, dated 1502, in the church of Santa Caterina, annex to the 
Ognissanti (suppressed) at Verona (p. 163, and dal Pozzo, p. 225). Caroto's presence 
at Verona in ] 508 is proved by the existence of frescoes of that date in San Girolamo 
(Annunciation), inscribed " A.D. M.D.VIII. I.F. Carotus. fa.," which have not been 
seen by the authors. [* Compare on these frescoes Gerola, in Sollettino d'arte, 
i. fasc. vii.] Unseen, too, the SS. Sebastian, Roch, and Job in San Tommaso 
Cantuariense at Verona (dal Pozzo, p. 265, and Bernasconi, Studi, p. 294). [* This 
painting is not by Caroto but probably by Girolamo dai Libri.] 

2 Verona Museum, No. 260. Canvas, oil. Virgin and Child between SS. Joseph, 
Francis, Chiara, and Anne ; m. 1-70 high by 1'25 of a later date. No. 262, St. 
Francis between SS. Bernardino, Anthony, and Chiara, with the Ecce Homo in a 
cloud above. Canvas, oil, m. 2'07 high by 2'05, from the Minorites of Isola della 
Scala. No. 325, Virgin and Child between SS. Joseph and Mary Magdalen. 
Canvas, oil, m. 2-0 high by 2*05 ; injured by restoring, inferior to the foregoing. 
No. 300, Christ washing the Feet of the Apostles; above, the Virgin and King 
David in glory; from the Minorites of Isola della Scala, m. 3-0 high by 2-15, 
injured by cleaning. 


manner of Francia and Costa ; the attendant saints recall Peruzzi 
and Timoteo Viti * ; and the prevalence of a certain mistiness in 
the modelling, both in fresco and oil, reveals a new phase in the 
expansion of his practice. In this phase he remains for some 
years, and shows himself prolific, as we perceive in the Visitation 
and Christ's Parting with his Mother at San Bernardino, 2 the 
Virgin in the Bra, and several house-fronts at Verona. 3 We are 
not informed as to the time when he visited Milan and Casale, 
where he executed works of magnitude for the Visconti and 

1 Verona, Sant' Eufemia, Cap. Spolverini, wall to the left of entrance. Lunette 
bare. Lower course : the angel shows the fish to Tobias, and Tobias with the fish. 
Next lower course ; Tobias returns to his father and heals his blindness. The 
limbs of the figures generally are weak. A figure of David to the right of the 
entrance is also fairly done by the same hand. This is all that remains of the 
frescoes of the whole chapel, and even this remnant is in bad condition. 

The altarpiece, canvas, oil, is signed : " F. Carotus, p." The figures are feeble 
in the legs, which was an objection made by the critics of Caroto's own time (Vasari, 
v. 281). [* This painting is now in the Museo Civico of Verona (No. 343).] 

The manner of Caroto at this period is illustrated in a St. Catherine, full-length, 
originally at the Madonna di Campagna, now in Verona Museum, No. 251, m. 1-80 
high by 0-85, in which we mark a skilful rendering of momentary action with rich 
colouring, all reminiscent of the manner of Bazzi. The piece is injured by restoring. 

2 Verona, San Bernardino, Cap. della Croce. The parting of Christ from the 
Virgin. Canvas, oil, figures life-size. 

Same church, chapel near the choir. Visitation, and a male and female at the 
sides. Fresco, a frieze with arabesques and busts of saints, much injured, but 
of bright rich tone, carefully drawn and tasteful. The draperies have still some 
Mantegnesque character. 

8 These are assignable to Caroto, and might be of the period under notice. 
(1) Verona, in Bra, No. 2988. Virgin and Child. Fresco in a round, life-size, 
half-length, freely and boldly drawn, and well proportioned ; somewhat damaged 
(Nanin, pi. 26.) (2) Via della Scala, No. 1310. House-front, once the property of 
Palermo, professor of medicine at Padua. There remain a portrait (?) of himself 
in a round between the windows of the first floor, and other figures ; well drawn 
and richly coloured (Nanin, pi. 11 and 12.) (3) San Tommaso, Ponte Acqua 
Morta, No. 4800. Frescoes, representing the delivery of Verona to the Venetians 
in 1517 (Nanin, pi. 7 and 8). These have been assigned to Mocetto, but their 
colour leaves us in doubt whether they are his or Caroto's. [* They are now in 
the Museo Civico of Verona (Nos. 461, 454, and 476).] 

Verona, Santa Maria in Organo, left side of the nave as you enter. Here are four 
scenes from the Old Testament, and four rounds in the soffits of the arches 
namely, the Redeemer and St. John, and two Benedictines. These frescoes are 
almost as broadly treated as those which are now about to be noticed. Assigned 
to Caroto also are landscapes in oil on the doorposts, which if not by him are of 
his school. There are traces, too, of a fresco by the same hand in a side-street 
leading to this church. 


Montferrat 1 ; but in 1528, the date of the Virgin in Glory adored 
by Saints at San Fermo, he enters boldly into the ways of the 
sixteenth century, and produces an effective cento of the Raphael- 
esque and Michelangelesque. 2 It would cost too much space 
to describe all the pieces of this style which fill the galleries of 
Verona and Mantua. 3 It is enough to sketch the career of 

1 Vasari, v. 282 sq. [* G. F. Caroto went to Casale some time before July 1516, 
when the Marquis Guglielmo of Monferrato gave him some land in recognition of 
his services. The following year, Caroto witnessed a document at Casale. The 
Marquis Guglielmo died in 1518, whereupon Caroto, according to Vasari, left Casale, 
which, however, he is proved to have revisited. From the time of his first sojourn 
at Casale dates a Pieta in the collection of Signor Vincenzo Fontana of Turin, 
signed on the back " F. Carotus P. MDXV." See Baudi de Vesme, in Archivio 
storico deir arte. ser. ii. vol. i. pp. 33 sqq. G. F. Caroto is mentioned in the 
Veronese Anagrafi of 1529, 1541, 1545, and 1555. He made his will on April 29, 
1555, and died the same year, not in 1546 as Vasari states. Simeoni, ub. sup., vii. 
65 sq. From 1527 date a Nativity of the Virgin (signed " F. Kroto 1527") in 
the Frizzoni collection at Milan and a Massacre of the Innocents in the Galleria 
Carrara at Bergamo (No. 137) ; they formed originally a predella above the altar 
of the Compagnia della Madonna in San Bernardino at Verona. See Frizzoni, 
Le Grallerie delV Aooademia Carrara, p. 26.] 

2 Verona, San Fermo, Cappella del Sacramento. Virgin and Child, St. Anne in 
clouds between four boy-angels ; below, SS. John the Baptist, Peter, Eocb, and 
Sebastian, the latter colossal and heavy in the Michelangelesque manner ; in- 
scribed : " 1528, F. Kroto." The drawing is a little strongly marked and mono- 
tonous, the figures are slight and motionless, the colour somewhat raw. [* The 
editor understands from Dr. Gerola that a signed and dated picture of the same 
year, representing the Annunciation, is in the Villa Alberto Monga at San Pietro 
Incariano, near Verona. A Holy Family in the Crespi collection at Milan is 
inscribed with Caroto's monogram and the date 1530.] 

8 The list is as follows : (1) Verona, Palazzo Vescovile, from ch. del Nazaret. 
Kesurrection of Lazarus, inscribed with Caroto's monogram and the date 
" MDXXXI." Canvas, oil, a little injured in the dresses. [* From the same year 
dates a Holy Family in the Museo Civico of Verona (No. 114, signed " Fr. Caroto 
MDXXXI "). According to information given me by Dr. Gerola, there is a signed 
and dated picture of 1540, representing the Madonna and Saints, in the parish 
church of Bionde di Visegna, near Verona.] (2) Sant' Anastasia, fourth altar to 
the right (erected, according to Persico, p. 17, in 1542). Virgin and Child in air ; 
below, St. Anthony and St. Martin sharing his cloak. The character of this piece is 
that of one by a man in his old age, but still possessed of freedom and power. It 
recalls Torbido in the redness and depth of its tones, and a pupil of Pordenone, 
such as Pomponio Amalteo. Figures life-size (canvas, oil), the horse out of drawing. 
(3) San Giorgio. St. Ursula and a winding procession of the virgins, the head of 
which is on the foreground ; inscribed : " Franciscus Carotus, p. a. d. M.D.XXXXV." 
Above, the Saviour in glory. The latter is like a figure by G. Ferrari ; the rest 
remind us by turns of Viti and Peruzzi. All here shows great mannerism ; the 
colour, too, is feeble, and injured by restoring and repainting. But there are 


Alinari photo. ,] 
II. 192] 


[Verona, San Per mo. 


Caroto with broad lines. His monogram and the date of 1531 
are on a Resurrection of Lazarus in the palace of the Bishop of 
Verona ; a Virgin in Glory at San Giorgio is inscribed 1545. 1 
His brother and follower, Giovanni Caroto, and Antonio Brenzone 
just deserve to be mentioned. 2 

several things by Caroto in this church, e.g. SS. Sebastian and Roch, with a lunette 
of the Transfiguration, and a predella with the Sermon on the Mount, the Entomb- 
ment, the Resurrection, and saints and angels in pilasters. The flesh is of a misty 
red, like Puccinelli's (Brescianino) of Siena. The drawing is in the character 
of Bugiardini. High up on the wall of the choir are also two canvases with thin 
neat figures in a low tone of colour. These are difficult to criticize, but might be 
youthful efforts of the painter. They are not free from injury. 

1 We add to the foregoing list the following: (1) Verona Museum, No. 446. 
Canvas, oil, m. 2*25 high by 2-0. Virgin and Child between SS. Zeno and Pietro 
Martire, formerly in the Sala del Consiglio ; inscribed : " . . I . . die 15 . . . Ma . 
Joannes Franciscus de Charotus . . on p. 1498 " ; a piece with a forged signature. 
(2) Mantua, Santa Maria della Carita. Canvas, m. 2-10 high by 1-47. St. Luke, 
St. Michael, St. John Evangelist, and another sairt erect. Figures of small 
character, washy in tone. This picture is either by Caroto or one of his assistants, 
and recalls Costa and Viti. 

Mantua, Royal Palace. Arched canvas, with life-size figures. The Virgin and 
Child. Below, St. Mary Magdalen, St. John Evangelist writing on his knee, 
St. Francis, and a saint in armour. Feebler than the foregoing, but in the same 
style, by a pupil of Caroto or Costa. 

St. Petersburg, Leuchtenberg collection. St. Anthony the Abbot between 
St. Roch and St. Mary Magdalen. 3 ft. 2 in. high by 3 ft. 9 in. Assigned to 
Caroto, but by some follower of Cima, perhaps by Girolamo da Udine. [* See 
posted, iii. 79, n. 2.] 

* The following is a list of works by G. F. Caroto not mentioned by the 
authors : (1) Bergamo, Galleria Lochis, No. 170. The Adoration of the Magi. 
(2) Bergamo, Galleria Morelli, No. 2. The Judgment of Solomon. (3) Budapest, 
Picture Gallery, No. 180. St. Michael. (4) Budapest, M. Sandor Lederer. The 
Virgin and Child. (5) Dresden, Picture Gallery, No. 66. Madonna with two 
Angels. (6) Fiesole, Villa Doccia, collection of Mr. H. W. Cannon, No. 9. The 
Virgin and Child with St. John. (7) Florence, Uffizi. The Circumcision ; The 
Flight into Egypt ; The Massacre of the Innocents (signed " I. Franciscus 
Charotus V. P.") ; St. Joseph between two Shepherds. Originally in the church 
of the hospital of San Cosimo at Verona (Vasari, v. 280). (8) London, collection 
of the late Dr. L. Mond. The Virgin and Child with St. John. (9) Liitschena 
(near Leipzig), collection of Baron Speck von Sternburg. The Virgin and Child. 
(10) Trent, Cathedral. The Virgin and Child with Saints. Signed F. K. (11) 
Verona, Museo Civico. No. 92, The Virgin and Child with St. John. No. 108, 
Pieta. No. 112, The Temptation of Christ. No. 119, The Virgin and Child. 
No. 154, The Fall of Lucifer. No. 341, Sofonisba. (12) Vienna, Baron Tucher 
The Virgin and Child. Signed. 

2 There are no dates of Giovanni's life, but he was evidently an assistant to his 
brother. [* He was born about 1489, and died between 1562 and 1567. See Trecca, 
in Madonna Verona, iv. 190 sqq.] (1) Verona, San Paolo. Virgin and Child between 
VOL. II 13 


We now direct our attention to another set of Veronese 
headed by the Moroni, comprising Girolamo dai Libri and Paolo 

Domenico Morone, by his townsmen called Pelacane, because 
his father was a tanner, was born at Verona about 1442. He 
was registered in the list of Veronese burgesses in 1491, and 
was one of the masters requested in 1493 by the municipality 
to report upon the merit of certain statues ordered for the 
outer ornament of the Council Hall. He painted the library of 
the convent of San Bernardino in 1503, and frescoes which have 
perished at Santa Maria in Organo in 1508. 1 In scanty proportion 
to these proofs of Domenico's existence are the pictures which 
he produced. There is no Veronese of name of whom we know 
so little. Remnants of frescoes without date in the Cappella 
Sant 5 Antonio at San Bernardino, rescued from whitewash some 
time ago, were laid out according to Vasari for Niccol6 de' Medici 
by Domenico Morone, 2 but the fragments hardly allow of a safe 

SS. Paul and Peter. Canvas, inscribed : "1513 Joannes " (retouched). [* According 
to Signer Trecca (ub. sup., p. 196) the castellino shows on one side the Caroto 
monogram and on the other a sign ( $ ?) and the inscription " MDXVII-IOANES."] 
A heavy imitation of Giovan Francesco Caroto is here to be noticed ; there is a 
mock grace in the Virgin and affectation of a dancer in the Child. The figures 
are colossal and greatly repainted. (2) Verona, San Giovanni in Fonte. Virgin 
and Child between SS. Stephen and Augustine, with a kneeling patron. Canvas, 
oil, inscribed on a scroll : " Joannes, MDXIIII." [* The signature occurs on a 
leaf behind the Virgin's head, and is, according to Mr. Baron (in The Burlington 
Magazine, xviii. 42), simply "IOANNES."] Affected picture, draperies in zigzags, 
surface enamelled. (3) Verona Museum, No. 265, m. 1-70 high by 1-17, from Santa 
Maria in Chiavica. Virgin and Child, SS. Lawrence and Jerome. Sharply con- 
trasted in the dresses, the Virgin distantly like Kaphael's Madonna di Foligno, 
red flesh with dark shadows. (4) Verona, Santo Stefano. Virgin and Child between 
SS. Peter and Andrew. Canvas, figures life-size. This picture is Veronese, not 
quite in the manner of the foregoing, having broader forms and a low-toned rich 
key of colour ; the grouping good and drawing clever. Dal Pozzo (Pitt. Ver., p. 247) 
notices a Virgin and Child with St. Nicholas and another, containing portraits of 
Caroto and his wife. This picture is missing. [* A fragment of it is in the Museo 
Civico of Verona (No. 239). Baron, loo. tit., p. 43.] 

Of Antonio Brenzone, there is in the Duomo at Verona a Virgin and Child 
between SS. Jerome and George in niches (figures half life-size), inscribed : " 1533 
Antonio Brenzone." The treatment is that of a disciple of Francesco Caroto. 
[* Dr. Gerola points out that, as there is no "pinxit " after "Antonio Brenzone," this 
might be the name of the donor. We have no records of a painter of that name.] 

1 For the foregoing facts see the proofs in Bernasconi, Studi, pp. 238 sq. [* Com- 
pare also Gerola, in Madonna Verona, iii. 104 sqq. Domenico Morone was still 
living in 1517.] 2 Vasari, v. 308. 


opinion. Four Evangelists are in the ceiling, SS. Louis and 
Buonaventura in the pilasters of the inner arch ; the front and 
soffits of the entrance are filled with monochrome relief, ornaments 
and medallions, saints in niches, and a Virgin and Child in an 
imitated pediment ; five lunettes contain scenes from the legend 
of St. Anthony of Padua ; all this is in a sad state of decay, and 
in a great measure renewed. 1 The decorative plan is a good one, 
but overcharged with florid detail ; a strong Umbrian look, 
apparently derived from the school of Piero della Francesca, may 
be observed in the group of Virgin and Child, recalling Fiorenzo 
de Lorenzo ; puffy projection in flesh contrasts with thin scantling 
of the joints, broad flanks with narrow chests ; the figures are 
short, the heads square, and the feet large ; straight and parallel 
folds in the drapery close with an angular eye, and balloon as 
they fall. These are all features that distinguish Francesco 
Morone, Girolamo dai Libri, Michele da Verona, and Morando ; 
a more modern and fresher spirit is to be found in the saints and 
angels. It is not unlikely that Domenico was assisted by his 
son and disciples in this vast undertaking. 

We shall find a large Glory of St. Bernardino at the Brera 
in Milan, catalogued as by Mantegna. An illegible inscription 
and a false date leave us in ignorance of the painter's name and 
the time in which he laboured. The treatment is that of a man 
following in the footsteps of Piero della Francesca and Mantegna, 
the figures and architecture closely related to those of the Peru- 
gian Bonfigli. A grave and dignified mien and fair proportions 
are given to the saint, whose slender forms are pretty well 
rendered, but the heads are square and of a distinct type, i.e. a 
broad high forehead, large eyes with round pupils and curly hair 
in the fashion of Bonfigli and Fiorenzo. The drapery is sharply 
outlined and cut up into a confused tangle of folds, and a heavy 

1 Verona, San Bernardino, Cappella Sant' Antonio. SS. Helen and Elizabeth, on 
the front pilaster as you enter, are all but gone. Above are SS. Catherine and 
Ursula, and in the spandrils monochromes of Abraham leading Isaac and the 
Sacrifice of Abraham. St. Mark on the ceiling is the least injured of the four 
Evangelists. St. Buonaventura on the pilaster of the inner arch is least damaged 
of the personages inside the chapel, and most recalls Francesco Morone. Of the 
subjects in the lunettes, one is the Cure of the Man with the Broken Limb, in which 
some bits of old work remain (in some of the kneeling females) ; another, the 
Miracle of the Ass, where the portrait of the kneeling patron is still visible. The 
painting in the arch, ceiling, and lunettes is new. 


red flesh tint of unbroken surface is strongly relieved by dark 
grey shadows. This is a clever composition, probably by 
Domenico or Francesco Morone, and not dissimilar from the 
wall-paintings in the chapel at San Bernardino. 1 

Turning from these examples to the frescoes in the library at 
San Bernardino, which bear the date 1503, we are led to believe 
that, whoever else may have designed the subjects, they were 
executed by journeymen such as Michele da Verona and 
Morando. 2 

It is apparent, therefore^ that we can only judge of Domenico 
approximatively. Looking at the remains in the chapel of 
Sant' Antonio, he is a fair second-rate representative of fifteenth- 
century art ; his figures of low stature with broad aged masks 
of the stamp of Piero della Francesca. If we measure him by 
the standard of other works superior to those of Sant' Antonio, 
he is a Veronese, with some of the spirit of the Mantegnesques 
and Piero della Francesca. 3 But taking Domenico in connection 

1 Milan, Brera, No. 163. Canvas, distemper, m. 3-85 high by 2-20. In a lunette 
four angels beneath garlands of leaves and fruit ; a bird and a rabbit are on the 
foreground, and on a cartello is an illegible inscription with the false date of 1460. 
The surface is altered by oil, varnishes, and restoring. There is something in the 
treatment also akin to the organ-doors of San Bernardino ; only that in these we 
find in addition some features peculiar to Liberale. (See posted) [* The picture 
in the Brera Gallery is now labelled " Maniera di Mantegna"] 

2 Verona, San Bernardino, library, afterwards refectory, now out of use. Above 
and inside entrance, three bust figures of Popes between four medallions with 
monochrome profiles. Lower down and at some distance from the sides of the 
entrance, four saints erect ; opposite wall, the Virgin and Child and angels between 
ten saints, two of whom are SS. Francis and Chiara, severally presenting a male 
and female patron ; on the side- walls saints in couples on polygonal pedestals, and 
medallions. The portraits are the best part ; the drawing of the extremities espe- 
cially is very faulty, the outlines are continuous and wiry ; the drapery is trite and 
formless. The action, too, is awkward even when well meant. The careful execu- 
tion and the defects we have noted prove the presence here of young hands of 
Michele in the Madonna with Saints, of Morando in the other pictures. 

* s We now know something more about the work of Domenico Morone. His 
style is strongly Squarcionesque in a little Madonna in the Kaiser Friedrich 
Museum at Berlin (No. 1456, not shown), signed " Yhs Dominicus Moronus pinxit 
die xxvini Aprillis MCCCC(L)XXXIIII." With this work we may associate 
another Madonna in the Galleria Tadini at Lovere. The next dated painting by 
him which has come down to us is a large canvas belonging to Signor B. Crespi 
of Milan, signed " Dominicus Moronus Veronesis pinxit MCCCCLXXXIIII." This 
picture, which was executed for the Marquis of Mantua, represents the fight 
between the Gonzaga and the Bonaccolbi at Mautua in 1328. It is not only of 


with his sou, of whom we shall now treat, he forms one of a 
partnership which gave an impress to the most important branch 
of Veronese painting. Through their industry, and under their 
lead, a new and powerful style was based on the precepts of 
Mantegna, without any servile imitation of his peculiarities. 

Francesco Morone was born in 1473, and lived till May 
1529. 1 As a draughtsman he studied Mantegna, as a colourist 
Montagna ; but he tempered the hardness of both with a cold 
softness acquired from the Umbro-Ferrarese who dwelt at the 
Mantuan court in the sixteenth century. For some time assistant 
to his father, 2 and afterwards an independent master of large 
practice, he gained a name second only to that of Morando ; and 
he finished a multitude of pictures and frescoes of which it would 
be superfluous to describe more than a few. The earliest is a 
crucified Saviour between the Virgin and Evangelist, an arched 
panel dated 1498 in the Cappella della Croce at San Bernardino, 
with attendant saints now in the Museum of Verona. 3 The 

interest because of the subject, but also admirable in its spirited rendering of the 
battle. Allied in style to it are two tournament scenes (originally no doubt 
adorning a cassone) in the National Gallery (Nos. 1212, 1213). In 1498 Domenico 
worked in the Cappella di San Biagio in SS. Nazaro e Celso at Verona (cf. Biadego, 
loo. cit., pp. 110 #<.), though we are unable to assign to him any of the extant 
paintings in that chapel. Two frescoes until recently in the little church of 
San Niccolo di Tolentino at Paladon, near Verona, and now in the Museo 
Civico of that town, are signed and dated works by Domenico, executed in 
1502; they come very close to the frescoes in the library of San Bernardino 
(cf. Simeoni, in Madonna Verona, iii. 67 sqq.). As already remarked (antea, 
p. 170, n. 5), Dr. Gerola thinks it probable that Domenico Morone is identical 
with Domenico de' Moroncini. 

1 See the proofs in Bernasconi, Studi, nb. sup., pp. 239, 280. [* It seems more 
probable that Francesco was born in 1470-71. See Gerola, in Madonna Verona, 
iii. 104, n. 4, and 110 sq.] 

* 2 A picture of the Madonna and Saints originally in the monastery of Santa 
Maria delle Grazie at Arco and now lost was inscribed " Dominicus Moronus de 
Verona et Franciscus filius pinxerunt A.D. MCCCCLXXXXVI die xvi Aprilis " (Gerola, 
ub. sup., iii. 106). 

3 Verona, San Bernardino, Cappella della Croce. Arched panel with life-size 
figures. The Saviour is on the cross in a landscape, between the Virgin and 
Evangelists; signed with a renewed inscription as follows: "Franciscus Moron 
1498"; the blue mantle of the Virgin repainted, the flesh injured by retouching 
and changed by time. Two wings a St. Bartholomew and a St. Francis are in 
the Verona Museum, Nos. 291 and 285, wood, m. 0'60 high by 0-40. They are 
better preserved, and show the painter's usual sharp and hardish colour. The 
Saviour washing the Feet of the Apostles, once in the same chapel and now in 


next is a large altarpiece of the Virgin and Child between 
St. Augustine and St. Martin, commissioned for a chapel at 
Santa Maria in Organo in 1503. 1 A similar picture at the 
Brera was done in 1504. 2 These are all large pieces in which a 
garish contrast of strong tones in dresses gives additional 
frigidity to an even and unbroken flesh tint, the light of which 
is ill blended with dark purple-grey shadows. Skilful arrange- 
ment is marred here and there by florid accessories ; figures of 
good proportion and form, not undignified in mien or in action, 
and often appropriate in expression, produce a sense of littleness 
by tall slender stature and paltriness of shade ; gentleness is 
sometimes carried to the verge of meaningless tenderness. The 
masterpieces of Francesco Morone are in the sacristy at Santa 
Maria in Organo, where the walls and ceiling are filled with 
incidents freely adapted from Mantegna's in the Camera de' 
Sposi at Mantua. The room is quadrangular, and divided into 
sections with lunettes like Peruzzi's in the Farnesina ; the centre 
compartment of the ceiling representing a well-opening with a 
balustrade in perspective from which angels look down, whilst 
the Saviour in benediction floats in the heaven, the lunettes and 
the course beneath them containing half-lengths of popes, 
Olivetan monks, and female saints. This sacristy is one of 
the grand monuments of local art in the Venetian provinces, 
second only to Mantegna's creations in the display of perspective 

the Museum (No. 305), has been assigned by Vasari to Morone (v. 310), but is by 
Morando. [* CL posted, p. 208, n. 1.] 

1 Verona, Santa Maria in Organo. Canvas, oil, figures almost life-size. Virgin 
and Child in a Roman chair, beneath a bower with flowers. At her sides two 
angels playing, and in the foreground the two saints in episcopals. On the carpet 
at the Virgin's feet the words : " Franciscus filius Domenici de Moronis pinxit 
MDIII." A piece has been added to the canvas all round. The execution is very 

2 Milan, Brera, No. 225. Canvas, m. 1-7 high by 1-25 ; inscribed : "Fr. ciscus 
f . lius Domenici de Moron pixit Ann. Di MCCCCCII . . . ." (? 1504), and : 
" Veronse columen Zeno tutela decuso^. Gregorius Moriens hoc tibi reddit opus. 
Attame G Liscse Leonardi gloria tecum vivet qS steteris culta tabella diu." The 
faces are similar in masks and shape to those at Santa Maria in Organo. The 
colours are dimmed and blackened by time. 

* According to Dr. Malaguzzi-Valeri {Catalogo della R. Pinacoteca di JBrera, 
p. 131) the signature is to be read: "Franciscus filius (?) d. dominici de Morone 
pixit Anno doi MCCC . . u (1502 ?) pi. ... oct. ..." This picture was originally 
in San Giacomo della Pigna at Verona. 


Anderson photo. .] [F^roraa, Museo Civico. 


II. 1981 


science and foreshortening, and in the geometrical distribution 
of the space. Characteristic is the Umbrian stamp of the 
decoration as well as its chastened design. Clean outline, good 
modelling, and individuality are conspicuous in the slender 
shapes, and the fall of the dress is unusually free and graceful. 
Though we are in the dark as to the time in which this beautiful 
sacristy was adorned, there is ground for believing that it was 
finished in the first years of the sixteenth century. 1 At a much 
later period, Morone and Girolamo dai Libri undertook the 
ornament of the organ-shutters in the same church the latter 
composing the Nativity with two Saints ; the former, four 
figures of SS. John Evangelist, Benedict, Daniel, and Isaiah. 
How these shutters came to be removed into the parish church 
of Marcel lise is hard to say. It is clear that when the two 
masters laboured together at these pieces, Morone had enlarged 
his style; for his figures are more firm in position, and their 
drapery is better cast than of old. 2 To confirm the opinion that 
these are comparatively late productions, it is enough to cast 
a glance at the Virgin and Child with Saints reproduced in these 
pages a fresco drawn by Morone on the wall of a house near 
the Ponte delle Navi at Verona, in 1515. The graceful ease and 
correct drawing, the mild repose and softness of the personages, 
and the copious gatherings of drapery, clothing form with pro- 

1 Verona, Santa Maria in Organo. It may be that the form of this decoration 
was invented for Morone by Fra Giovanni of Verona, who finished the tarsie of 
the choir in 1499. The frescoes are in part restored, especially so in the lights 
of the white dresses; and much scaling or abrasion is noticeable in the mono- 
chomes and ornament, and in the flesh generally. A portrait, said to be that of 
Fra Giovanni, above a side-door, is either not by Morone, or has been repainted so 
as to assume a new character. The stalls in the sacristy are assigned by Vasari 
to this friar. 

2 Marcellise, near Verona. Two canvases with life-size figures of the above- 
mentioned saints in couples in landscapes. Above that containing the two 
prophets, two angels in flight hold a tablet between them. The foregoing was 
in the printer's hands when the following was communicated to us by the kindness 
of Signor Gaetano Milanesi: "On the 12th of November, 1515, M Francesco 
Morone and M Girolamo the miniaturist agree with the abbot of the monastery 
of Santa Maria in Organo to paint the doors of the organ i.e. inside, the Nativity 
and two prophets ; outside, four large figures ; price 60 ducats. They also agree 
to paint a picture with five figures. The contract is signed by both painters, and 
appears at length in the MS. ' Libro de' Debitori e Creditori del Monastero di 
Santa Maria in Organo di Verona,' signed B., including the years 1510-20, now 
in the Uffizlo dell' Ispettore del Demanio, p. 119." 


priety, indicate a long and careful study of the best masterpieces 
of Mantegna. 1 As a colourist Morone remains throughout un- 
changed. The latest dates of his works are those of 1520, on 
a canvas of the Virgin attended by saints in the Carrara Gallery 
at Bergamo 2 ; and of 1523, on a fresco with a similar subject 
outside the lateral portal at San Fermo of Verona. 3 But there 
are numerous specimens of his skill in various parts of Verona 4 ; 

1 Verona, Ponte delle Navi. The date is on a tablet hanging in the festoon 
above the Virgin's head, with an inscription to this effect : " Miseratrix Virginum 
regina nostri miserere. MDXV." The head of St. Joseph is damaged, and the 
fresco is split downwards so as to spoil that figure. Beneath the principal subject 
is a view of the bridge and people on it. The original drawing for this fresco is 
in the Uffizi under the name of G. Bellini. [* The fresco of the Madonna and 
Saints is now in the Museo Civico of Verona (No. 560).] 

8 Bergamo, Carrara (No. 188). Canvas, with life-size half-lengths of the 
Virgin, Child, SS. Joseph, Vincent, Anne, and Francis. On the hem of the Virgin's 
bodice : " Francisc. Moro." Lower down in the right-hand corner : " Franciscus 
Moronus Veros 1520 pinxit." This picture is much injured and blackened by 

8 Verona, San Fermo. Virgin and Child between SS. Elizabeth and James, 
inscribed : " MDXXIII. Franciscus Moronus p." The fresco is all but gone. 

4 (1) Verona, Duomo, Cappella Emilii. Panels of St. James and St. John, life-size, 
the former with a patron, embrowned by time but of Morone's best and fairly pre- 
served ; sometimes falsely assigned to Caroto (but see Vasari, v. 310). The Christ 
carrying his Cross, which formed the centre of the altarpiece to which these figures 
belonged, is no longer in the chapel. (2) Verona Gallery, No. 259, m. 1-65 high 
by 1*0. St. Catherine with a patron, in the manner of the canvases at Marcellise. 
No. 330, from Santa Maria della Vittoria Nuova. The Saviour in glory between 
the Virgin and Evangelist, arched. This picture, assigned to Morone, is probably 
by Morando. It conies out of a church where frescoes exist, of which numerous 
guide-books assert that they are by Morone. We shall see that these also are by 
Morando and Michele da Verona. [* Cf. postea, p. 208, n. 1.] (3) Casa Bernasconi 
[* now Museo Civico, No. 182]. Virgin and Child. Half-length, canvas, oil, in the 
usual character of F. Morone. (4) Four canvases in one, originally part of the 
organ at Santa Chiara of Verona. St. Sebastian and another saint, St. Anthony 
the Abbot and another, St. Bernardino with a patron, and St. Chiara with two 
patronesses. These pieces seem done in Morone's atelier. [* They are now in 
the Museo Civico of Verona, No. 135.] (5) In Bra at Verona, full-length Virgin and 
Child enthroned. Fresco by Morone, in his early manner. (6) Via San Tommaso, 
No. 1562. Trinity between St. John the Baptist and St. Anthony. Fresco, free and 
bold, by F. Morone. [* This fresco is now in a most ruined state in the Palazzo 
Municipale della Gran Guardia Vecchia at Verona; for a reproduction, see 
Biadego, in JVuovo arcliivio veneto, ser. ii. vol. xi. pi. 6.] (7) Strada Porta Vescovo, 
No. 320 [* now Via XX Settembre]. Virgin and Child between St. Roch and 
another saint. There are but fragments of this work, but they seem to be by 
Morone. (8) Piazza San Marco. Here are also dim marks of a fresco of the Virgin, 
Child, and two Saints, traditionally ascribed to Morone. (9) Padua, Gall. Comunale, 






a charming Madonna, half-length, in the Museum of Berlin, 1 and 
another in the National Gallery. 2 

Contemporary with Morone, but bred by his father, a Veronese 
miniaturist of whom no vestige has been preserved, is Girolamo 
dai Libri, born in 1474, dead in 1556. 3 The first picture which 
he exhibited is the Deposition from the Cross, in the church of 
Malcesine on the lake of Garda, executed at the age of sixteen 
for the chapel of the Lisca family in Santa Maria in Organo at 
Verona. The annexed reproduction of it will give an idea of 
the character of this composition, in which the Saviour reminds 
us of Signorelli. The grouping is good and the action well 
intended, but serious drawbacks are to be found in heavy outline 
and excessive detail, as well as in stiff or conventional attitude 
and over-abundant broken drapery. The regular shape and mild 
aspect of St. Benedict, and the soft character of the Virgin, are 
exceptional features in a piece conspicuous for the old type and 
strained movement of the figures ; the distant view of Verona 
in the background is an appropriate illustration of Girolamo's 
education in the school of a miniaturist, commendable for patient 
detail but excessively minute ; the colours are a gay intertress of 
intense bright tones without unity of general effect, such as a 

No. 36. Virgin and Child, originally in the Capo di Lista collection, inscribed : 
" Franciscus Moronus f." There are two heads of angels in the upper corner. 

1 Berlin Museum, No. 46. The Child lies on the arm of the Virgin and looks 
at the spectator. Canvas, 1 ft. 6| in. high by 1 ft. 3 in., inscribed " Franciscus 
Moronus p." on the hem of the Virgin's dress. This little piece recalls Montagiia. 
Same gallery, No. 46B. Virgin and Child between two saints, also in the character 
of Montagna, injured, inscribed : " Franciscus Moronus p." Canvas, figures three- 
quarters of life. 

2 London, National Gallery, No. 285. Wood, 2 ft. high by 1 ft. 5 in. Virgin 
and Child, half-length. [* The following are also works by Francesco Morone : 
(1) Bergamo, Galleria Morelli, No. 52. The Virgin and Child. (2) Soave (near 
Verona), Parish Church. The Virgin and Child between SS. Eoch and Joachim. 
(3) Verona, Museo Civico, No. 348. St. Francis receiving the Stigmata. (4) Verona 
Cathedral, Chapter Hall. The Virgin and Child. (5) Verona, SS. Siro e Libera. 
The Assumption of the Virgin. See edsopostea, p. 208, n. 1.] 

It has been said (Bernasconi, Studi, p. 281) that there was an altarpiece by 
Morone in the cathedral of Trent. This must be a mistake, the author of the 
statement having probably taken for a Morone the altarpiece of Verla. 

3 Vasari says 1472 (v. 327) ; Bernasconi (Studi, p. 289) says 1474, taking the 
statement from the census of 1492 (Anagrafi), in which Francesco dai Libri, aged 
forty, declares his son Girolamo to be aged eighteen (Studi, note to p. 230). In 
another census (1529) Girolamo gives his own age as fifty -four (ibid.). 


youth might produce who had not learnt to infuse atmosphere 
into the scenes he endeavours to depict. The flesh is without 
modulation, of a rosy tinge, with purple frosting to mark the 
transition of semitone into light grey shadow. 1 

Little time elapsed before Girolamo perceived the advantage 
of a broader style, and, struck by Caroto's art in applying certain 
rules of the Mantegnesques, fell to imitating that master. He 
did not carry imitation to any prohibited length, but he used for 
his faces the flat oval mould with the high forehead and large 
tearful eye peculiar to Caroto. This we see to a slight extent in 
the Nativity at the museum at Verona, which was done for 
Santa Maria in Organo, and in the Madonna with Saints at 
Sant' Anastasia. In the first, however, he still remains a minia- 
turist in finish and copious detail ; he is not unmindful of the laws 
of distribution in appropriately setting the Virgin, the Baptist, 
St. Jerome, and St. Joseph in adoration round the recumbent 
and foreshortened figure of the Infant Christ. He cleverly 
adapts the main lines of his landscape to those of his groups, 
and models the parts with great carefulness of blending and 
polish of surface, but he wants freshness and light; and the 
aged air produced by hard prominences of bone in the figures is 
as disagreeable as the dull effect created by neutralizing strong 
tints by juxtaposition, and shading flesh with dull grey. 2 

At Sant' Anastasia the subject is the favourite one of this 
time, the Virgin enthroned between two saints; the treatment 
bolder and more skilful than before, but the general features the 
same as of old. 3 

A deeper study of the pure Mantegnesque is to be found in 
the Virgin and Child with four saints, a large altarpiece now in 
the Hamilton Palace near Glasgow, warmly praised by Vasari 
when at San Leonardo of Verona. 4 Here is the form as well as 

1 Malcesine, church of. Canvas, oil, figures life-size, repainted in sky, and 
indeed in all the blues, retouched in some heads, especially in that of the 
Magdalen and the male near her. 

2 Verona Gallery, No. 290. Canvas, oil, m. 2*18 high by 1-52 broad. In the fore- 
ground two rabbits and the head of a lion. (See engraving in Rosini.) 

8 Verona, Sant' Anastasia. Canvas, oil, figures life-size. Virgin and Child be- 
tween St. Augustine with a kneeling penitent and another saint. Looking out at 
the bottom, two profiles, male and female, of the donors. 

4 Hamilton Palace, staircase. Canvas with life-size figures ; originally in San 


the spirit of a greater art ; and the Infant Christ, standing on the 
Virgin's lap with a carnation in one hand, is reproduced from 
the models of Mantegna, with due attention to his principles in 
giving regularity to the human proportions, careful arrangement 
to the draperies, and a simple flow to the outlines. The land- 
scape itself, of the rocky character peculiar to the great Paduans, 
is enriched in Girolamo's own manner with a beautiful tree 
immediately in rear of the throne, and distant spurs of hills 
finished with all the patience of a Fleming. And yet, with all 
this, the first impression of the picture is marred by the flare of 
colours and the leaden purple of the flesh. 

Later again Girolamo dai Libri was the companion of another 
Veronese, as is clearly apparent at Marcellise, where the Nativity 
of old on the shutters of the organ at Santa Maria in Organo is 
scarcely to be distinguished from a piece by Francesco Morone. 1 
This phase has its illustration in the Madonna and Saints at the 
Museum of Berlin, 2 and in the Virgin and Child between Lorenzo 
Giustiniani and St. Zeno at San Giorgio of Verona. 3 In the last 
particularly Girolamo shows that some of his angularities and 
roughnesses are worn away. His personages are more pleasing, 
more composed in face, and better draped, and Morone himself 
is in a fair way to be distanced as a colourist and a landscapist. 

Leonardo (Vasari, v. 328 sq.}. Virgin and Child enthroned in front of a tree, on 
the branch of which is a peacock ; distance, a hilly landscape ; at the sides of the 
throne, St. Catherine, St. Leonardo with the manacles, a bishop, and St. Apollonia 
with the pincers. Three boys kneel and play instruments ; thin faces, grotesque 
in expression. Foreground, rock. The disharmony of the colours may be in part 
due to cleaning. [* This picture is still at Hamilton Palace.] 

1 Marcellise, near Verona (ch. of). Canvases, life-size, of the Saviour on the 
ground adored by the Virgin and St. Joseph, in a landscape, with eight angels in 
the sky, of St. Catherine and St. Mary Magdalen, much damaged. (Vasari, v. 329, 
and see antea.) 

2 Berlin Museum, No. 30. Canvas, 6 ft. 9 in. high by 4 ft. 1\ in. ; from the Solly 
collection, but originally in the Cappella Buonalini at Santa Maria in Organo (dal 
Pozzo, p. 247). Virgin and Child between St. Bartholomew and St. Zeno, with thin 
half-lengths of angels playing and singing at the foot of the throne. This picture 
is injured, but is almost to be confounded with a work of F. Morone. The angels 
are repeated in the following picture at San Giorgio. 

8 Verona, San Giorgio. Canvas, oil, figures life-size ; inscribed: "xxvi. Men. 
Mar. xxvilli. Hieronimus a Libris pinxit." Virgin and Child on a throne in front 
of a lemon-tree. The Child presents a girdle to Lorenzo. Below, three angels in 
half-length ; distance, landscape. Lunette with the Eternal and cherubim repainted. 
The Child is paltry and angular in shape ; the Virgin's blue mantle is retouched. 


It is not improbable that before 1526, when the altarpiece of San 
Giorgio was painted, Girolamo felt the superiority of Morando, 
whose premature death in 1522 was so great a loss to Verona. 
The new brightness which he acquires becomes constant, and is 
accompanied by a modern freedom of treatment in every branch 
of practice. 

He displays this superiority in the conception at San Paolo 
of Verona, where St. Anne almost reminds us of the types 
familiar to Morando ; and the Virgin, St. Joseph, and St. Joachim 
are presented in dignified and natural instant action with a soft 
composed air, and in draperies of unusually simple cast. A broad 
landscape of picturesque lines adds to the interest of the scene, 
and harmony of tone is as nearly attained as can be expected from 
Girolamo's known habits as a colourist. 1 A little below this 
example is that of the National Gallery in London, where the 
liveliness of contrasted tints and the grey of the flesh almost 
deserve to be qualified as raw. 2 Other specimens of the same 
period are the Virgin and Child belonging to Dr. Bernasconi, 
and the predella of Bonsignori's altarpiece at San Biagio, dating 
from 1527. 3 

The culminating point in Girolamo is reached with the 
Madonna and Saints finished in 1530 for the church of the 
Vittoria Nnova, and the Virgin in glory with St. Andrew and 

1 Verona, San Paolo. Canvas, oil, figures of life-size, arched. At the foot of 
a lemon-tree St. Anne with the Virgin and Child in front, the Child presenting a 
branch with fruit to St. Joachim on the right ; on the left St. Joseph ; distance, 
landscape ; at the edge of the picture a male and female donor in profile, the 
dress of the latter a little scaled. 

2 London, National Gallery, from Santa Maria della Scala at Verona, No. 748. 
Canvas, 5 ft. 2 in. by 3 ft. 1 in. Virgin and Child on the lap of St. Anne under a 
lemon-tree, and three angels playing instruments. This picture is treated very 
much in Morone's manner. (Vasari, v. 328.) 

3 Verona, Dr. Bernasconi, formerly belonging to Signer Pietro Tortima at Lonigo. 
[* Now Verona, Museo Civico, No. 138.] Virgin and Child on a marble seat in a 
landscape, figures half life-size. The figures are a little short and small. In the 
same style : (1) Verona Gallery, No. 252. Canvas, m. 1'85 high by 1*45. Virgin and 
Child between SS. Sebastian and Koch. This is much in the manner of F. Morone, 
but not very pleasing. No. 253, Baptism of Christ. Canvas, m. 1-85 high by 1*42, 
feeble. (2) Verona, San Biagio, in SS. Nazaro e Celso. Predella with a scene 
from St. Biagio's life, the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, and the Decapitation of 
St. Juliana. (See Di San Biagio, etc., p. 63.) The compositions are good. 
[* Cf. Biadego, loc. cit., xi. 124 tqfi 


St. Peter for Sant' Andrea, both in the Museum of Verona. In 
these altarpieces he attains his greatest breadth of hand, his 
fullest freedom of touch and of drawing, his utmost power of 
light and shade, and an attractive richness of tone. 1 Beginning 
as a miniaturist, emulating in succession the Mantegnesque of 
Caroto and Morone and the modern Veronese of Morando, he 
ascends to a high place amongst the professors of painting in 
the north ; and throughout his long career he never incurs the 
reproach of being a plagiarist or a servile copyist. 2 

It was Vasari's opinion that Paolo Morando, had he lived, 
would have acquired great celebrity. 3 He is little known at the 
present day outside of Verona, and has received but curt notice 
from historians ; and yet he was one of the best masters in the 
school of Verona, until Paolo Veronese became famous. He was 
born in 1486, and is correctly described as the companion or 

1 Verona Museum, No. 339, from Santa Maria della Vittoria Nuova. Canvas, 
m. 3-38 high by 1-80; inscribed : " De precatione vestra audivi, etc. . . . Hieronibus 
a libris Veronesis pixit MDXXX." No. 92, from Sant' Andrea. Arched canvas, 
m. 3'10 high by 1'75. Distance, a landscape, on which is the Baptism of Christ. 

2 (1) Mezzane, ch. of. Marriage of St. Catherine and St. Paul, with portraits 
below of the donor, his wife, and two children (of the Della Torre family). Panel, 
figures a little under life-size. This piece is much injured, and hence a difficulty in 
justifying the name of Girolamo dai Libri, to whom it is assigned. (2) Quinto, ch. 
of San Gio. Batt. Virgin and Child between the Baptist and Evangelist, inscribed : 
" Don. Vicen. Facius hujus sacelli rector hac icona aere suo laboratum dicavit. 
1526." This panel is given to Jacopo Bellini, and has an air of Girolamo dai 
Libri, but is much damaged by scaling and repainting. 

We know nothing of Girolamo's miniatures; but there is a Funeral of the 
Madonna, a small panel in the Layard collection in Venice (canvas, oil), assigned 
to Carpaccio, which seems done in the miniature style by some Veronese of his 
stamp, if not by Girolamo himself. [* In the opinion of the editor this picture is 
too decidedly akin to Carpaccio to allow of its ascription to Girolamo or one of 
his followers. On the other hand, there are miniatures by Girolamo to be found 
in the Museo Civico of Verona and elsewhere. Here we may also notice the 
following works by him not mentioned by the authors : (1) Bergamo, Galleria 
Morelli, No. 50. St. John. (2) London, collection of the late Dr. L. Mond. St. Peter 
and St. John. These paintings recall Francesco Morone, and are probably as 
Dr. Gerola suggests identical with the pictures of the same saints mentioned by 
Vasari (v. 310 sq.) as being in Santa Maria in Organo at Verona and attributed 
by him to Morone. Same collection. The Nativity. Girolamo is also mentioned 
in one of Bandello's novels. (Parte II, Nov. X.).] 

Of Girolamo's relations who were painters there are only written notices. See 
Bernasconi, Studi, for Calisto dai Libri, etc. [* Of. di Canossa, in Atti delV acoa- 
demia . . . di Verona, ser. iv. vol. xii.] 

8 Vasari, v. 317. 


assistant of Francesco Morone, when Francesco was the partner 
of his father. 1 The canvases and frescoes which he finished in 
considerable numbers at a very early age were all more or less 
distinctly impressed with the teaching of the Moroni ; they 
occasionally recall Caroto when he was Mantegnesque, and they 
remind us of Girolamo dai Libri in the richness of their land- 
scapes. But Morando, or as he is more usually called, Cavazzola, 
had an unmistakeable individuality which gives him a distinct 
stamp. He may claim, and justly claim, to have infused new 
life and health into the Veronese school, especially by a novel 
system of colouring. That he was a disciple of the Moroni is 
proved almost conclusively by the frescoes of the library at 
San Bernardino of Verona, where he was probably employed by 
Domenico with Michele da Verona. 2 His fresco of the Sibyl 
prophesying to Augustus on a house in the Via del Paradiso is 
described by Vasari as a youthful effort ; it has been reduced by 
time to a mere stain. A Virgin and Child once in the collection 
of Dr. Bernasconi is said to have been done on the verge of man- 
hood ; that also is not traceable. 3 The Annunciation and two 
saints of 1510 in SS. Nazaro e Celso are therefore the oldest of 
his frescoes with which we can become acquainted. 4 In these 
we may equally commend the proper distribution of space, the 
subordination of the figures to the laws of perspective, the 

1 He was the son of Thaddeus Cavazzola, the son of Jacopo de Morando. He 
was registered by his father in the municipal census of 1514, being then aged 28. 
(Bernasconi, Stndi, ub. sup., p. 274). He was registered in the brotherhood of Santa 
Libera at Verona in 1517 (ibid., pp. 402, 403). He died in 1522. 

2 Antea. 

8 Verona, Via del Paradiso. In the absence of the fresco see a line-engraving 
of it in Di Paolo Morando, etc., folio, Verona, 1853, plate vii. The text of this 
work is by Aleardo Aleardi, the plates by Lorenzo Muttoni. 

The Virgin and Child is engraved in the same work, plate i. The Virgin (half- 
length) gives the breast to the Infant Christ, who holds a carnation in his left 
hand. A carpet behind intercepts a landscape of hills ; inscribed : " Morandus 
Paulus f. Taddei." [* This picture is now in the Museo Civico of Verona.] 

4 Verona, SS. Nazaro e Celso, Cappella San Biaglo ; engraved in Aleardi, pi. xii. 
The saints at the sides are SS. Biagio and Benedict. The fresco was paid 9 gold 
ducats (Aleardi). [* Cf. Biadego, loc. clt., xi. 119 sq.] We mention it first, not 
having seen the Virgin and Child, half-length (Aleardi, pi. iii.), in possession of 
Conte Bandino cla Lischa, inscribed : " AD. MCCCCCVIIII. Paulo Morando F." 
[* This picture is now in the collection of Don Guido Cagnola at Gazzada, 
near Varese.] Unseen by the authors likewise is the Virgin and Child 
between St. John the Baptist and St. Benedict in the church of Calavena 


regular proportions and contours, and a certain decorous calm 
in attitudes and actions well suited to a religious subject. They 
are creations on the models of Francesco Morone, better draped, 
of greater breadth and more pleasing air than his ; yet still 
without selection in form, and coarse especially in the extremi- 
ties and articulations. A robust and handsome peasant-girl 
may create an impression of health and youth, and yet be ill 
suited to represent the mother of Christ; the rawness and 
sharpness of Veronese colour in Morando's contemporaries extend 
here to Morando himself, and his treatment falls short of perfec- 
tion by lack of rounding in the light bricky flesh tint and its cold 
grey shadow. Mainardi in the Florentine school, Tamagni in 
the Umbrian, hold the same position in comparison with the 
first-rates of Italian art as Morando occupies here. In a chapel 
contiguous to that of San Biagio, he painted a large fresco of the 
Baptism of Christ, in which his manner exhibits much the same 
aspect as that of the Annunciation. There is something Umbrian 
in a group of spectators to the left of the Evangelist, most of 
them wearing cylinder hats, exceedingly like those of the present 
day ; a company of angels on the banks of the stream stand in 
soft attitudes of wonder arid sympathy. It may be objected that 
the conception and execution are cold, monotonous, and conven- 
tional ; the Eternal in the sky with a triangular nimbus is a 
revival of an old and disagreeable type; but the landscape is 
very charming and sunny, arid improves upon those of Girolamo 
dai Libri. The Evangelists in the ceiling, by the same hand, 
have much the air of those by Francesco Morone 1 ; and in this 
respect are but counterparts of others done at this period in 
Santa Maria della Vittoria Nuova. 2 But the influence of Morone 

(Aleardi, pi. iv a ). In the pendentives of the ceiling of the chapel of San Biagio, 
the four Evangelists are by Morando. [* A Virgin and Child with the Infant 
St. John in the collection of the German Emperor at Berlin is signed "A.D. 
M . D . x . mi . M . Oc Paulus M. P."] 

1 Verona, SS. Nazaro e Celso. (Aleardi, vi a , vi d , and xxvii.) [* These frescoes 
have now been transferred to the Museo Civico of Verona (Nos. 462-6).] 

2 Verona, Santa Maria della Vittoria Nuova. Much injured frescoes, in part 
retouched, and the blues scratched off. 

We believe that Morando painted the Saviour in glory between the Virgin and 
Evangelist, once in this church and now No. 330 in the Verona Museum, under 
the name of Morone. It is quite in the character of the " Lavanda dei Piedi," 
once in San Bernardino, and of which we shall now treat. 


on his younger companion is still clearer in a series of panels 
once forming part of Francesco's Crucifixion in the Cappella 
della Croce at San Bernardino, and a Christ washing the Feet of 
the Apostles at the Museum of Verona. In Vasari's time the 
" Lavanda dei Piedi," as it was called, was attributed to Morone, 
and yet it has the marked stamp exemplified in Morando's frescoes 
at SS. Nazaro e Celso, though timid and careful in treatment 
and cold in the juxtaposition of sharp bright tints. 1 The canvases 
of San Bernardino, now hanging together at the Museum, are 
nine in number : four are half-lengths of saints of a very decided 
portrait character 2 ; five are subjects from Christ's Passion. The 
best is the Deposition from the Cross, dated 1517, a well-arranged 
scene of passionate grieving. 3 Almost as good is the Christ 
carrying his Cross, accompanied by Simon and the executioner. 4 
The Saviour crowned with Thorns is a free and even grand com- 

1 Verona Museum, No. 305, m. 2-85 high by 2-20. (Aleardi, pi. viii.) A 
disciple kneeling with two water-vessels in his hand, in the right foreground, is 
described by Vasari (v. 310) as F. Morone's likeness. The colour is thin, purply, 
and done at one painting with little or no glazing. 

* Count Gamba(in Rassegna d'arte, v. 37 sq.} and Mr. Berenson (North Italian 
Painters, p. 268) claim that the Baptism and the Evangelists once in SS. Nazaro 
e Celso, the Eternal and the Evangelists in Santa Maria della Vittoria Nuova, the 
Saviour in Glory and the " Lavanda dei Piedi " in the Verona Gallery, are by 
Francesco Morone, not by Paolo Morando. These paintings are undoubtedly 
closely allied in style to the authenticated works by Morone, as is also remarked 
by the authors. Moreover, a contemporary record proves that Francesco Morone 
in 1499 had done work for which he was to receive payment both from the Con- 
fraternity of San Biagio and the Monastery of SS. Nazaro e Celso : could not the 
work in question be identical with the frescoes which originally were in SS. Nazaro 
e Celso in a chapel next to that of San Biagio (see Biadego, loc. cit., xi. Ill sqq.) 1 
It may also be pointed out that, according to the very reliable Zannandreis (ub. 
sup., p. 84), the " Lavanda dei Piedi " was originally dated 1503, by which time 
Morando was only about seventeen years old. 

2 Verona Museum. No. 293, panel, m. 0-60 high by 0'46, St. Joseph (half- 
length, Aleardi, pi. xiv ft ), really a portrait (Vasari, v. 315 sq.\ which we find 
repeated in a St. Eleazar, part of the Virgin in glory, dated 1522, No. 333 in the 
Museum. No. 292, Baptist. This is the model of Morando's Christs. No. 294, 
St. Buonaventura, also a portrait (Vasari, v. 316), used for the St. Louis in the 
altarpiece of 1522. No. 295, Bernardino da Feltre, profile, also a portrait (Vasari, 
v. 316, and Aleardi, pi. xiii b ). 

3 Verona Museum, No. 392, m. 2-35 high by 1-55, inscribed: " Paul us M. p. 
MDXVII." (Aleardi, pi. xix.) 

4 Verona Museum, No. 394, m, 2'33 high by 1-07, inscribed : " Paulus V. p." 
(Aleardi, pi. xiv.) 


Alinari photo."] 
II. 208] 

[Verona, Musco Civico. 


position 1 ; the Agony in the Garden less attractive from the 
prevalence of old types resembling those of Girolamo dai Libri 2 ; 
the Flagellation excessively raw in tone. 3 

Throughout the series Morando's power as a composer is 
considerable ; he frequently achieves success in chastened form 
and well-sought movement ; his landscapes are simple and 
spacious. But he also has defects that cannot be unobserved. 
Models if not vulgar are still nothing more than models ; and 
Morando, in grouping two or three of these into a picture, 
invariably reminds us of the academy : he sets these figures 
in motion, and with realistic skill copies what he sees ; but 
the models are not under any impulse of their own will, their 
muscles have not the tension of instant action, their faces do 
not express the thought of a moment ; and Morando for this 
reason produces something akin to the modern tableau vivant. 
His men are short and unselect, and by no means clean and 
lithe in limb or joint ; his masks are often repeated, the same 
being used for the Saviour, the Baptist, or St. Roch ; his 
drapery, though broad and ample, is gathered into multiplied 
folds like Caroto's, and would be disagreeable but for the 
delicacy with which it is occasionally treated and coloured. 
In the Saviour carrying his Cross the cold and snake-like 
brightness peculiar to the Veronese is combined with an 
undeniable richness, the vehicle by some means giving extra- 
ordinary polish to the surface ; flesh of a broad and warm rosy 
mass in light is fused into greenish grey with a purple semitone, 
which balances tints of opposite effect in the scale of harmony. 
Strong as these shades are in themselves, they are deadened 
by still stronger ones, which, being more glaring and sharply 
set in threes against each other, act as counterpoise and give 
them brilliancy and transparency. Thus scarlet and emerald- 
green are united in the half-tints and reflections by a com- 
plementary colour of equal force, blue skies of the purest 
ultramarine serving as foils to the dresses and foregrounds. 

1 Verona Museum, No. 308, m. 1-75 high by 1-10. (Aleardi, pi. xvii.) 

2 Verona Museum, No. 390, m. 2'33 high by 1-07, inscribed : " Paulus Morandus." 
(Aleardi, pi. xiii.) 

8 Verona Museum, No. 303, m. 1-75 high by 1-10, inscribed: "Paulus p." 
(Aleardi, pi. xviii.) 

VOL. II 14 


The pictures usually are full of light, relieved on a pure and 
limpid horizon, with masses of chiaroscuro both spacious and 
well modelled, and a correct use of linear and aerial perspective. 
It was no common gift in Morando that he should produce 
finish by such subtle methods. It is no common honour to 
him that he should have first illustrated the principles on 
which the art of Caliari is founded. Of his great power in 
this respect we have an excellent example in the St. Roch of 
our National Gallery, a masterpiece clever in movement, excel- 
lent in proportion, rich in tone, and most effective in chiaroscuro. 1 
Specimens of almost equal value might be cited at Verona, such 
as the Incredulity of St. Thomas, once at Santa Chiara 2 ; the 
Adoration of St. Paul, in the sacristy of Sant' Anastasia, 3 where 
the figures are unusually free from the fault of shortness and 
vulgarity ; the Virgin and Child with the young Baptist and 
an angel, in the National Gallery 4 ; the same subject in a 
grander form in the collection of Dr. Bernasconi, 5 recalling the 
Madonnas of Raphael and the frescoes at Santa Maria in 

1 London, National Gallery, No. 735. Canvas, 5 ft. If in. high by 1 ft. 9| in. ; 
inscribed : " Paulus Moradus V. P." The date, " MDXVIII," is in part obliterated. 
Formerly in Santa Maria della Scala at Verona (Aleardi, pi. xx.), then in the 
Caldana and Bernasconi collections. 

* From 1518 dates also a charming little Madonna in the Frizzoni collection 
at Milan, signed " Paulus Veronensis p. MDXVIII." A Virgin and Child with 
an Angel in the Staedel Museum at Frankfort (No. 49B) is dated "xviin," 
i.e. 1519. 

2 Verona Museum, No. 298 ; m. 1-40 high by 1-63. In the distance the Descent 
of the Holy Spirit and the Ascension (Aleardi, pi. xvi.). In the same style, 
St. Michael, St. Paul, St. Peter, and the Baptist, Nos. 302 and 307, half-lengths 
(Aleardi, pis. ix. and ix c ). 

8 Verona, Sant' Anastasia, sacristy. St. Paul in a ruin, between St. Denis 
and St. Mary Magdalen, who recommend the kneeling males and females of 
a religious order. Canvas, figures all but life-size (Aleardi, pi. xi.). [* Count 
Gamba (ub. sup., v. 38) and Mr. Berenson (ub. sup., p. 268) ascribe this picture 
to Francesco Morone.] 

4 National Gallery, No. 777 ; formerly belonging to Conte Lodovico Portalupi 
of Verona. Canvas, knee-piece; inscribed on a laurel-tree in upper corner to 
right : " Paulus V. p." 

5 Verona, Casa Bernasconi [* now Museo Civico, No. 85]. Canvas, knee-piece ; 
inscribed on pilaster to right : " Paulus Morandus V. p." (Aleardi, pi. xxv.). 

In the Bernasconi collection [* now Museo Civico, No. 117] a lunette, 
canvas, of somewhat careless execution, representing the Deposition from the 
Cross, with some Kaphaelesque character, reminiscent of Francia and Costa. 


Organo. 1 In the Madonna of the Berriasconi collection particu- 
larly Morando rises above the ordinary level in conception and 
arrangement, whilst keeping to his usual style in the execution. 
It may be that at this time, i.e. about 1520, he had seen and 
studied engravings of Raphael. 2 His latest altarpiece, the Virgin 
in glory with Saints, dated 1522, in the Museum of Verona, is 
the finest production of this school in the first quarter of the 
sixteenth century, being composed and executed on the great 
maxims of the Raphael esques ; 3 and it may be said of Morando 
at last that he held the same position in his native place as 
Garofalo and Mazzuola at Ferrara, Gaudenzio Ferrari in 
Lombaixty, and Giulio Romano at Mantua. 

To close this chapter on Veronese painting we must revert 
for a while to an earlier period than that of Morone, Morando, 
or Girolamo dai Libri. There are Veronese artists who deserve 
to be chronicled, although Verona preserves but a few of their 

1 Verona, Santa Maria in Organo. Frescoes, life-size, of St. Michael and the 
Angel and Tobias ; much injured by damp, but originally well coloured ; the 
angel Raphael especially damaged (Aleardi, pi. xv.). 

2 Verona, Sant' Eufemia, on the outside of a chapel (No. 516, Via Sant' Eufemia). 
An Angel and Tobias taking the Fish (Aleardi, pi. xxli.). Fresco, inscribed: 
" Societas Angeli Rafaeli fieri fecit. MVXX." This fresco is but a stain. 

8 Verona Museum, No. 333; from San Bernardino. Virgin and Child in 
Heaven amidst Angels and Virtues, and adored by SS. Francis and Anthony. 
Below, SS. Elizabeth, Buenaventura, Louis, Ivo, Louis of Toulouse, and Eleazar; 
m. 4 '40 high by 2-G7. At the bottom a profile of the Countess Catherine de' 
Sacchi ; in the right-hand corner the elate of 1522 (Aleardi, pi. xxvi.). The best 
part of this picture is the lower, the upper having been finished in the atelier 
and recalling to mind the works of Bagnacavallo. There is less light than usual 
in this fine and freely handled picture. 

In the same style is a fresco, half-length of San Bernardino (Aleardi, pi. xxiii.) 
in San Bernardino, above the door of the court. Not seen : Verona, collection 
of Dr. Giuseppe Bresciani, John the Baptist in the Wilderness (Aleardi, pi. ii.). 
* This picture belonged subsequently to the heirs of the Aw. Malenza of 
Verona (Bernasconi, ub. sup., p. 411). The following works by Cavazzola remain 
to be mentioned : (1) Dresden, Picture Gallery, No. 201. Male portrait. (2) Milan, 
Prince Trivulzio. Christ bearing the Cross. Signed " P. Morandus pinxit." 
(3) Milan, Marchese Trotti-Belgioioso. Portrait of Giulia Gonzaga.] 

A pupil of Cavazzola may be noticed, by whom a Virgin and Child, in the 
possession of Dr. Bernasconi, bears the inscription : "A. d. V-ndri p. 1518." His 
style is that of Morando in miniature. [* This picture is now in the Museo Civico 
at Verona (No. 157). Antonio da Vendri was born about 1485, and was still living 
in 1545. Trecca, Catalogo della Pinactoeca Comwale di Verona, p. 27.] 


Girolarno Mocetto, best known by his copperplates, is one 
of these. 1 He was journeyman to Giovanni Bellini, 2 and perhaps 
to one of the Vivarini. There is something of Bartolommeo 
Vivarini's character in the short square stature of the saints in 
his glass windows at SS. Giovanni e Paolo of Venice 3 ; but 
in pictures such as the Virgin and Child with Saints in the 
chapel of San Biagio at Verona, the Madonna in the gallery 
of Vicenza, and the portrait in the Modena Museum, his style, 
whilst keeping its own stamp, varies according as it is altered 
by the examples of the Bellinesques and Antonello. His figures 
are always short and broad ; his drapery is cut into angles, and 
sometimes crushed to a multiplicity of folds. In San Nazaro 
he displays some of the garishness of the Veronese 4 ; at Vicenza 
he is careful in drawing, and shows a nice sense of proportion 
and a good deal of blending in rich flat tones 5 ; at Modena he 
has some of the brightness and taste which distinguishes the 

* l Girolamo Mocetto was a native, not of Verona, but of Murano, where his 
great-grandfather worked as a glassmaker. Girolamo was born before March 7, 
1458 ; he was living at Venice in 1514, and made his will in that town in 1531. 
There existed also a Mocetto family at Verona ; they may have been related to 
the Mocettos of Murano, and it was perhaps through one of them that Girolamo 
got his commissions from Verona. (See Ludwig, in the Berlin Jahrbuch, xxvi. 
Supplement, pp. 69 sqq,) If it was certain that Mocetto is the author of the 
paintings which once adorned the front of a house near the Ponte Acqua Morta 
at Verona (see antea, p. 191, n. 3, andpostea, p. 233, n. 1), then it would be proved 
that Mocetto was in that town in or shortly after 1517. That he visited Verona 
is, however, probable also for other reasons. 

2 Vasari (iii. 163) says Mocetto was considered the author of a Dead Christ, 
signed with Bellini's name, in San Francesco della Vigna at Venice, and supposed 
to have painted it as journeyman to Bellini. 

3 Venice, SS. Giovanni e Paolo (see antea). 

4 Verona, San Biagio. Wood, oil, figures half life-size. Virgin and Child 
between St. Biagio and St. Giuliana ; in a pediment a Bellinesque head of the 
Saviour ; a bust monochrome between two escutcheons, of old inscribed : 
" Hiers Moceto faciebat." The Child is plump and Bellinesque, St. Giuliana 
not without smorphia. The flesh tints are ill relieved by grey shadow and 
without semitone. This and the sharp contrasts of the dresses may be due to 
the bad condition of the work from cleaning and restoring. On close inspec- 
tion one sees how the signature has been changed, and " faciebat " altered into 
"fecit." The date of 1493 on the wall behind the picture was taken by Lanzi for 
that of the picture itself (Lanzi, ii. 107). 

5 Vicenza Gallery, No. 204. Wood, all but life-size. The Virgin holds the 
Child erect on her knee, in front of a green hanging. In the left-hand corner we 
read : " Hieroriimo Moceto p." The drapery here is better than at Verona ; the 
art a cross between Bellini and Antonello ; the hands are small and slender, 


Venetians of the fifteenth century, and recalls Cima. 1 Two dates 
give us the measure of the time during which he laboured, that 
of 1490 on his print of the Calumny of Apelles, 2 that of 1514 
in the Latin history of Nola, in which he engraved four plans 
and views of that town. 3 

We have said that Michele da Verona was perhaps a partner 
of Cavazzola in the decorations of San Bernardino at Verona* 
The proofs of his existence are in canvases and frescoes bearing 
his name, 4 one of which is a vast Crucifixion with the ciphers of 
1501, once in the refectory of San Giorgio at Verona, but now 
above the portal inside Santo Stefano of (Milan. Previous to 
the completion of this picture he doubtless composed the fresco 
of the Virgin and Evangelist with angels above the first altar 
to the left in Sant' Anastasia of Verona, a piece in which the 
personages have the rude shape and slenderness of those by 
Girolamo Benaglio. 5 He soon exchanged this manner for 

the features generally small, and the heads of a round oval, with a high forehead. 
Light and shade are fairly defined. 

1 Modena Gallery, No. 298. Wood, m. 0-205 high by 0-155. Originally at 
Cataio. Bust of a chubby-faced boy with long hair falling from a black cap, 
in a red vest and green coat ; ground blue ; signed : " Hiers. Moceto p." 

There is a small panel in the Galleria del Comune at Padua (No. 130), 
representing St. Catherine, full-length, in a landscape. Here we have Mocetto's 
mixture of the Veronese style and the Bellinesque of Cima. Again, at Santa 
Maria in Organo of Verona, there is a full-length Virgin and Child between 
88. Catherine and Stephen, assigned by Maffei (Veron. Illustr.) to Caroto, by 
others to Girolamo dai Libri (Rossi, Guida, p. 244). This also is a picture with 
Mocetto's mixture of the Bellinesque and Veronese. He also might claim to be 
the author of the frescoes on the house No. 4800 at San Tommaso, Ponte Acqua 
Morta, in Verona, though he divides the claim with Caroto. See antea, p. 191, 
n. 3. [* The types and forms in these paintings correspond to those of Mocetto. 
See Baron, in Madonna Verona, iii. 85.] 

* 2 There is no such date on this engraving. 

3 D'Agincourt engraves a Massacre of the Innocents by Mocetto (pi. clxii.). 
This and a companion piece are in Paris. [* They are now in the National 
Gallery, Nos. 1239, 1240.] (See Gazette des Beaux-Arts, anno 1859, for an 
article on Mocetto by M. E. Galichon ; see also Cicognara and Zanetti.) 

* * Michele da Verona was born in 1470, and made his will in 1536 ; he was 
dead in 1544. Mazzi, in Madonna Verona, v. 169, 171 ; Trecca, ub. sup., p. 28. 

5 Verona, Sant' Anastasia. The figures are placed about a carved crucifix 
of wood, some of the angels raising a curtain supposed to hang over the crucifix. 
The Virgin and Evangelist are almost obliterated. The colours are dull, the 
outlines coarse, recalling those of the Sienese Benvenuto and Girolamo di 


another, as we see at Milan, where the Crucifixion is a copy 
in many respects of Jacopo Bellini, without skill in arrangement 
or in drawing, but not unsuccessful in a distance representing 
the city of Verona. 1 The same subject is almost literally repeated 
on a vast canvas done for Santa Maria in Vanzo of Padua in 
1505 2 ; but the background, in which a view of Sant' Antonio 
is preserved, is evidence of the presence of Michele at Padua. 
It is not unlikely, therefore, that he had some share in the 
series which adorns the school of the Santo. 3 In 1509 he was 
again residing at Verona, having finished at that time the 
Eternal with Angels and Prophets and the four Evangelists in 
the church of Santa Chiara. 4 A great improvement now mani- 
fests itself in his mode of treating subjects and figures; he 
distributes space with more effect, draws holy personages with 
more nature and in better proportions, and comes near Morone 
and Cavazzola in freedom of hand as well as in a gay trans- 
parence of tints. Of this transformation there are specimens in 
the chapel of the Vittoria Nuova 5 and in Sant' Anastasia at 

1 Milan, Santo Stefano. Canvas, m. 3-35 high by 7-20. The scene is depicted 
as if visible through the pilasters of a ruined arch, on the plinths of which one 
reads : " MCCCCCI die II. Junii, per me Michaelem Veronensem." This piece is 
almost entirely repainted ; the figures are paltry and lean, draped in over-abundant 
dress. Especially like Jacopo's figures in the Crucifixion of Verona are the Christ 
and the thieves, a soldier with his arms outstretched in front of the central cross, 
and the fainting Virgin with the Marys. The vestments are all of bright tints. 
[* This picture is now in the Brera (No. 160). The influence of Carpaccio is 
very noticeable in it. ] 

2 Padua, Santa Maria in Vanzo. Canvas, figures of life-size, almost all repainted, 
but inscribed : " Die xxvui Martii MCCCCCV. op. Michaelis Von." 

3 Padua, Scuola del Santo. St. Anthony appears to the beato Luca Belludi. 
Cold composition, with long, lean, paltry figures of ill-favoured appearance. But 
even Filippo da Verona might have done this. 

4 Verona, Santa Chiara. Christ in the semidome of the altar is like that 
of Francesco Morone in Santa Maria in Organo, sacristy. In the spandrils, two 
prophets ; in the niches of the pilasters, the four Evangelists ; and above the 
cornice, the Eternal between two angels ; inscribed: " Hie fecit Michaele (!) die 
iii Augum MCCCCCVIIII." The freshness of the work is gone, the surface having 
been rescued from whitewash. 

6 Verona, Santa Maria della Vittoria Nuova. Lunette fresco, with life-size 
figures of the Eternal in an almond-shaped glory between six angels playing 
instruments ; above, four angels sounding trumpets and one with a scroll. This 
fresco is also injured by time and restoring, but seems of the sa,me date as that 
of Santa Chiara. 


Verona, 1 as well as in a country church at Selare. 2 The final 
expression of his powers is to be found in an altarpiece of 1523, 
a canvas of the Madonna enthroned between four saints, in the 
church of Villa di Villa, near Este, where he displays a not 
unpleasant mixture of Morone, Cima, and Buonconsiglio. 3 

Still lower in the scale of Veronese art, an imitator of Cima, 
of the stamp of Pasqualino, is Filippo da Verona, whose panels 
and wall-paintings are to be seen at Turin, 4 Bergamo, 5 Padua, 6 
and Fabriano. 7 

1 Verona, Sant' Anastasia, fourth altar to the left. Lunette with the Descent 
of the Holy Spirit, assigned by different writers to Liberale, to Girolamo dai Libri, 
Morone, and Michele. 

2 Selare (church of). Eternal, Angels, four Evangelists, St. Zeno, St. Bovo, 
and a kneeling patron, with inscriptions, one of them mutilated, the other to this 
effect : " Zuan e Felipo e fradali di Vlati a fato far questa opa p vodo e devotio 
adl 8 Octobrio 1517." These frescoes are given to Girolamo dai Libri, but, so far 
as one can judge from the remains, are by Michele. 

3 Villa di Villa. Virgin and Child with an angel playing the viol at the foot 
of the throne, between SS. John the Baptist, Andrew, Lawrence, and Peter. 
Canvas, figures life-size, inscribed: "MDXXIII die p. Augusti Michael Veronensis 
pinxit." The blues are abraded in the sky and in the Virgin's mantle. The 
Virgin and Child remind us of Morone, but the group recalls Bellini and Cima. 
The colour is dull, monotone, and grey in shadow. The tone generally is of a low 
olive like that of early Girolamos, or Montagnana, or even Carpaccio. It is in 
consideration of this that we have named Michele da Verona in connection with 
a Dead Saviour under Mantegna's name in the Casa G. B. Canonici at Ferrara. 
See antea in Carpaccio. 

* The following works by Michele da Verona have not been mentioned by the 
authors : (1) London, National Gallery, No. 1214. The Meeting of Coriolanus with 
Volumnia and Veturia. (2) Verona, Museo Civico, No. 397. The Virgin and 
Child (bearing the forged signature of Carpaccio). 

4 Turin, Accademia delle Belle Arti. Virgin and Child with a Saint in prayer. 
Half-lengths ; inscribed on a cartello : " Philipus Veronesis p." The figures are 
poor and dry in form and outline, and raw in tone. 

5 Bergamo, Lochis, No. 187. Keplica of the foregoing, inscribed : " Phillipus 
Vonensis p." 

6 (1) Padua, Santo. Virgin and Child and St. Felix presenting a friar ; at the 
opposite side St. Catherine ; dated " MCCCCCVIIII " ; fresco injured by restoring, 
figures as above. (2) Same church, first pilaster to the right of high portal. 
Annunciation and two friars holding the name of Christ between the Virgin and 
angel. This fresco is altogether repainted. (3) Same edifice, third cloister. Life-size 
figures of St. Anthony and the Marriage of St. Catherine. A better and broader 
fresco in treatment than the foregoing, light brick in flesh tint, and recalling 
the works of followers of Carpaccio. (4) Padua, Eremitani, to the left of high 

For note 7 see next page. 


Vasari relates of Francesco Torbido that lie went as a youth 
to Venice to study under Giorgione. Having quarrelled and 
come to blows with some adversary there, he withdrew to 
Verona and gave up his profession altogether for a time; but 
being soon after inclined to resume the pencil, he did so under 
the counsel of Liberate, who loved him and made him his heir. 1 
Any one who sees Torbido's frescoes will say that he was a 
Veronese, but not unmistakeably a pupil of Liberale. He is not 
free from the restlessness of Giolfino, and as a colourist he takes 
after Morone and Girolamo dai Libri, but we discern the habits 
of the Venetian in the method of turning half-tones into deep 
shade, after the fashion known as Giorgionesque. He imitated 
various painters without being able to conceal his individuality ; 
and throughout his career he seems to fill the part of a man who 
assumes a dress to which he is not entitled, and who thus 
deceives the casual spectator. When he is most originally 
Veronese he is but a second-rate ; when he imitates the Venetians 
he rivals Pomponio Amalteo, or other disciples of Pordenone, 
or reminds us of Cariani ; when at last he works on the cartoons 
of Giulio Romano, he is Raphaelesque. In all cases he has an 
impetuous style related to that of Liberale and Giolfino, but 
he poorly conceals under this impetuosity a considerable share of 
shallowness. It is but natural that the fate of such a man's 
pictures should be to pass under other names than his own, and 
this we find is especially the case with Torbido's easel-pieces or 
portraits, or rather with such as may on close examination 

portal. Two angels at the side of a Glory of the Virgin (by an older hand) ; 
and below, two female martyrs with three angels playing instruments ; dated 
" MDXI." This is also by Filippo. 

7 Fabriano, San Niccolo, porch leading to the sacristy. Wood, figures life- 
size. Virgin and Child between SS. Peter and Nicholas of Bari ; inscribed : 
" Opus Philippi Veronen anno salutis 1514." [* This picture is now in the 
Palazzo Comunale at Fabriano.] 

1 Vasari, v. 291 sq. 

* From records in the Veronese Anagrafi, it seems likely that Francesco 
Torbido (whose family name was India) was born about 1483. A native of 
Venice, he settled in Verona about 1500, and continued to live in the latter town 
up to 1545. He then went to Venice for a stay of some years, but was back at 
Verona in 1557. Contemporary records prove that Torbido's daughters inherited 
the property of Liberale. See Qerola, ub. swp. t iii, 32 s%. and iv. 145 sqq. ; Da Ke, 
in Madonna Verona, i. 94. 


Hanfstaengl photo.'} 


[Munich, PinakothtJt. 

II. 216] 


be assigned to Torbido. There is, for instance, a Woman taken in 
Adultery at the Hermitage in St. Petersburg, of which we at 
once see that it is Veronese. The adulteress stands before the 
accuser, and in front of Christ ; two spectators looking on from 
behind. Nothing can be more marked than the types of the 
Saviour, of the accuser, and the spectator to the right. The 
latter has the dry and prominent features characteristic of the 
Mantegnesque ; the accuser is in the mould of those by Girolamo 
dai Libri ; but the adulteress recalls Giorgione and Palma, and 
the man looking over Christ's shoulder is Giorgionesque alto- 
gether. The treatment scents of Morone and Girolamo dai 
Libri ; it is careful, spare, unbroken, but Venetian also in this : 
lights are brought down to the texture and glow of half-shade, 
and there are no half-tints in the picture. 1 These tricks reveal 
an imitator of the Venetians ; but the tone, instead of being 
brightened and cleared, is darkened to a dull opacity by glazing, 
betraying the use of a dirty palette ; and here we see that Torbido 
is a stranger to the rules by which Giorgionesque depth was 
united to richness, and strives to attain effects without knowing 
the means by which alone they are attainable. In the same 
style, and with a forged name of Giorgione, are a laurel-crowned 
Flute-player in the Gallery of Padaa, with a Veronese landscape 
distance, 2 and a portrait of free handling belonging to the Earl 
of Warwick. 3 In Munich, where we have Torbido's name with 
the date of 1516, the flesh is less sombre than in the above 
examples, but the treatment is still monotonous in tone, empty, 
feeble in modelling and ineffective in relief, and fails to produce 
the clearer glow of the Giorgionesques. 4 This is the case again 

1 St. Petersburg, Hermitage, No. 12. 2ft. 8^ in. high by 2ft. Sin. (Kocco 
Marconi according to Dr. Waagen, Hermitage, ub. sup., p. 30.) 

2 Padua Gallery, No. 455. Canvas, bust, life-size ; on a wall to the left the 
words " Zorzon 49." This picture was in the bishop's palace at Padua. 

3 Earl of Warwick. Canvas, half-length, exhibited without a name at the 
Dublin International Exhibition. ^Represents a man with his right hand on a 
book on a stone table, his left on the hilt of his sword. He is dressed in yellow 
silk, and wears a black cap and long hair. His expression is grinning, his 
features dry and bony. Distance, a landscape with various accessories, a quail 
and a toad. 

4 Munich, Pinak., No. 1125. Canvas, 1 ft. 11 in. high by 1 ft. 7 in. ; inscribed : 
11 Quod stupeas & a . . . FraSus Turbidus pinxit Mcccccxvi." Bust on a brown 
ground ; flayed and slightly glazed up by a restorer. 


in a Flute-player and two Listeners, called Pordenone, in the 
Casa Maldura at Padua, where we should waver between Torbido 
and Cariani, were it not for the recollection of the Munich 
portrait. 1 At a later period Torbido assumed rather the manner of 
Titian than that of Giorgione or Palma, especially in his likeness 
of a grey-bearded man in a fur coat at the Museum of Naples 2 ; 
but in this phase also he puts all in half-tone with slight substance 
of colour, and leaves an impression of dullness on the eye. 

Judging of Torbido from the various specimens that have 
been described, we may assign to him the portrait known at the 
Uffizi as General Gattamelata with his Esquire, a half-length 
in armour with his right hand on a double-handed sword, and a 
helmet and mace on a balcony before him. 3 It is needless to 
point out that the catalogue is wide of the mark in placing this 
piece under Giorgione's name ; it has the double character of 
Venetian art engrafted on the Veronese ; the flesh tint is raw 
and dusky, laid in at one painting with rusty dark shadows, 
to relieve the monotony of which a red touch here and there 
is given in half-tone and reflections, the surface dirty and without 
light. This is the unmistakeable work of Torbido, illustrated by 
his strong and not unmannered outline, effective enough in 
chiaroscuro, but sharp in contrasts of tints, regular in propor- 
tions, and in this resembling Bonsignori, but wanting the power 
and modulation of the Venetians. 

1 Padua, Casa Maldura, No. 81. Canvas, oil. The man in front holds a flute in 
his left hand ; to the left a spectator in armour, in head like that to the left 
of the Christ in the Woman in Adultery at St. Petersburg ; to the right a man in 
a hat with the type of a mulatto query, Torbido himself, who goes by the name 
of II Moro ? Busts, on dark ground, injured and repainted. There is a canvas of 
the Woman taken in Adultery at Padua, in the Casa Conte Giovanni Cittadella, with 
no less than eighteen figures. The surface is injured by repainting, but the 
picture might be by Rocco Marconi, or Campi of Cremona, as well as by Torbido. 
[* The editor does not know where the two last-mentioned pictures are at present 
to be found.] 

2 Naples Museum, Boom VIII., No. 65. Canvas, oil, life-size ; half-length of a 
man near a parapet with a letter, standing. On the wall the words : " Franc" 
Turbidus detto el Moro V. faciebat." As regards merit this portrait is equal to 
one by P. Amalteo. 

3 Florence, Uffizi, No. 571. Canvas, half-lengths, life-size, green ground. 
[* The editor agrees with Count Gamba (ub. sup., v. 39 sq.~) that this picture offers 
many parallels to the forms and the technique of Cavazzola, to whom it is now 
officially ascribed.] 


Conspicuous in pictures and frescoes at Verona is the 
regularity of proportion already noticed at Florence. 1 In a 
Virgin and Saints at San Zeno the figures are drawn with 
freedom and boldness of foreshortening, but in the restless 
method of Liberale and Giolfino ; their colour spare and in- 
harmonious. 2 In the Nativity, Presentation, and Assumption of 
the Virgin, frescoes done by Torbido in 1534 in the choir of the 
Verona cathedral, the drawings of Giulio Romano are used with 
an energetic ease 3 ; and in the same way as he takes the 
cartoons of Giulio at Verona he assists Romanino at Trent ; that 
is, we may believe to be his the figure of a man with snakes, 
a female with a child, an old woman, in niches on the great 
staircase of the Castello. 4 That Torbido was in Friuli about 
1535, we know from his frescoes in the choir of the church of 
Rosazo, where he painted SS. Peter and Paul, the symbols 
of the Evangelists, the Virgin and Child, the Transfiguration, 
Peter walking on the water to meet Christ, and the Call of 
James and Andrew to the Apostleship. He had evidently taken 
a fancy for the Raphaelesque from its success the year before at 

;* l Dr. Gerola has discovered a record which proves that in 1526 Torbido had 
yet executed the altarpiece which, according to Vasari (v. 293), was 
ered from him by Giacomo Fontanella for a chapel in Santa Maria in Organo 
Verona, but that he at the above date had completed some frescoes in the 
same chapel. Of these, there still remain the figures of St. Peter the Martyr 
and St. Francis, though they at present are hidden behind canvases of a more 
recent period. The pala mentioned by Vasari is lost; the lunette which 
crowned it belongs now to the Augsburg Gallery (No. 271). It represents the 
Transfiguration of Christ. 

2 Verona, San Zeno, first altar to the right of portal. Virgin, Child, St. 
Sebastian, St. Christopher, and other saints, male and female. Canvas, life-size. 
The Resurrection and two prophets are above this, and the Virtues with their 
symbols, the latter too high to warrant an opinion as to whether they are by 
Torbido or not. In Sant' Euf emia the Assumption of St. Barbara is assigned to 
Torbido, but it seems the work of an assistant. 

3 Verona, Duomo, inscribed : " Franciscus Turbidus p. MDXXXIIII. " See 
Vasari, v. 292. 

4 Trent, Castello. The bases of the niches are whitewashed ; the lunettes are 
by Romanino. [* The only painter who is recorded as having received payment 
for the frescoes on the great staircase of the Castello at Trent is Romanino, 
though it seems likely that these paintings in great part were executed by 
his assistants (Schmolzer, Die Freslten des Castello del Buon Consiglio, pp. 42 sqq.). 
It would, however, be surprising to find Torbido among the latter as late as about 
1532, the date of the frescoes in question.] 

220 THE VERONESE [CH. vi. 

Verona, for here again he is altogether in the character of Giulio 
Romano. 1 We have proof that he was still alive during 1546, 
in a letter of Pietro Aretino. 2 

1 Rosazo. These frescoes are almost ruined by repainting, as is likewise the 
Transfiguration, probably by Torbido, in a neighbouring refectory. On a cartello 
in the Transfiguration of the choir we read : " Franc. Turbidus faciebat 


2 Aretino, Lcttere, iii. 308, and Temanza, Life of Sansovino, p. 31. 

* On Jan. 2, 1547, the Scuola della Trinita at Venice ordered three paintings 
from Torbido ; six months later they were valued by Pietro degli Ingannati and 
Giampietro Silvio. During this year Torbido was commissioned to execute yet a 
fourth painting for the same Scuola and in 1550 he repaired a painting in the 
house of that brotherhood. One of these pictures, representing the Creation of 
the Birds, is now in the depot of the Ducal Palace at Venice. See Ludwig, in the 
Berlin Jahrbuch, xxvi. Supplement, p, 103 ; " Archivalische Beitrage," in 
ItalienisoJie Forschungen, iv. 136 sqq. 

It appears from the records of the monastery of San Domenico at Verona 
that Torbido died in 1561 or 1562 (Gerola, ub. sup., iv. 148). In addition to the 
works by this painter noticed hitherto, the following may be mentioned : 
(1) Fiesole, Villa Doccia, Mr. H. W. Cannon, No. 12. The Virgin and Child with 
Angels, St. Anthony the Abbot and a Donor. (2) London, collection of the late 
Dr. L. Mond. Portrait of Girolamo Fracastoro. (3) Milan, Brera, No. 99. Male 
portrait, signed " Frs Turbidus V. faciebat." (4) San Martino Buonalbergo (near 
Verona), San Giacomo del Grigiano. The Virgin and Child between SS. Catherine 
and James, signed " F. Turbidus inv." (5) Verona, Museo Civico. No. 3, The 
Virgin and Child. No. 49, The Archangel Eaphael and Tobias. No. 210, The 
Virgin and Child with Saints and Donors. (6) Verona, San Fermo, second altar 
to the right. The Trinity, the Virgin and Child, and Saints. (7) Verona, 11 Via 
Stella. Frescoes on the house-front. 



THERRARA, the seat of a ducal court, was well attended by 
painters during the whole of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries. The dukes were very strongly possessed with the 
fancy for building and decorating palaces ; and they required a 
host of craftsmen to carry out the plans suggested by their 
fondness for display. Schifanoia, Belfiore, Belriguardo, the 
Castel Nuovo, Migliaro town and country residences of the 
reigning family were to the full as costly to the Estes as 
Mantua, Goito, Oavriana, Marmirolo, San Sebastiano, and the 
T6 to the Gonzagas. But Ferrara was not the cradle of a school 
until the dukes had called to their service Pisano and Piero della 
Francesca. What Pisano may have done to favour the progress 
of art appears to be infinitesimal ; Francesca' s influence was 
more lasting, and taken in conjunction with that of Mantegna, 
which was not the less felt though it was more distant, continued 
for upwards of half a century. 

The Ferrarese are very like the Veronese in some respects ; 
they are not first-rates, and their painting has a strong northern 
stamp ; but they are more independent in their ruggedness and 
more powerful in the expression of passion. They adopt alter- 
nately the African types of Francesca and the grimacing ones of 
Mantegna, but they add to these something of the sadness and 
dryness of the Flemings. In Galasso these characteristics are 
combined with the comparative helplessness of the antiquated 
Christian time. Cossa and Tura, though but little younger, are 
abler and more spirited in this path, altering the technical 
treatment of detail and distance after the transalpine fashion ; 
it is not improbable that they were struck by the originality of 



Van der Weyden, whose visit to Ferrara in the middle of the 
century is now placed beyond a doubt. 1 With Stefano and 
Ercole Roberti Grandi, we come upon Paduan features in their 
strength and bitterness ; Costa and Ercole di Giulio Grandi 
introduce a younger and fresher blood by imitating the Perugin- 
esque. From first to last the Ferrarese are no colourists. 

Galasso, who impressed Vasari with a false idea of age, 2 was 
the son of a shoemaker at Ferrara. His name appears in the 
account-books of the house of Este from 1450 to 1453 in connec- 
tion with the decoration of the palace of Belriguardo, 3 and 
between 1450 and 1455 he composed the Assumption and 
finished a portrait of Cardinal Bessarion at Santa Maria in 
Monte of Bologna 4 ; that he was dead in 1473 we learn from an 
original record. 5 To suppose with Bumaldi that he lived in 
1390 and laboured in the church of Mezzaratta at that period is 
difficult ; and Bumaldfs statement can only be explained if we 
assume that two men with the same patronymic existed in the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 6 Yet Galasso may have left 
some frescoes at Mezzaratta, for there are fragments reminiscent 

1 " E a di xxxi de decembre due. vincte d'oro per lei a Filippo de Ambruoxi et 
compagni per nome di paulo de Pozio de bruza per altri tanti che el deto paulo 
pagd a M Kuziero depinctore in bruza per parte de certe dipincture de lo Illu. olim 
nostro S re che lui faceva fare al deto M Koziero come per mandate de la sua 
olim Signoria registrato al registro de la camera de 1'anno presente." Memorial 
of 1450. (Favoured by the Marquis Campori). [* See also Campori, in Atti e 
memorie delle RR. Deputazioni di storia patria per le provincie modenesi e par- 
mensi, ser. iii. vol. iii. p. 540.] 

2 Vasari, ii. 139 sqq. 

3 We are indebted for these facts to the Marquis Campori, from whom we 
have records of the date stated. Galasso is here called: "Maestro Galasso de 
Matheo Caligaro." 

* Contemporary documents prove that his full name is Galasso di Matteo Piva 
(see A. Venturi, in Rivista storica italiana, i. 614). From this it follows that 
Vasari is wrong in calling him Galasso Galassi, and that the monogram G.G. 
occurring on some pictures which will be noticed below cannot be regarded as 
his signature. See also Venturi, in the Berlin Jahrbuck, ix. 13, and Campori, 
loe. cit., p. 545. 

4 Cron. Fra Girolamo Borselli, in Muratori, Rer. Ital. Scrip., torn, xxiii. 
p. 888. 

5 Ricordi di Cosimo Tura, 8vo, Ferrara, 1866, by L. N. Cittadella, p. 191. 

6 Minervalia Sonon., by Giov. Antonio Bumaldi, 12mo. Bonon. 1641, p. 239. 
Let us recollect that there is a painter of the name of Gelasio, for a notice of 

whom see Crowe and Cavalcaselle, A History of Painting in Italy, ed. by 
L. Douglas, iii. 214 sq. 

vii.] GALASSO 223 

of him in that building which obviously have no earlier date 
than 1450. 

A great deal more has been made of Galasso than he deserves. 
That he felt the influence of Piero della Francesca, as Vasari 
observes, 1 will be confirmed by a glance at the halls of the 
Schifanoia ; that he ever lived in Venice, or even that he mastered 
the technica of oils, is doubtful. 2 In his first panels for instance, 
in the Trinity at the Museum of Ferrara, 3 or in the Entombment 
and the Virgin and Child with a donor and patron saint belonging 
to the Costabili collection 4 the sour severity of the fourteenth 
century and a vehement expression are concomitants of bad 
drawing, affected or spasmodic action, and skinny flesh. In 
later pieces traditionally assigned to the same hand, such as the 
Christ on the Mount belonging to Professor Saroli, 5 the Cruci- 
fixion of the Marquis Strozzi at Ferrara, 6 or the Epiphany of 

1 Vasari, iii. 89 sq. 

2 Ibid., iii. 90. 

3 Ferrara, Pinac., Sala III. Panel, tempera, figures one-fourth of life, on 
gold ground, with the monogram G-^G- Subject, the Eternal enthroned and 
holding the cross with the dead Saviour upon it. 

4 (1) Ferrara, Costabili, No. 33. Panel, figures a little under life-size. Christ 
is let down into the sepulchre in his winding-sheet by two figures, in presence 
of the Virgin, St. Francis, St. Bernardino, and others. Some faces grimace like 
those of Crivelli. The gold ground is now painted over, and the rest is much 
injured by abrasion. (2) Same Gallery, No. 78. Virgin, Child, donor, and patron 
saint. Panel, tempera, about one-third of life-size. The Virgin and Child 
between SS. John the Baptist and Jerome in the same collection, assigned by 
Eosini to Galasso, and engraved as such by him, is by Sano di Pietro of Siena. 

* The Costabili collection exists no longer. No. 33 is now in the Gallery of 
Ferrara ; the editor has not been able to trace the other two pictures. 

5 Ferrara, Professor Saroli. Canvas, tempera, figures all but life-size; To the 
left hand Christ on his knees, and the angel with the cup to the right. The 
three apostles in a landscape with birds, animals, and distant episodes. The sweat 
on the Saviour's brow trickles like tears down his face. The tempera is dull ; the 
drapery and drawing are broken in the Flemish manner ; the figures are 
grotesquely long, dry, and bony. The outline is rude and uniform, the hands and 
feet common and out of drawing. Of course there is no perspective of any kind. 
The piece is made less attractive still by copious varnishing and some retouching. 

* The Saroli collection was subsequently in the hands of Signor Lombardi of 
Ferrara, and belongs now to the Duca Massari-Zavaglia of that town. 

6 Ferrara, Marchese Strozzi. Canvas, tempera, with small figures ; on a predella 
and side-pieces are (1) Christ on the Mount ; (2) the Capture ; (3) the Flagella- 
tion ; (4) Christ dead on his Mother's Knees ; (5) Christ carrying his Cross ; 
(6) the Entombment ; (7) the Resurrection. A little better than the foregoing, 


Mr. Barker in London, 1 the same defects are clothed in the new 
bat not less repulsive garb of the Flemings. 

Cosimo Tara is not more attractive than Galasso, but of a 
more consistent fibre. Irrespective of art he was a man of 
weight and wealth in the place of his birth. 2 Having been 
employed from 1451 upwards in some of the numerous pictorial 
undertakings of the Duke of Ferrara, he rose to a fixed appoint- 
ment in the ducal service in 1458. 3 For twenty-five years at 
least, if not till the end of his life, he clung to this service, and 
made his fortune in it. In 1457 he furnished patterns for arras ; 
somewhat later he worked in the ducal studio, 4 and when Borso I. 
visited Milan in 1461 he induced Gian Galeazzo Sforza to 
apprentice one of his dependents with Tura. 5 Under Ercole I. 
Tura lost none of his repute ; he decorated the library of the 
Picos of Mirandola, 6 ornamented the new chapel at Belriguardo 

but by the same hand, in the same collection and similar manner, a small panel 
of Christ on the Mount. 

* The editor cannot state with certainty where these pictures and the portrait- 
group noticed po&tea, p. 231, n. 2, are to be found at present. They may be in the 
collection of the Marchese M. Strozzi of Florence, who is the owner of some paint- 
ings mentioned by the authors as belonging to the Marchese Strozzi of Ferrara. 

1 London, Mr. Barker ; formerly in the Costabili collection. Small panel with 
two G's interlaced a different monogram from that on the Trinity in the Gallery 
of Ferrara. But the style is that of the pictures immediately foregoing, and like 
that also of pieces in the Schifanoia decoration assignable to Galasso. [* This 
picture belongs now to Mr. John Stogdon of Harrow.] The same interlacement 
of two G's is to be found on a panel, representing St. John the Baptist, which 
with its fellow, St. Peter, is in the Cappella della Consolazione in Santo Stefano 
of Bologna. This, however, is a more careful work than that of Mr. Barker. 

* 2 We learn from a record of 1431 that Tura was born before that year, but 
that he was then only a child. See A. Venturi, in Archivio storico dell' arte, ser. i. 
vol. vii. pp. 52 sq.. 

3 MS. records favoured by Marchese Campori, and also Cittadella, Ricordl, 
ub. sup., p. 8. 

* The account which the authors give of Tura's work in the service of the 
Dukes of Ferrara has been largely supplemented by Prof. A. Venturi, in the 
Berlin Jahrbuch, ix. 3 sqq. 

4 Ibid. 

5 Cappelli, in Atti e memorle delle RR. Deputazioni di storia patria per le 
provinde nwdetiesi e parmesi, ser. i. vol. ii. p. 312. [* Cf. A. Venturi, in Archivio 
storico lombardo, ser. ii. vol. ii. p. 228.] 

6 Gyraldi Ferrar., Op., Lugd. Bat., 1696, ii. 

* Prof. A. Venturi (in the Berlin Jahrbuch, ix. 10 sq.~) shows that it is 
probable that the paintings in the library at Mirandola were executed in 1465-7, 
that is to say before the reign of Ercole I. (1475-1505). 

vii.] COSIMO TURA 225 

in 147 1, 1 and painted the likeness of the Duke and Beatrix of 
Este, as a present for Lodovico Moro of Milan, in 1473 2 ; during 
1481 lie composed pictures for Ercole's studio which were 
afterwards put aside for those of Bellini, Titian, and Pellegrino. 3 
Tura had also private commissions. The standard ordered of 
him in 1456 for the guild of tailors, the Nativity done for 
Vincenzo de' Lardi, superintendent of the cathedral at Ferrara, 
the frescoes of the Sacrato chapel completed before December 20, 

1468, in San Domenico, have not been preserved ; but the doors 
of the cathedral organ which he finished in 1469 are still in 
existence, 4 and afford a clear insight into the quaintnesses of his 
manner. Having long s'ince been diverted from their original 
use, they now hang on the walls of the choir in the Duomo, and 
represent the Annunciation and St. George discomfiting the 
Dragon. 5 The scene in the first instance is laid in a double- 
arched porch, the soffits and sides of which are panelled in 
marble of various kinds, painted with allegorical figures and 
embellished by two large festoons of fruit ; the Virgin on one 
knee looking down with her hands joined in prayer, parted from 
the angel by a pillar. An iron rod runs across from cornice to 
cornice of the double arch, and on it are perched a cat and a 
bird; through the arch we see the sky, rocky hills, and little 

* * Tura was commissioned to paint this chapel in 1469. Shortly after having 
begun the work he seems to have gone to Brescia to study how Gentile da 
Fabriano had carried out a similar task. In 1472 the paintings and stucco reliefs 
in the chapel at Belriguardo were valued by Baldassare Estense of Reggio and 
Antonio Orsini of Venice ; the elaborate deed of appraisement makes it possible 
for us to form an idea of the magnificent sight presented by the chapel. The 
palace of Belriguardo was destroyed in the beginning of the seventeenth century. 
See A. Venturi, ub. sup., ix. 15 sqq. 

* 2 The portrait of the Duke was painted in 1472, and that of Beatrix in 1485. 
Ibid., pp. 21, 28. 

3 MS. records favoured by Marquis Campori. The paintings of the studio 
were " nude figures in oil." [* Cf. A. Venturi, ub. sup., ix. 26 sq.] 

* Cittadella's Ricordi, pp. 24, 29 ; ibid., p. 8 ; Documenti, p. 145 ; and Baruffaldi, 
Vitede 1 Pitt. Ferraresi, 8vo, Ferrara, 1844, i. 65 and ii. 545. A record of June 11, 

1469, in the latter work, states that "Magister Cosme del Turra" was paid 
111 lire for the painting of these doors. 

The frescoes of San Domenico cost the Sacrati family 1,000 lire. (L. N. Citta- 
della, Documenti, ub. sup., p. 145.) 

* Ferrara, Duomo. Panel, tempera, figures of life-size ; the Annunciation 
much damaged, especially in the flesh, the St. George much abraded. 

VOL. II 15 


There is no lack of feeling in Tura's mode of treatment, 
artificial though it be ; but he sacrifices mass to detail and to 
accessories. His composition of the queen's daughter striding 
away from the dragon seems a caricature of Pollaiuolo ; leanness 
and tallness are naturally united to an awkwardness which might 
almost be called contortion. 

In a great number of productions of this time searching power 
is united to the vulgarity of Van der Weyden, and drapery or 
colour reminds us of the Mantegnesques and Flemings. These 
features characterize an allegorical female figure called Spring 
now in the Layard collection 1 ; its companion in the Costabili 
collection called Autumn 2 ; St. Jerome penitent, the subject of a 
piece in the National Gallery 3 ; but we pass over these and 
others equally important 4 to dwell for a moment on the Virgin 

1 Venice, Lady Layard; formerly in the Costabili collection. Panel, mixed 
tempera, figure under life, in a niche, the seat ornamented with bronze dolphins. 
The drapery better than usual, of polished surface. 

2 Ferrara; Costabili Gallery. Panel, figure with a hoe and a bunch of grapes ; 
much injured. Two others almost ruined belong to the Marquis Strozzi. 

* The last-mentioned pictures now form part of the collection of the Marchese 
M. Strozzi of Florence. They are surely too feeble for Tura himself, and can only 
be classed as belonging to his school. The Autumn is at present in the Kaiser 
Friedrich Museum of Berlin (No. 115A). Dr. Bode has given good reasons for 
ascribing it to Francesco Cossa (see the Berlin Jakr bitch, xvi. 88 sqq.). 

3 London, National Gallery, No. 773. Wood, tempera, 3ft. 3fin. high by 
6 ft. 10| in. ; formerly in the Certosa at Ferrara, then in the Costabili collection, 
last in possession of Sir Charles Eastlake. St. Jerome kneeling in a landscape. 
On a neighbouring tree a woodpecker and other birds. Very energetic exhibition 
of lean forms; well-preserved panel. [* This is only part of the picture which 
originally was in the Certosa. Another fragment of it, representing a Crucifix, 
belongs to the Brera (No. 447), formerly in the Barbi-Cinti collection. See 
C. Cittadella, Catalogo istorico, iv. 308 ; Baruffaldi, i. 76, n. 1.] 

4 (1) Ferrara, Costabili Gallery. St. Bernardino in a niche. Panel, figure almost 
of life-size, injured slightly, but a fine work. [* The present owner of this picture 
is not known ; and even as far back as 1882 it had ceased to form part of the 
Costabili collection. See Harck, in the Berlin Jahrbuch, ix. 39.] (2) St. Anthony 
Abbot in a niche, and a Bishop in benediction. Small panels that recall Ercole 
Eoberti Grandi's imitation of Mantegria. [* The St. Anthony belonged in 1888 to 
Dr. Levis of Milan ; the Bishop is now in the Museo Poldi-Pezzoli in that town 
(No. 600). Harck, uk. sup., ix. 38. A Virgin Annunciate in the collection of 
Prince Colonna of Rome belonged undoubtedly to the same altarpiece as these 
pictures. See A. Venturi, in ArcMvio storico delV arte. ser. i. vol. vii. p. 90.] 
(3") St. George of the same size is now in possession of Mr. Barker in London, who 
has also a small St. Michael and a half-length Madonna under life-size. [* The 
Madonna is at present in the National Gallery (No. 905). The St. George and the 

vii.] COSIMO TURA 227 

and Child in the Lochis Gallery at Bergamo, which exhibits a 
very graceful boldness of movement for Tura, 1 and the small 
panel in the Correr Museum, in which the dead Saviour is 
represented lying on the lap of the Virgin. Here Tura's skill as 
a composer, or in rendering the anatomy of the human body, is 
very respectable ; he has something of the gnarled strength of 
Diirer, and more than enough of coarseness in addition. 2 
Nowhere, however, are the master's peculiarities more perfectly 
displayed than in the Virgin and Child with Saints at the 
gallery of Berlin. 3 The Virgin sits adoring the Child, her blue 
mantle lined with the brightest green ; St. Apollonia to the left 
dressed in an emerald-green tunic heightened with gold, her 
mantle of shot stuff lined with scarlet ; St. Catherine to the right 

St. Michael can no longer be traced.] (4) Ferrara, Conte Giovanni Battista 
Canonici. Half-length of St. Bernardino in a niche. This is the old type familiar 
to us in Galasso. [* Present whereabouts unknown.] (5) Ferrara, San Girolamo. 
High up on a wall in the sacristy of this church, a life-sized St. Jerome in an arch- 
way, with the lion at his feet. Canvas, tempera, Mantegnesque in look. [* This 
picture has now its place in the Ferrara Gallery (Sala III.).] (6) Ferrara Gallery, 
Sala III. Panel. St. Jerome in cardinal's dress in an archway. Figure two- 
thirds of life-size, of a milder nature than Tura, and suggestive of some young 
follower of his manner, as Lorenzo Costa or Ercole di Giulio Grandi. 

1 Bergamo, Lochis Gallery, No. 233. Virgin and Child in a Roman chair, on 
gold ground, knee-piece, in character between Crivelli and Mantegna, but with the 
peculiar features of Tura. Panel, tempera, injured by repeated varnishing. 
[* Professor C. Eicci suggests that this picture of which the lower part is lost 
a fragmentary St. Dominic in the Uffizi (No. 1557), a Franciscan saint (probably 
St. Anthony of Padua) in the Louvre (see postea, p. 230, n. 1), and the SS. 
Sebastian and Christopher in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum of Berlin (seepostea, 
p. 229, n. 3), originally formed a polyptych in the church of San Luca in Borgo at 
Ferrara. See Rassegna d'ai'te, v. 145 sq.~] 

2 Venice, Correr, Sala XVI., No. 10. Small panel, m. 0-48 high by 0'33. The 
Virgin is seated on the marble tomb ; in distance, a man with a ladder, and beams 
of wood ; farther off, the high rock of Golgotha and the Crucifixion ; on a tree, an 
ape. The colour is highly blended and enamelled, and the finishing is wonderful. 

In the style of Tura, but assigned to Mantegna, is a St. George engaging the 
Dragon a small panel in the house of the Contessa Biella at Venice. It may be 
by one of Tura's disciples. [* Its present whereabouts is not known to the editor.] 
Under Mantegna's name likewise the following : Florence, Galleria Pianciatichi. 
Two small panels with St. John the Baptist and St. Peter. They are truly Manteg- 
nesque in style. [* These pictures belong now to the Metropolitan Museum of Art 
at New York.] 

3 Berlin Museum, No. 111. Canvas, 10ft. high by 7ft. 6^ in. ; originally in the 
church of San Lazzaro at Ferrara, afterwards in San Giovanni Battista in that 
town (Baruffaldi, ub. sup., i. 74 $#.). 


in a green mantle turned with grey; lower down the foreground, 
St. Augustine in episcopals with an eagle on a glass ball at his 
feet, St. Jerome with a small brazen lion near him, both in parti- 
coloured dresses like the females. The throne is one of the 
quaintest of structures ; it rests on crystal pillars, and has the 
form of a niche curved in the shape of a cockle-shell; the 
landscape distance is seen through the crystal pillars, as well 
as through the arches of the edifice. In lunettes in the back- 
ground are bas-reliefs of prophets imitating stone, others on 
the throne imitating gilt metal, representing various scenes 
from the Genesis and the life of Samson. Nothing can be more 
striking than this profuse mixture of strange architecture, gild- 
ing, mosaic, glass, bronze, and gold ; white stony light in the 
flesh is contrasted with red-brown shadow, and there is a 
metallic rigidity in the lean shapes and papery stiffness in the 

In this and in all other specimens of his art, Tura is 
consistent ;' and there are few painters in whom such constant 
features recur. Bred in the same school as Galasso, he had no 
idea of selection; leanness, dryness, paltriness, overweight of 
head and exaggerated size of feet and hands, were almost invari- 
able accompaniments of his pictures. In most of them it would 
seem as if well-fed flesh had become withered by want of 
nutrition, and had fallen together in wrinkles the depths of 
which are unfathomable. About the articulations these wrinkles 
are stretched along the bones and indicated by lines, and the 
bones themselves remorselessly obtrude ; and yet this false mode 
of representation is worked out patiently, carefully, and with 
considerable boldness. In his method of drapery Tura reminds 
us of Mantegna, of Francesca and Diirer ; because, though his 
folds are broken at every angle, and even at a right angle 
which is the strangest and most ungraceful that can be imagined 
they never produce the impression of incorrectness in the form 
which they clothe ; 1 they are altogether without amplitude in 
order that the under form may not be concealed ; and their 
scantiness adds to the dryness of personages in themselves dry to 
a fault. In distributing space as well as in representing the 

1 They frequently take the form of a T at the close, and make what in Italy 
is called the padlock fold. 


Banfstaengl photo.] 

II. 228] 

[Berlin, Kaiser Friedrich Museum. 

vii. J COSIMO TUEA 229 

parts within it, Tura is accurate and scientific, and shows him- 
self acquainted with the laws of geometry and perspective 
familiar to Piero della Francesca ; in some modes of action he 
foreshadows the precepts of the high art of the sixteenth century, 
and exhibits considerable vehemence of action ; his colouring is 
substantial, enamelled, and of great depth, but without brilliancy 
or light. One might almost suppose that he had been at Padua, 
and had seen that figure in the Baptism of the Proselyte at the 
Eremitani which stands reading with its back to the spectator ; 
he may have derived his peculiar and not very pure taste for 
architecture from the models in that very chapel models which 
recall those of Bonfigli and followers of Piero della Francesca. 
There too he might imbibe the principles which regulate his 
arrangement of tints, and learn to pit the colours of flesh, of 
dresses, and of architecture against each other, so as to present 
something like a neutral whole. Tura obtains this result by the 
most violent contrasts, treating the figures in many cases as mere 
properties, or bits of tone. 1 That with such characteristics as 
these his work should sometimes be assigned to Mantegna is not 
remarkable ; we have instances of this in Venice and in Florence, 2 
in the Museum of Berlin, 3 and in the collection of the late Mr. 
Bromley. 4 Yet these are not less genuine productions of the 

* ' As Professor A. Venturi remarks (in the Berlin Jahrbuck, ix. 5 sq.\ it seems 
likely that Tura studied not only in Padua, but also in Venice ; for he bequeathed 
in 1471 part of his property to the poor of that city, and this would point to his 
having lived there for some time. We also know from the records of the court of 
the Este that Tura sometimes went to Venice from Ferrara to buy colours or on 
other business (see ibid., pp. 14, 22). As a matter of fact his works are not with- 
out traces of Venetian influences. The great altarpiece at Berlin, for instance, is 
markedly reminiscent of the Vivarini. There exist no records proving Tura's 
presence at Ferrara in 1453-6. Professor Venturi therefore suggests that he 
spent these years away from his native town, perfecting himself in his art. 

2 See antea. 

3 Berlin Museum, No. 1170B. Panel, tempera, on gold ground, 2 ft. 4| in. high 
by 1 ft., from the Solly collection under Mantegna's name. St. Sebastian bound by 
the elbows to a tree. No. 1170c. Same size. St. Christopher. These are no 
doubt by Tura or Cossa, more probably by the first ; especially noticeable are the 
tortuous outlines and exaggerated forms. [* In the current catalogue these 
pictures are ascribed to Tura. See also antea, p. 227, n. 1.] 

4 London, late Bromley collection, previously belonging to Lord Ward. Small 
panel, about 12 in. by 8, of St. Jerome seated in a cave with the lion at his feet and 
the cross in his left hand. Tura is sometimes confounded with Zoppo, as we see in 
the Man of Sorrows, No. 590 at the National Gallery. See antea, p. 52, n. 2. 


master than the vast lunette at the Lonvre representing the 
Deposition of Christ, or other pictures, 1 to enumerate which would 
involve much and needless repetition. 2 

Tura's was a long, industrious, and successful life. Having 
been launched with sufficient means to secure independence, he 
was lucky afterwards in securing the fruits of his labours, had 
a house a present from the Duke of Ferrara in the Contrada 
di San Pietro, others in the Contrada di Boccacanale and the Via 
di Ognissanti, an atelier in a tower near one of the city gates, 

1 Paris, Louvre, No. 1556. Lunette, wood, m. T32 high by 2 4 67. The scene 
is laid in a panelled arch. Note the tinny drapery, the metallic flesh with 
white and purple lights, and the ugly projections of bones in the faces. The 
foreshortenings are bold and studied. A long split divides the picture horizon- 
tally. This, we are told, is the lunette of a Virgin and Child, No. 772 in the 
National Gallery, lately belonging to the collection of Sir Charles Eastlake (wood, 
7ft. 11 in. high by 3ft. 4 in.), in which we find the usual overabundance of 
architectural and ornamental features in the archway and throne. Two angels 
play musical instruments at the Virgin's sides, and at the bottom of the steps two 
angels play on a portable organ ; on the front of the organ, it is said, was the 
signature of Tura, but this signature is removed. The latter piece was formerly 
in the Casa Frizzoni at Bergamo, and is a very fanciful production of porcelain 
texture, in the colours suggesting the use of varnish vehicles. The angels are 
slender, the Virgin like that of Bartolommeo Vivarini in his feeble late period. 
Perhaps Tura allowed some pupil to paint this picture, which, at all events, is 
much inferior to the lunette above described. [* The polyptych of which the two 
above-mentioned pictures formed part was formerly in the church of San Giorgio 
f uori le mura at Ferrara ; it is minutely described by Baruffaldi, ub. sup., i. 77 sqq. 
To the right of the central compartment, now in London, was one representing 
SS. Maurelius and Paul and a kneeling monk ; this panel is at present in the 
collection of Prince Colonna of Eome. (Cf. A. Venturi, in Archivio storico 
dell' arte, ser. i. vol. vii. p. 90 ; the monk is here erroneously identified as the 
bishop Roverella.) The panel to the left of the Madonna is now lost ; it showed 
SS. Peter and George and the kneeling Lorenzo Koverella, bishop of Ferrara (d. in 
1474). The altarpiece furthermore contained two figures, of SS. Bernhard and 
Benedict, and a predella representing scenes from the life of the last-mentioned 
saints ; all these compartments are also lost. In a half-length of the Madonna 
and Infant Christ by Tura, now belonging to the Venice Academy (No. 628), 
the group of Mother and Child closely resembles that in the central panel of 
the Roverella ancona.~\ In the Louvre, No. 1557, m O72 high by 0'31, a small, 
panel representing a Franciscan saint reading, on gold ground, is by Tura, 
but injured (in the cheek) and split. [* Cf. antea, p. 227, n. 1. The following 
works by Tura may also be mentioned here : (1) Boston, collection of Mrs. J. L. 
Gardner. The Circumcision. This little tondo is a companion picture to the 
Adoration of the Magi at Cambridge and the Flight into Egypt in the Benson 
collection (see below). (2) Caen, H6tel de Villo, Musee Marcel. St. James. (3) 
Cambridge (Q.S.A.), Fogg Museum. The Adoration of the Magi. (4) Ferrara, 
Picture Gallery, Sala III, St. Maurelius before the Judge; The Martyrdom of 


earned money and lent it, made ventures in the timber and 
other trades, and died between 1494 and 1498, 3 leaving large 
legacies to the poor of Venice. 4 

Much less is known of Francesco Cossa than of Tura. His 
name first appears in a record of 1456, from which we learn 
that he was an assistant to his father, Cristofano del Cossa, 
then charged to illuminate the carving and statues on the high 
altar of the bishop's palace at Ferrara. 5 But in later years he 
transferred his residence to Bologna, where he is justly cele- 

St. Maurelius (cf . postea, p. 232, n. 1). (5) London, collection of Mr. E. Benson. 
The Flight into Egypt. (6) Modena, Picture Gallery. St. Anthony of Padua. 
Painted, it appears, in 1484. Venturi, in the Berlin Jahrluch, ix. 29 sq. (7) 
Richmond, collection of Sir Frederick Cook. The Annunciation and two Saints. 
(8) Rome, collection of Prince Colonna. The Virgin adoring the Child. (9) 
Vienna, Imperial Gallery, No. 90. Pieta. An arras in the Vieweg collection at 
Brunswick, representing the Deposition from the Cross, is obviously copied from 
a design by Tura.] 

2 Ferrara, Marquis Strozzi. In this gallery we have a canvas tempera of a 
nobleman holding a falcon on his wrist, near his wife and son, in a room with two 
windows. The figures are life-size and inscribed : " Ubertus et Marchio Thomas 
de Sacrato." This piece has lost its freshness from varnishes, but is very finished 
in outline and treatment. This may be by Tura, or of the youth of Lorenzo Costa. 
[* Cf. antea, p. 223, n. 6.] 

Forli, San Mercuriale, sacristy. The Visitation, canvas, in oil, much injured, is 
assigned to Tura, but seems more like a piece by Baldassare Carrari. 

It is a mistake to suppose that the miniatures on silk at the Hotel Cluny in 
Paris are by Tura; and as to miniatures in general, it has been supposed that Tura 
had a share in those of the chorals and antifoners of the Ferrarese cathedral, but 
these are proved to be by other hands (see a letter of Luigi Napoleone Cittaclella 
to Cav. Gaetano Giordani, in the Gazzetta Ferrarese of April 29, 1862, and Don 
Giuseppe Antonelli's records, in Gualandi, Memorie, lib. sup., ser. vi. p. 153). 

Long lists of pictures alleged to have been done by Tura are to be found in 
Baruffaldi, ub. sup., i. 67-122, but there is too great a tendency in the author and 
his annotators to assign low-class works of doubtful origin to known authors, and 
criticism on this nomenclature would be a waste of time and space. 

* 3 It is now ascertained that he died in April 1495. A. Venturi, in the Berlin 
Jahrbuoh, ix. 32. 

4 Cittadella (Ricordi, pp. 8-15, and Notizie, p. 569) cannot explain this legacy 
to the poor of Venice. Tura leaves no such bequests to the poor of Ferrara, but he 
puts by a sum of money for building a church there. [* Cf. antea, p. 229, n. 1.] 

5 Cittadella, Notizie, ub. sup., p. 52. [* Cittadella's transcript of this document 
is not quite correct. It really records that, in pursuance of an agreement con- 
cluded on his behalf by his father (who was a builder), Francesco in that year 
had decorated the wall around the high altar of the cathedral of Ferrara with a 
representation of the Pieta and with paintings imitating marble. Cf. A. Venturi, 
in L'Art, year xiv. tome i. p. 76. Francesco Cossa was probably born about 1435. 
In a codex of the sixteenth century, after two epigrams on Cossa's death, 


brated for two great creations, the Virgin and Child with saints 
and a donor reproduced in these pages, and the Madonna del 
Barracano, both masterpieces of one period. 

That Cossa issued from the same school as Tura is evident 
from his pictures, which closely resemble Tura's in searching 
outline, correct distribution of space, and brown tinge of tempera ; 
but his art is of a higher and more elevated class, especially in 
architectural and accessorial detail. Severe grandeur and dignity 
of mien dwell in the figures ; a sculptural breadth distinguishes 
the draperies, but models of stone seem studied in preference to 
nature ; the outlines are clean and firm, rendering nude and 
extremities with accurate perspective and anatomy ; relief is 
obtained by correct shading, modelling, and contrasted tints ; 
and the faces, strongly marked in the fashion of Piero della 
Francesca, are of a nobler cast than Tura's. But even Cossa was 
not free from northern or Netherlandish peculiarities ; and some- 
thing in his air or technical treatment recalls Roger van der 
Weyden. -What Cossa may have done at Ferrara is uncertain. 1 
His Madonna at Bologna was painted in 1474 for Domenico 
de' Amorini and Alberto de' Catanei, and is remarkable for a very 
fine kneeling portrait of the latter personage, in the style of Piero 
della Francesca, Mantegna, and Melozzo. Nothing can be more 
effective than the drawing and the massive projection of shadow 

ascribed to Lodovico Bolognini (d. in 1508), it is stated that Cossa was forty- 
two years old when he died ; and we know that his death occurred in 1477. See 
ibid., p. 101, andpogtea, p. 234, n. 1.] 

1 Ferrara Gallery, Sala III. Here are two small circular panels under Cossa's 
name, representing the Death and the Capture of St. Maurelius. The com- 
positions are lively, the figures like those of Tura, to whom these pieces are 
assigned by Baruffaldi (i. 77). We miss the large altarpiece at San Giorgio fuori 
le mura at Ferrara, to which these two compositions belonged. They are in style 
like the two panels (Nos. 1170B and 1170c) under the name of Mantegna in the 
gallery of Berlin. (See antea in Tura.) [* There can, indeed, be no doubt that 
the two londi at Ferrara are by Tura, to whom they are now officially ascribed.] 

Under Cossa's name there were several small panels in the Costabili collection, 
all of them unauthenticated. 

* We shall see (postea, p. 250, n. 2) that the frescoes on the east wall of the 
great hall of the Palazzo Schifanoia at Ferrara are by Cossa and that they were 
finished by 1470. Professor A. Venturi (in Der Kunstfreund, i. 133) suggests that 
Cossa moved to Bologna disgusted at the poor payment which he received for 
these paintings and at Borso's refusal to grant him a more adequate fee. An 
Annunciation in the Massari-Zavaglia collection at Ferrara is a work by some 
follower of Cossa (see A. Venturi, in ISArte, vi. 135 sq.). 


in the head. A very dignified containment is shown in the face 
of St. Petronius to the left, and the modelling throughout is 
grand. We may object to the marked fleshy type of the Virgin, 
unmistakeably derived from Piero della Francesca, but its im- 
posing gravity is undeniable. Less realism would improve the 
Evangelist, but the truth of the realism is very great. We 
admire, too, the searching character of the drapery, though we 
feel that it is too tortuous. We see everywhere a pure ring of 
metal in the work, excellent relief by light and shade, and a very 
delicate play of reflections. 1 

The Virgin of the Barracano at Bologna is a sacred image 
concealed except on high festive occasions from public gaze. 
When these occasions present themselves, 2 the wall is found 
covered with a fresco of the Virgin and Child in a highly orna- 
mented throne, within an archway of similar architecture. At 
the sides of the throne angels devotionally hold candelabra, whilst 
lower down a male and female look up to the Virgin's face. 
The story runs that Giovanni Bentivoglio instructed Cossa to 
restore a miraculous Madonna which attracted many worshippers 
during the fifteenth century, and caused his own portrait and 
that of Maria Vinziguerra to be added at the bottom of the 
fresco. 3 It appears from examination that the heads of the 
Virgin and Child are all that Cossa thought fit to leave untouched, 
and the handling of that fragment proves it to have been done 
by Lippo Dalmasio ; but it appears also that some third person 
subsequently repainted the portrait usually supposed to be 
Giovanni Bentivoglio, raising it above the level of that of Maria 
Vinziguerra, and transforming it from a bust into a knee-piece. 4 

1 Bologna Gallery, No. 64. Canvas, figures life-size ; inscribed : "D. Albertus de 
Cattaneis index et Dominicus de Amorinis notarius de for ppo fi fecerunt 1474 
Franciscus Cossa Ferrariensis f ." Near the head of Alberto, but almost obliterated : 
" Miser Alb. de Cataneis." The sky is dimmed by varnishing and retouching, the 
Virgin's dress and that of St. Petronio in part scaled and repainted, and parts of 
the flesh are abraded. 

* 2 This painting is now always on view. 

3 See Archivio patrio di antiche e moderne rimembranze felsinee, etc., by 
Giuseppe Bossi, Bologna, 1855. 

4 Bologna, alia Madonna del Barracano. The portrait of the male is not like 
that of Giovanni Bentivoglio in Costa's altarpiece of 1488, in San Jacopo Maggiore 
at Bologna. The hands are repainted over the red framing of the throne which 
is seen through their half -abraded tint. Tbe. toes of the near angel also appear 


Cossa, therefore, is the artist to whom we owe the frame of the 
Virgin and Child, the angels, the portrait of the female in profile, 
and the architecture. With the exception of the Child, which 
owes its awkwardness to the preservation of Lippo's head, the 
whole fresco is characterized by precision of outline, firmness of 
modelling, and all the qualities previously observed ; the masks 
and dresses remind us as before of Piero della Francesca and the 
Mantegnesques, though comparatively gentler and of a more 
yielding aspect than before ; the architecture is highly ornate, 
too much so indeed, and as florid as that of Bonfigli in the panels 
of San Francesco at Perugia. A new feature is apparent in the 
distances, where rocks are depicted in the shape of overhanging 
tables perforated with caves and crowned with temples and 
cities. It was this feature which subsequently received embellish- 
ments from Lorenzo Costa and Grandi. 1 

through the blue dress. It is likely that the original portrait of Bentivoglio was 
a bust profile like that of the female at the opposite side, and that the present one, 
which is much blackened, was done much later than the time of Cossa, and done 
in oil. The inscription, too, which purports to be " Johann. Benti Bononiee domi- 
nus," etc., is also modern and of a different character from the lower one, which is 
genuine and runs so : " Opera de Francescho del Cossa da Ferrara MCCCCL. ..." 
The date should be 1472, as is proved by records (Bianconi, Guida di Bologna, 
1825, p. 230; Laderchi, Pittura Ferrarese, 8vo, Ferr. 1856, p. 32). The figures 
are life-size, the colour in parts abraded. The female to the left is aged, of 
masculine features ; the hands are in part obliterated. The general tone is cold 
and a little rusty, and the tints are not free from a certain rawness. Lamo states 
that by the side of the high altar of the Madonna del Barracano there were 
two life-size figures in fresco of St. Lucy and St. Catherine by Cossa (Graticola, 
p. 12). 

* ' We learn from the letter of a contemporary that Cossa fell a victim to the 
plague which ravaged Bologna in 1477, while he was engaged in painting a chapel 
in the cathedral church of San Pietro ; this chapel belonged to the Garganelli 
family, as is proved by Lamo, Gratwola, p. 31. At the time of his death, Cossa 
had completed the frescoes of the ceiling (see Frati, in L'Arte, iii. 301). These 
paintings exist no longer ; they are described by Lamo, ub. sup. Vasari attributes 
them through a confusion to Costa (iii. 136, 143). 

The following extant works by Cossa have not yet been mentioned : (1) Berlin, 
Kunstgewerbe Museum, No. 82-1459. The Virgin Enthroned (stained glass ; 
formerly at Bologna). (2) Budapest Gallery, Nos. 99 and 100. Two Angels. (3) 
Bologna, San Giovanni in Monte. Circular window in entrance wall, St. John at 
Patmos. Window in south aisle, The Virgin and Child with Angels. (4) Dresden, 
Picture Gallery, No. 43. The Annunciation (see posted, p. 237, n. 1\ (5) London, 
National Gallery, No. 597. A Dominican Saint (probably St. Vincent Ferrer). 
Central compartment of a polyptych of which the other parts are divided between 
t?he Brera and the Vatican Gallery; cf. postea, p. 238 f n. 1. (6) Milan, Brera, 


A page might be filled with the names of other painters 
who illustrate this period at Ferrara. There are few of whom 
pictures are preserved except Baldassare Estense of Reggio. 1 

Baldassare is supposed to have been an illegitimate scion of 
the house of Este, because all mention of his sire was omitted 
in contemporary records, whilst he bore the title of Estensis, and 
received unusual promotion in the service of the dukes. 2 Having 
taken a likeness of Borso L, he was ordered in 1471 to present 
it in person to the Duke of Milan. 3 From 1469 to 1504 he 

No. 449. SS. Peter and John the Baptist. (7) Paris, collection of M. J. Spiridion. 
SS. Lucy and Liberalis. (8) Kome, Vatican Gallery. Miracles of a Dominican 
Saint. The profile of a boy in the collection of Mr. W. Drury-Lowe at Locko Park 
stands at any rate near to Cossa. 

1 One other there is, Antonio Aleotti d'Argenta, of whom a small panel 
representing the Eedeemer and inscribed with the name (written from right to 
left), and the date of 1498, is in the Costabili collection at Ferrara. [* It belongs 
now to the Municipal Gallery in that town (Sala III.).] There is a record of 
the year 1498 at Ferrara, in which Aleotti is bound over to keep the peace as 
against his wife. (See Cittadella, Notizie, p. 590.) 

* By this painter we have, moreover, a signed Madonna between SS. Anthony 
and Michael in the Galleria Comunale at Cesena and a polyptych in the Municipio 
of Argenta. See Thieme and Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Kunstlvr, 
i. 252. 

We know from contemporary records that a painter called Michele Ongaro 
(i.e. the Hungarian) was working at Ferrara between 1415 and 1459. The only 
extant painting by him seems to be a figure of Ceres now in the Gallery of 
Budapest (No. 101, signed " Ex Michaele Pannonio "). This work shows the 
artist as a feeble imitator of Tura ; it is obviously a companion piece to the 
Spring in the Layard collection and the Allegories belonging to the Marchese 
Strozzi (cf. antea, p. 226). For notices of this painter, see Cittadella, Notizie, 
passim, and A. Venturi, in L'Arte, iii. 185 sqq. 

2 Laderchi, Pitt. Ferrar., p. 38; Cittadella (L. N.), Notizie, ub. sup., p. 581. 

* It is proved by a document of 1489 that Baldassare was the son of 
Niccolb III. of Este (died in 1441). See A. Venturi, in Arcliivio storico delV arte, 
ser. i. vol. i. pp. 42* sq. 

3 MS. favoured by Marquis Campori. 

* See also Campori, in Atti e memorie delle RR.Deputazioni di storia patria per 
le prov'mcie modenesi e parmensi, ser. iii. vol. iii. pp. 567 sq., and Motta, iuArckivio 
storico lombardo, ser. ii. vol. vi. pp. 407 sq. 

Baldassare had previously lived for many years in Lombardy, and had been in 
the service of the Dukes of Milan. We see from the earliest record of him that 
in 1461 he received a passport from Francesco Sforza. In 1469 he went from 
Milan to Ferrara with a letter of warm recommendation from Galeazzo Maria 
Sforza to Borso I. d'Este, who immediately engaged him. See A. Venturi, in 
Atti e memorie delta R. Deputazione di storia patria per le provincie di Bomagna, 
ser. iii. vol. yi. pp. 377 sq,, and Motta, ub. sup., ser. ii. vol. vi. pp. 404 sqq. 


was a salaried officer at court, residing first in the Castel Nuovo, 1 
and afterwards in the Castel Tedaldi, of which he was the 
governor. 2 One of his medals with the date of 1472 has been 
preserved, whilst his frescoes in the Rufini chapel at San 
Domenico of Ferrara have perished. 3 His portrait of Tito 
Strozzi, dated 1483, is still in the Costabili collection, and his 
will, drawn up in 1500, is kept amongst others in the archives 
of Ferrara. 4 The portrait of Tito Strozzi is a profile of a man 
in years, of portly presence, in a black cap and coat, much 
damaged by scaling, abrasion, and varnishes, a tempera on 
canvas, of good outline and finish. 5 It is the counterpart as 
regards treatment of another portrait of a corpulent man, of 
olive complexion, in possession of Professor Bertini at Milan 6 
a profile with some monotony of contour, but precise in touch, 
and of a good and well-modelled surface. From these specimens 
we might think Baldassare capable of producing the likeness 
ascribed to Ansuino da Forll in the Correr Museum at Venice. 7 

1 He painted a canvas for the Castel Nuovo which has perished. (MS. 
favoured by Marquis Campori.) [* See also Campori, loo. cit., p. 568.] 

2 Cittadella, Notizie, pp. 581-2. 

* In 1472 Baldassare's name was cancelled from the list of the salariati, but 
he continued to work for the Duke (Campori, ub. sup., pp. 568 sq. ; A. Venturi, 
ub. sup., p. 380). He subsequently went to Keggio, where we find him in 1489 
and 1493, and where he was governor of the Porta Castello (A. Venturi, ub. sup., 
pp. 381 sqq., and ArcJiivio storioo deWarte, ser. i. vol. i. pp. 42^.). In 1497 he 
was back at Ferrara, and the following year he was again included among the 
salariati. Campori, loo. cit., p. 570. 

3 The contract is in Cittadella, Ricordi, ub. sup., pp. 26, 27. 

4 Cittadella, Notizie, p. 582. From this it appears that he was of Reggio, and 
therefore we think that Baldassare da Eeggio of some records, and Baldassare 
d'Este or Estensis of other records, are one person. 

5 Ferrara, Costabili. Canvas, tempera, on dark ground, with the initials 

" D. T.," and on the lower border: " B . . . as pix. c. P. ano . 493. . . ." 

It is impossible to say why Laderchi read the date 1499, and Rosini 1495. 
[* This painting is now in the collection of Mr, Herbert Cook at Esher. The 
date can no longer be deciphered. The date 1483 given in the text is probably a 
misprint. See Cook, in The Burlington Magazine, xix. 228 sgq.'] 

6 Milan, Professor Bertini. Panel, bust in a low key of tone without 
modulations, assigned to Tura. [* This portrait is perhaps identical with one 
which now belongs to the Museo Poldi-Pezzoli at Milan (No. 627).] 

7 Venice, Correr Museum, Sala XVI., No. 9. Panel, tempera, m. 0-49 high by 
0'35. In the distance to the left hand a castle, a river with two boats, two men 
on horseback and a servant. Concealing the landscape in part, a green curtain ; 
on a parapet, a book and a diamond ring, the cognizance, we are told, of Ercole I. 
(Laderchi, p. 38, and Bellini in Baruffaldi, i. 70) ; on the side, an escutcheon ; on the 


[Esher, Mr. Herbert Cook. 


II. 236] 


What we admire in this fine creation is a share of Francesca's 
grandeur, a certain calmness and dignity in the set of the head 
and its expression, extraordinary precision and firmness in the 
outline, and a glossy blending of silver light into blue-grey 
shadow. The mode of indicating wrinkles in the flesh with 
tenuous lines is familiar to us in Francesca and Melozzo. 

The authorship of Baldassare might be confirmed by the 
inscription on the upper border, which has been mutilated and 
retouched to suit the Venetian market. Another panel by an 
unknown hand betraying Ferrarese characteristics akin to these 
is the Annunciation, doubtingly ascribed to Pollaiuolo, in the 
Museum of Dresden, 1 and we may class in the same catalogue 
the St. Dominic attributed to Zoppo at the National Gallery, 

upper border : "o BATTA FUSSAP " which may originally have read "Baldas- 
sare"; on the lower border the initials "A. F. P." [* The ring contains a ruby, 
not a diamond ; moreover, the stone is not engraved with the emblematic flower 
of the Estes. See A. Venturi, in Archivio storico dell' arte, ser. i. vol. i. p. 42 *. 
Professor Venturi gives good reasons for thinking that the Death of the Virgin 
in the Massari-Zavaglia collection at Ferrara is identical with the picture 
containing the Twelve Apostles which Baldassare in a letter of 1502 states he had 
painted for the nuns of Mortara. Of. jjostea, p. 247, n. 1.] 

Baruffaldi mentions several pictures by Baldassare which are not preserved : 
St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Catherine of Siena in the church of the Angeli at 
Ferrara, inscribed " Baldassaris Estensis opus " ; a sacred subject in Santa Maria 
della Consolazione ; and a Funeral of a Nun, the Fall of Simon Magus, and 
the Samaritan Woman at the Well in private hands at Ferrara, inscribed : " Bal. 
E. f." (Baruffaldi, i. 92-3.) 

* Baldassare was particularly active as a portrait painter. For notices of his 
portraits, see A. Venturi, in Thieme and Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden 
Kunstler, ii. 387 sq. 

1 Dresden Museum, No. 43. Panel, 4 ft. 11 in. high by 4 ft. The Annun- 
ciation was inscribed for some time with the words : "Andreas Mantegna 
Patavinus fecit. An. 1450" ; but the inscription was a forged one, and since its 
removal the picture is under the name of Pollaiuolo with a (?), having also been 
assigned to Baldovinetti. The art is that of a follower of Tura or Cossa, and 
seems that of a careful young painter. The movement of the Virgin is hard 
and stiff, her figure heavy and overweighted with drapery ; the head is cast in 
Tura's and Cossa's mould, and shows much breadth at the cheekbone ; yet the face 
is paltry, and reminds us of Costa's in 1488. The folds are branching at top as 
in Costa. The angel, still in the same style, is a better and more agreeable 
figure. The flesh tints are of a reddish hue in light, streaked with yellowish 
hatchings and shaded with green, all carefully modelled, with the point of the 
brush. The result is a clear metallic semi-silvery treatment, that shows the 
progress of Ferrarese technica under Costa and Ercole di Giulio. In the dresses 
the tints are raw and sharp in contrasts. [* This picture was formerly in the 
Chiesa dell' Osservanza at Bologna.] 


with its two companion figures in the Barbi-Cinti collection at 
Ferrara. 1 But of these it would be unsafe to say more than 
that they are all similar, and seem due to an artist who follows 
in the footsteps of Tura and Cossa, 2 and resembles Costa and 
Ercole di Giulio Grandi in their early period. 3 

1 London, National Gallery, No. 597 ; from the Costabili collection. Panel, 
tempera, representing St. Dominic on a pedestal, with Christ in a glory 
between six angels in the sky. Ferrara, Signer Barbi Cinti, Strada Boccacanale 
a San Guglielmo. St. Peter and St. John the Baptist, erect, panel, temperas. The 
execution is the same as at Dresden, but of a later period of the same master's 
career, the figures being more dignified and meaning, the forms being more 
searched and the shadows more precisely defined. 

* The panels seen by the authors in the Barbi-Cinti collection are now in the 
Brera (No. 449). A predella belonging to the Vatican Gallery shows exactly the 
same characteristics of style as the pictures in London and Milan, and with them 
no doubt originally formed one altarpiece, as Dr. Frizzoni was the first to 
recognize (ZeitscJirift fur Hldende Kunst, ser. i. vol. xxiii. pp. 299 ##.). The 
predella in the Vatican represents certain miracles of a Dominican saint, who is 
obviously identical with the saint seen in the National Gallery painting, which 
occupied the centre of the polyptych. These miracles have been variously inter- 
preted as relating to the legends of St. Hyacinth or to those of St. Vincent 
Ferrer. It seems, however, impossible that St. Hyacinth is represented in this 
altarpiece, as he was canonized only in 1594, whereas the Dominican, both in the 
central panel and in the predella, has a nimbus. The attitude of the central 
figure and his attribute (the opened book) are, moreover, peculiar to St. Vincent 
Ferrer in Italian fifteenth-century art. Dr. Frizzoni suggests (ibid.') that this 
altarpiece was the one dedicated to St. Vincent which Vasari (iii. 133, 142 sq.) 
mentions as being in the Griffoni chapel in San Petronio of Bologna, ascribing 
the predella to Ercole Eoberti and the rest to Lorenzo Costa, whom Vasari 
in this passage repeatedly confuses with Cossa. If it is true, as stated by 
MM. Lafenestre and Richtenberger (RomeLe Vatican, p. 9), that the Vatican 
predella was bought from the Aldrovandi family, then Dr. Frizzoni's conjecture 
would be all the more likely to be correct ; for we know that the altarpiece of 
the Griffoni chapel came subsequently into the possession of the Aldrovandi 
family. See Pitture, scolture ed arcMtetture di Bologna, p. 243. 

* 2 In view of the close resemblance which these pictures show to the authenti- 
cated works by Francesco Cossa, they are now universally accepted as being by him. 

3 Berlin Museum, No. 112 A, assigned to a follower of Tura [* now to the 
Ferrarese School, about 1480]. Virgin and Child between four saints, Francis, 
Jerome, Bernard, and George. Wood, 5 ft. 3 in. high by 5 ft. 4 in. In this piece 
there is something of the school of Tura, but something also of that of Ercole 
Roberti Grandi. Ferrarese also, but also of a painter whose name remains 
obscure, is in the Dresden Museum (No. 59 A) a female nude on a dolphin, a 
yellowish cloth on her head. [* Morelli ascribed this picture to Jacopo de' Bar- 
bari (Die Galerien zu MiinoJien und Dresden, p. 257) ; and his view seems to 
be fully borne out by its numerous points of contact with Barbari's style such 
as the design, the folds of the drapery, the facial type, the forms and the 
proportions of the figure.] 


Baldassare was utterly unknown to Vasari, yet he is now 
better known than Stefano da Ferrara, whom Vasari mentions 
as Mantegna's friend. 1 Stefano filled the walls of the chapel of 
the Santo at Padua with frescoes in the latter half of the fifteenth 
century, but in consequence of the renewal of the edifice by 
Andrea Briosco in 1500 these frescoes were destroyed. 2 

Looking round Italian galleries, we find nothing assigned to 
Stefano except at the Brera of Milan, where he is the alleged 
author of two productions of different schools ; one of these, 
however, is Ferrarese, and has a stamp of distinct originality. 3 
It represents the Virgin with the Child on a hexagonal throne, 
supported by pillars, arid decorated with bronze reliefs ; two 
female saints on the throne at the Virgin's sides, two males 
in the foreground, the architecture and the landscape seen 
through the pillars all in the manner of Tura. The figures 
themselves are much like Tura's and Cossa's bony, dry, pinched 
in face and limb, prominent in bone, and disfigured by large 
extremities ; the drapery, too, is Ferrarese in cast ; but there is 
something Mantegnesque besides, a broader sweep of fold in the 
dresses of the male saints, an easier pose and movement, less 

1 Vasari, iii. 407. Baruffaldi (i. 156) cites a register of deaths at Ferrara 
which records the death of " Mastro Stefano Falzagallon," and his burial in 1500 
at Sant' Apollinare of Ferrara. There is, of course, no proof that this is the 
painter mentioned by Vasari. 

2 M. Savonarola, De laud. Pat., lib. i. coll. 1145 and 1170, in Muratori, 
Scrifit., vol. xxiv. ; Anonimo, p. 9 ; Gonzati, La flasilica, i. 57-8, 156-7. Vasari 
(iii. 407) assigns to Stefano the " Madonna del Pilastro " in the Santo at Padua. 
That is a Giottesque fresco of the Virgin and Child between the two St. Johns, 
done at latest in the beginning of the fifteenth century, and certainly not by a 
painter who could have been Mantegna's friend. 

* It seems likely that Vasari described Stefano as a friend of Mantegna simply 
because he painted in the Santo. As a matter of fact, Stefano must have 
belonged to a much older generation than Mantegna ; Savonarola notices his 
frescoes in the chapel of the Santo in his Commentai4olus de laudibus Patawi, 
which was composed about 1440, and mentions him along with Altichiero and 
Jacopo d'Avanzo (of. anted). Moreover, the frescoes mentioned above had to be 
restored by Pietro Calzetta in 1470 (see antea, p. 71, n. 3). Taking these points 
into consideration, it also follows that Stefano Falzagalloni cannot possibly be 
identical with the author of the paintings in question. Cf. A. Venturi, in the 
Berlin Jahrbuoh, viii. 76. 

8 The other so-called Stefano at the Brera, No. 453 Virgin and Child between 
SS. Peter, Nicholas, Bartholomew, and Augustine we shall speak of when treating 
of Rondinello. 


overcharge and exaggeration, a purer taste in architectural detail, 
and in the bas-reliefs a reminiscence of the carving of Niccol6 
and Giovanni Baroncelli, the Florentines to whom we owe the 
Crucifixion, Virgin, Evangelist, and St. George in the Ferrara 
Dnomo. 1 The Mantegnesque here again varies from that of Ercole 
Roberti Grandi or Bono ; it has its own peculiar impress, and 
confirms the belief that this Madonna at Milan is correctly attri- 
buted to an independent artist, who may be Stefano, a man of 
less power than Tura or Cossa, but differing very little from 
them in form or technical habits. That such a painter should 
have left so little behind is curious ; yet there are few things 
like the Brera Madonna to which we can point, at best such a 
piece as the small St. John the Baptist in the Casa Dondi- 
Orologio at Padua catalogued as by Mantegna. 2 

The Ferrarese school, we see, is involved in obscurity, and 
has its spectral shadows like many others. It receives better 
light, however, as we proceed ; chiefly through the Grandis and 

1 Milan, Brera, No. 428. Canvas, m. 3-23 high by 2-40. The Virgin's mantle 
is renewed and her face a little repainted ; on the base of the throne are the 
Massacre of the Innocents, the Presentation, and the Adoration. Monochrome 
on gold ground. 

* Prof. A. Venturi was able to prove that this picture was originally in the 
church of Santa Maria in Porto outside Ravenna (later in Ravenna itself), and 
that it is mentioned in old descriptions of that town as a work by " Ercole da 
Ferrara," i.e. Ercole Roberti (see the Berlin Jahrbuch, viii. 78). Subsequently 
Prof. C. Ricci found a contemporary record (published in the Rassegna d'arte, 
iv. 12), from which it appears that Ercole had finished the altarpiece under notice 
before March 26, 1481. The figures in the foreground represent St. Augustine 
and the B. Pietro degli Onesti ; the two females kneeling on each side of the 
Madonna are St. Anne and St. Elizabeth. 

2 Padua, Casa Galeazzo Dondi-Orologio. Small panel, tempera. Shrivelled 
figure of St. John the Baptist, erect, looking at the crucifix which he holds in 
both hands. The distant landscape is Ferrarese in treatment. Note the large 
extremities, the tenuous wrists and ankles, the dull tone. [* This picture is now 
in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum at Berlin (No. 112 c). In view of its close affinity 
to the altarpiece at the Brera, it must also be ascribed to Ercole Roberti.] 
Assigned to Stefano are the following : (1) Bologna, San Giovanni in Monte. 
Virgin and Child enthroned between two angels ; injured (the heads of Virgin and 
Child). This picture, compared with that of the Brera, appears to be by another 
painter ; feebler too, but greatly damaged ; it slightly recalls the works of Costa 
in 1488. (2) Ferrara Gallery, Sala VI. Virgin and Child between St. Anthony 
and St. Roch, from Santa Maria in Vado, dated 1531. This piece is by a follower 
of Garofalo. 


Hanfstaengl photo.'] 
II. 240] 

[Berlin, Kaiser Friedrich Museum. 


There were two artists called Ercole Grand! in the Ferrarese 
service, 1 of whose skill Ferrara and Bologna possess specimens 
in divergent styles and of varying merit ; one Ercole is a close 
follower of Mantegna, the other a disciple of Costa. Vasari 
knows but of one, yet unwittingly commingles the history of 
both. Whilst he affirms that Ercole is a friend and pupil of 
Costa, he only describes pieces without relation to Costa in 
manner. 2 The latest researches made in the archives of Ferrara 
and Bologna show that Ercole de Rubertis, alias Grandi, 3 and 
his brother Polidoro entered into partnership with the gold-beater 
Giovanni da Piacenza at Ferrara in 1479. 4 He was salaried by 
the Duke of Ferrara, and frequently employed in adorning chests ; 
he built a triumphal car, decorated the Duchess's garden-lodge, 
and finished a view of Naples in 1490-93 ; and took in 1494 the 
likeness of Hercules I. for Isabella of Mantua. 5 His death 

1 " Hercules unus, et alter, pictores ambo Bononienses cives ... an Hercules 
dictus communiter de Ferraria f uerit unus ex istis duobus, nee ne, de qua re valde 
ambigo." Bumaldi, Minervalia (1641), ub. sup., pp. 242 sq. 

2 Vasari, iii., lives of Ercole of Ferrara and Costa. 

* 3 According to Prof. A. Venturi (in Archivio storico delV arte, ser. i. vol. ii. 
p. 340, n. 8), the only document in which the family name Grandi is given to Ercole 
Koberti dates from 1530, when the artist had been dead for more than thirty 
years ; whereas in the numerous records of Ercole dating from his lifetime he is 
never called Grandi. But is it quite certain that the records of payments made 
from the exchequer of the Duke of Ferrara to " Ercole de' Grandi " in 1489 and 
1495 refer, not to Ercole Roberti, but to Ercole di Giulio Cesare (see ibid., vol. i. 
pp. 194*?.)? 

4 L. N. Cittadella, Notizle, ub. sup., pp. 583-9. According to a record in 
Documenti (ub. sup., p. 125), by the author of the Notizie, Ercole Roberti Grandi 
was the son of Antonio, " civis Ferrarie." 

* It is proved in the records published by Prof. C. Ricci, loc. cit., p. 12, 
that Ercole Roberti during the spring of 1481 alternately stayed at Ravenna, 
Bologna, and Ferrara. According to Raffaello Maffei, a contemporary of Ercole 
Roberti, this artist also visited Hungary. See Harck, in the Berlin Jakrbuck, 
v. 124. 

5 MS. records favoured by the Marchese Campori. He also contracts in the 
same year for an Annunciation for the church of Santo Spirito of Ferrara. (L. N. 
Cittadella, Documenti, ub. sup., p. 125.) 

* A full account of the works which Ercole Roberti executed for the Duke 
of Ferrara is given by A. Venturi, in Archivio storico delf arte, ser. i. vol. ii. 
pp. 343 sqq. The artist is first mentioned in the records of the Ferrarese court 
in 1486. He was in 1494 dismissed from his charge at court for having 
accompanied Prince Alfonso on his breakneck escapades by night. Luzio, in 
Emporium, xi. 347. 

VOL. II 16 


previous to 1513 is proved by documentary evidence. 1 Ercole 
Grandi the son, according to Baruffaldi, of Giulio Cesare 
Grandi was in the service of the Duke of Ferrara from 1492 to 
1499 2 ; he is thought to be the same whose death in 1531 is 
certified by an epitaph in the church of San Domenico at 
Ferrara. 3 It might be interesting to ascertain which of the two 
Grandis is the follower of Mantegna, which the disciple of Costa; 
it may be supposed that the latter would be younger and live 
longer than the former. We shall therefore assume that Ercole 
Roberti Grandi is not the disciple of Costa ; and, starting from 
these premisses, we shall be able to lay it down as a fact that Ercole 
Roberti Grandi is the artist of whose works Vasari usually speaks. 4 

1 L. N. Cittadella, Notizie, ub. sup., p. 589, and see also in Documenti (ub. sup., 
p. 124) by the same author, where Lucia de' Fanti is mentioned as " uxor q. mag. 
Herculis de Robertis." 

* Ercole Roberti was still living towards the end of 1495, but is recorded 
as dead on July 1, 1496. A. Venturi, loc. oit., pp. 355 gq. 

2 MS. favoured by the Marquis Campori. L. N. Cittadella, Notizie, pp. 422-3. 
The latter author in Documenti (ub. sup., p. 363) prints a letter from the Duchess 
Eleanor of Ferrara to the Abbess of the Murate at Florence, dated Ferrara, 
Nov. 2, 1492, in which the former recommends " Hercule prestante pictore nostro 
dilectissimo," who accompanies the prince (afterwards Alfonso of Ferrara) to 
Rome. Signer Cittadella believes this Hercules to be Ercole di Giulio. 

* It seems more probable that he was Ercole Roberti, who is known to have 
been a great favourite at court. Cf. A. Venturi, loc. cit., pp. 352 sq. Professor 
Venturi states (in Archimo storico dell' arte, ser. i. vol. i. pp. 194 <?#.) that Ercole di 
Giulio is recorded to have received payments from the exchequer of the Duke of 
Ferrara in 1489, 1495-6, and 1506-7 (see however antea, p. 241, n. 3). In 1499 
Ercole di Giulio executed the design for the pedestal of the equestrian statue of 
Ercole I. which was to be erected at Ferrara (Cittadella, Notizie, p. 422) ; and he 
is no doubt also identical with the " M. Hercule di Grandi " who in 1495 supplied 
various designs for the church of Santa Maria in Vado at Ferrara (idem, Documenti, 
pp. 341 *?.). 

3 " Sepulcrum egregii viri Herculis Grandii pictoris de Ferraria, qui obiit de 
mense Julio MCCCCCXXXI." Baruffaldi, iib. sup., i. 145. 

* 4 In the light of recent research it appears that Vasari confuses not Ercole 
Roberti and Ercole di Giulio Cesare, but Lorenzo Costa and Francesco Cossa. 
He states that Ercole of Ferrara was the pupil of Lorenzo Costa in the first 
edition of the Lives he says, of Lorenzo Cossa and that the master of Ercole 
executed the altarpiece of the Griff oni chapel at San Petronio of Bologna and the 
frescoes on the ceiling of the Garganelli chapel at San Pietro in that town. Now, 
the latter paintings are at present proved to have been the work of Francesco 
Cossa (see antea, p. 234, n. 1), and the Griffoni altarpiece was very likely also by 
him (see antea, p. 238, n. 1). There seems to have existed a tradition at Bologna 
that Ercole Roberti was the pupil of Francesco Cossa ; Pietro Lamo writes in 


Pietro Lamo, in his quaint old language, tells us that when 
Michelangelo was in Bologna, he went to see the frescoes of 
Ercole Grandi in the Garganelli chapel at San Pietro, and 
was heard to exclaim : " This is a little Borne for beauty." 1 The 
period during which this chapel was decorated might be inferred 
from an entry in the baptismal registers of the cathedral of 
Bologna, in which Ercole of Ferrara, painter and moulder, 
appears anno 1483, as godfather to the son of Bartolommeo 
Garganelli. 2 It is a natural presumption that Ercole, who is 
reported to have left his own likeness beside that of Domenico 
Garganelli in the chapel of San Pietro, 3 was on friendly terms 
with other members of the same family. Vasari's description of 
the Garganelli frescoes is copious and lively, and makes us regret 
their total destruction ; 4 but his subsequent statement that the 
same hand produced the predellas of Costa's altarpiece in the 
Cappella Griifoni and on the chief altar of San Giovanni in Monte 
at Bologna, and the preservation of the latter in the gallery of 
Dresden, give us an invaluable clue to Grandrs education. 5 We 
see at once that Ercole Robertas style was based on that of 
Mantegna, and that he must have spent his youth, and not a little 
of his manhood, in studying Paduan masterpieces. 

1560 (Graticola, p. 31) " di sopra nela volta de dita capella E tuta depinta di ma 
del M derco dafrara Ebe name franc Cossa da frara (i.e. di mano del maestro 
di Ercole da Ferrara ch'ebbe nome Francesco Cossa da Ferrara)." It is probably 
this tradition which finds a confused expression in Vasari's pages, while at the 
same time he ascribes some works of Cossa's to Costa. All the paintings which 
Vasari mentions as being by Ercole of Ferrara are by Ercole Koberti, with the 
single exception, we may believe, of the predella of the Griffoni altarpiece, which 
is probably by Cossa (cf. antea, p. 238, n. 1). It seems that Vasari gives no clue 
whatever to the biography of Ercole di Giulio Cesare. 

1 Lamo, Graticola di Bologna, ub. sup., p. 31. 

2 Gualandi, Memorie, ser. v. p. 203. 

3 Vasari, iii. 145. 

* As we have seen above (p. 234, n. 1), Francesco Cossa began the painting of 
this chapel, but had only executed the frescoes of the ceiling when he died of the 
plague in 1477. The decoration was completed by Ercole Roberti. Vasari 
mistakes Cossa for Costa when dealing with these frescoes (iii. 136, 143 sqq. ; 
cf. antea, p. 242, n. 4). 

4 A sheet containing sketches for the fresco of the Crucifixion is in the Print 
Room at Berlin ; a copy of a portion of the same painting belonged in 1889 to 
Dr. J. P. Richter. See A. Venturi, in Archivio storioo deW arte, ser. i. vol. ii. 
p. 342. 

5 Vasari, iii. 145. 


At Liverpool we have a small panel exactly like those of 
Dresden, in which the dead Christ lies in the lap of the Virgin in 
a landscape full of Mantegnesque incident the Saviour, a mere 
mummy, but a studied nude, the Virgin looking over him with 
intense grief, and holding him with a tenacious grasp that 
displays the very skeleton of her hand. The flesh seems rapidly 
painted with quick dryers in strata, the result being uniformity 
of tone and a horny transparence. In the distance, which is but 
a film of colour, the figures are put in with spirited touches at 
the last ; the vestments glossy and raised in surface, but of a 
coarse varnishy substance, heightened with hatched or gilt 
lights of extraordinary fineness. 1 Still more Mantegnesque is 
the predella in the Dresden Museum representing the Capture 
and the Procession to Golgotha. Ercole's aim here is to contrast 
the perfect repose of the Saviour kneeling on the mount to the 
left and the foreshortened apostles asleep at the hill-foot, with 
the restless action of Judas and his band effecting the capture. 
Judas himself embraces Christ, whilst the guard run in with 
seven-league stride to catch him ; a soldier throws a lasso over 
his head, and at the same moment Peter smites off the ear of 
Malchus. Nothing can be more obvious than the imitation of 
Mantegna, especially in the first of these episodes, which recalls 
the masterly foreshortenings in the Christ on the Mount of Mr. 
Baring's collection, 2 and Bellini's similar subject in the National 
Gallery. A careful outline of great tenuity, but of a broken and 
cutting character, defines every part with surprising minuteness. 
The principle of impulsiveness is carried out in action and ex- 
pression in long, wiry, and vulgar figures. The heads, of a crabbed 
and often repulsive form, seem the natural precursors of those pro- 

1 Liverpool, Walker Art Gallery, Koscoe collection, No. 28, under the name of 
Mantegna, to whom it was still assigned by Dr. Waagen. Wood, 1 ft. 2 in. high 
by 1 ft. The Crucifixion is in the distance, some of the figures almost obliterated. 
The Virgin's tunic, originally red, is flayed down to the whitish preparation. 

* Lamo states (ub. sup., p. 13) that the predella by Ercole at San Giovanni in 
Monte showed the Madonna with the dead Christ in her arms between the 
Procession to Golgotha and the Capture of Christ. We may therefore safely assume 
that the Piet& at Liverpool originally formed part of the same predella as the two 
paintings at Dresden. The Print Koom at Berlin possesses a study for the figure 
of Christ in the Pieta ; it was formerly in the collection of Herr A. von Beckerath 
(see A. Venturi, loc. oit., p. 343). 

* 2 Now in the National Gallery. 


duced by Costa and Mazzolino ; the scanty drapery, intended to be 
in motion, appears as if cast upon a wet mould in the shape of 
zigzags and polygons. The colour, of red and dusky hue in flesh, 
of positive and glaring tints in dresses, becomes neutralized by 
juxtaposition to a dim twilight ; the distance, a thin wash of 
varnish, illustrates a theory that tone loses substance as objects 
recede. The costume is made up of the antique and middle ages. 
All this yields a quaint mixture of Paduan dryness and grimace 
with the vehemence of Liberale. 1 

The Procession to Golgotha is more markedly Mantegnesque, 
particularly in a soldier stopping to give one of the thieves a 
drink. In the right-hand corner a group of women and children 
of plump and even bloated complexion supplies the contrast 
furnished in the Capture by the calm of the Saviour on the 
Mount. 3 Of a broader style with similar features, but still 
more reminiscent of Mantegna in the landscape, is Ercole's 
Christ on the Mount, in the Gallery of Ravenna, to some extent 
a counterpart of an episode in the predella at Dresden 3 ; less 

1 Dresden Museum, No. 46 ; once in San Gio. in Monte at Bologna (see Bottari, 
Lett. Pitt., iv. 380, and Vasari, iii. 145). Wood, 3 ft. high by 4 ft. 2 in. The drawing 
of the episode of Christ on the Mount is in the Friedrich August collection at 
Dresden. [* Dr. Harck considers this as a copy from the picture. See the Berlin 
Jakrbuch, v. 126 gq.] 

2 Dresden Museum, No. 45. Same size as the foregoing. An old copy in 
red and black chalk, long catalogued under Mantegna's name, is in the collection 
of drawings at the Louvre (No. 220). 

* A splendid sketch for the group of Christ, Judas, and the soldier behind 
the Saviour is in the Uffizi. Harck, loc. cit., p. 126. 

8 Kavenna Gallery, No. 194, without an author's name. The Saviour kneels 
between two tall hummocks in a landscape with trees and a city ; the disciples 
sleep below, and the band of Iscariot is in the distance. Small panel, much 
injured by abrasion. The landscape is copied from that of the Eremitani in 
Mantegna's Call of James and Andrew to the Apostleship. From this work we 
see that Grandi painted the flesh with thin colour, and made much use of the 
white underground. The lights in the trees are touched in gold. 

* Prof. C. Kicci (in Rassegna d'arte, iv. 50 sq.~) has ascribed this picture 
to Bernardino da Cotignola ; and it certainly recalls the style of this master 
very much in the manner in which the foliage is executed, the design of the 
landscape, the staffage, etc. As far as the editor can see, it is related to Ercole 
Roberti's style only in so much as the figures of Christ and the apostles 
reproduce those in the painting from the predella once in San Giovanni in Monte 
at Bologna, and now in Dresden ; but they may, of course, have been copied by 
Bernardino da Cotignola. Nor is the editor struck by any particular resem- 


powerful, but of not less certain derivation, the Crucified Saviour 
between the Virgin and Evangelist in the Correr Museum at 
Venice 1 ; a so-called Lucretia, in the Gallery of Modena 2 ; and 
a neat little allegory in the house of the Conte Ferdinando 
Cavalli at Padua, representing a ship crowded with people near 
a rocky shore on which three horsemen stand. 3 These are all 
panels showing the gradual expansion of Ercole Roberti's art, 

blance between the landscape in the picture at Ravenna and the Call of St. 
James in the Eremitani. The Agony in the Garden is now also officially attri- 
buted to Bernardino de Cotignola. 

1 Venice, Correr Museum, Sala XVI., No. 8. Wood, m. 0-54 high by 0-30, under 
the name of Mantegna. A very glossy picture, freely executed, and full of 
Mantegnesque grimace, with a very fine distance and groups. 

* The editor agrees with Morelli (Die Werke italienischer Meister, p. 132) 
that the form of the hands, the draperies, the landscape, and other particulars 
prove this picture to be an early work by Giovanni Bellini. See also Fry, 
Griovanni Bellini, pp. 14 sq. 

2 Modena Gallery, No. 50. Wood, m. 0-48 high by 0-34, assigned to Man- 
tegna. The Lucretia is heavy of head, and square, in the mode subsequently 
common to Mazzolino ; the two captains to the left hand affected in movement, 
with spindle legs ; in fact, the character of Ercole is distinct ; the flesh restored 
all over, and of a reddish tone. 

3 Padua, Conte Ferdinando Cavalli. Small panel, gay in tone, and full of 

* This picture, which probably represents an incident of the expedition of 
the Argonauts, is now in the Museo Civico of Padua (No. 424). It recalls, no 
doubt, to a certain extent Ercole Roberti ; but on the whole it comes much 
closer to Bernardino Parentino note, for instance, the landscape, the treatment 
of the foliage, the types of the figures, and the drawing of the horses. We may 
perhaps therefore rather ascribe it to this painter, who was notoriously influenced 
by Ercole Roberti. 

The following paintings by Ercole Roberti still remain to be noticed : 
(1) Berlin, Kaiser Friedrich Museum. No. 1128, The Virgin and Child. No. 112 B, 
St. Jerome. (2) Bologna, Pinacoteca. St. Michael. (3) London, National 
Gallery. No. 1127, The Last Supper. No. 1217, The Israelites gathering the 
Manna (cf. postea, p. 265, n. 2). No. 1411, The Nativity and Christ in the 
Tomb (cf. posted, p. 262, n. 1). (4) London, collection of Mr. Robert Benson. 
SS. Jerome and Catherine. (5) Lyons, Picture Gallery, No. 64. St. Jerome. 

(6) Milan, collection of Cav. A. Noseda. St. John the Baptist and St. Jerome. 

(7) Paris, Louvre, No. 1677. St. Michael and St. Apollonia. (8) Richmond, 
collection of Sir Frederick Cook. Medea. (9) Rome, collection of Comm. 
Blumenstihl. Pieta. 

Morelli (Die Galerien zu Munchen und Dresden, p. 178) and Dr. L. Venturi 
(Le origini della pittura veneziana, pp. 164 sq.*) justly note that Jacopo Bellini 
exercised a marked influence upon Ercole Roberti, as is evident, for instance, 
from the long and slender figures in many of his works, and from the setting 
of the picture of the Israelites gathering the Manna now in the National Gallery. 


and proving that he retained the same distinct peculiarities of 
manner throughout. 1 

It is not unlikely that towards the close of the fifteenth 
century the majority of the painters we have named served 
under the dukes of Ferrara in the upper hall of the palace of 
Schifanoia. The two faces of that hall which still contain 
frescoes must have been completed between 1471 and 1493 2 ; 
but the number of hands employed as masters or journeymen 
can no longer be ascertained. Galasso, Zoppo, Tura, Cossa, and 
Costa are those whose style is most conspicuous, but the share 
assignable to each of them is unequal and variable. The plan 
of the decoration was due to one man, its execution to many. 
The walls are divided into three courses, the short side of the 
rectangle into three, the long side into four, quadrangular 
sections : in the middle course the signs of the Zodiac; above 
each sign the heathen god or goddess presiding, and scenes 
incidental to his or her attributes ; below each sign episodes 
of the public and domestic life of Duke Borso at each of the 
indicated seasons. Thus, if we start from the right side of 
the short face seen from the principal doorway, we find first 

1 Ferrara, Professor Saroli. Here is a picture representing the Death of the 
Virgin, which was once in San Guglielmo at Ferrara, and is ascribed by some 
persons to Mantegna. The Virgin lies on the tomb, surrounded by the apostles, 
and on the gold ground above is a glory of angels, within which the soul goes 
up to heaven. This is an ugly picture, full of skinny grimacing figures, with 
all the faults of the Ferrarese, and something of the manner which Grandi 
might have had in his earliest period, but query is it by him or the young Costa, 
or even Coltellini 1 

* There is no proof that this painting, which now belongs to the Duca Massari- 
Zavaglia of Ferrara, formerly was in San Guglielmo in that town. On the other 
hand, Professor A. Venturi has given good reasons for thinking that it originally 
had its place in Santa Maria delle Grazie, the church of the nuns of Mortara, 
in which case it seems likely that this is the picture containing the Twelve 
Apostles which Baldassare d'Este painted for those nuns, as we learn from a 
letter written by him in 1502. See A. Venturi, in the Berlin Jahrbuch, viii. 79 sqq., 
and in Atti e tnemorie della R. deputazione di storia patria per le provincie di 
Romagna, ser. iii. vol. vi. pp. 384 sqq. 

2 Cittadella (L. N.), Notizie, vb. sup., p. 337. 

* The reasons which Cittadella here adduces for thinking that the frescoes 
in question were executed between 1471 and 1493 are fallacious ; see the same 
author's Ricordi . . . di Cosimo Tura, p. 23, and Harck in the Berlin Jahrbuch, 
v. 113 sq. Moreover, it is now proved that these paintings were completed by 
March 1470. Seepotfea, p. 250, n. 2. 


Aries, or March, with Minerva, drawn by unicorns between 
two groups illustrating the science of the legist and the economy 
of weaving. Below the sign, which in itself is also a display 
of pictorial skill, Borso stands in front of a triumphal arch 
giving judgment in a cause, and then goes on a hawking ex- 
pedition. Next comes the Bull, presided over by Venus, 
the deities in every case being on cars with teams of animals, 
fanciful and real ; and beneath, Borso making a present to his 
fool, riding out hawking, and witnessing a donkey-race. And 
so we proceed round the hall, seeing in succession the Gemini, 
Cancer, Lion, Virgin, and Balance, the four last being on the 
long face, lighted by windows looking out on the inner court. 1 

1 Ferrara, Schifanoia. Whitewashed in the middle of the eighteenth century, 
recovered in 1840. Subjects and condition : upper course : Aries : a large hole 
in the centre. Bull : fairly preserved ; Venus with Mars at her knees, drawn by 
swans ; on the banks right and left, couples in dalliance, the three Graces, doves, 
rabbits, and other emblems of fecundity. Gemini : Apollo, with crown and orb, 
on a car with four horses, Aurora holding the ribands ; gambols of children, and 
a group of .poets to the right and left (the dress of Aurora gone). A space 
between the corner and the first compartment on the long face is wanting. 
Cancer : Mercury drawn on a car by two eagles ; at the side, incidents illustrative 
of music, shepherd-life, and the ars mercatoria ; Argo decapitated in the distance. 
The foreground, figure to the right of the car, and the drapery of the man on 
the left-hand foreground colourless. Lion : Jupiter on a car drawn by two 
lions. Left, wedding, supposed to be that of Bianca d'Este with Galeotto Pico 
della Mirandola; right, priests playing cymbal, drum, etc. The dresses in the 
latter group colourless. Virgin: Ceres on a car, incidents of the harvest, in 
the distance rape of Proserpine, in fair preservation. Balance : allegory of 
concupiscence, a female on a car drawn by apes. Left, the cave of Vulcan with 
the Cyclops at their forge ; right, a couple on a couch ; in the distance infants 
(preserved). Middle course, all in grounds now black, but originally blue. The 
dress of the Virgin in the sign of that name colourless. Lower course : Aries : 
Borso giving judgment ; colours of dresses in most cases abraded ; figures on 
horseback in distance, mere outlines ; faces of Borso and the man in peasant- 
dress before him injured. Bull : dresses discoloured, face of the fool and sleeves 
of his dress abraded ; genuine. Here there remain but two figures of mowers 
and a distant bridge with figures, much abraded. On the long face in the 
angle, before we come to the sign of Cancer, a troop of horsemen with lances 
(the art is that of a very poor painter). Cancer : Borso returns from hawking 
in the plain of Ferrara. He receives a petition in a portico ; a piece in the 
middle of the foreground and another in the house to the right (distance) scaled 
away. Lion : Borso, in front of a richly decorated arch, receives a peasant with 
a pacer, in the presence of his court ; to the right horsemen of the suite, to the 
left the same, and in the foreground three women washing, the latter group by 
a very inferior hand ; the distance and many dresses are colourless. Virgin : to 


In the upper course of Aries, the Bull, and Gemini we have 
already had occasion to note some affinity with Piero della 
Francesca. 1 In no other part of the hall is space more ac- 
curately divided and filled up ; the groups are well set, the 
forms and movements cleverly rendered, and the treatment com- 
paratively free and bold. We observe the fleshy lip, the high 
cheek-bone, the flattened nose of Francesca, with a brown tinge 
of colour in flesh, a deep dullness in the shades of dresses, 
and a rusty darkness in shadows. These and other features 
point to the authorship of Cossa, assisted perhaps in the Bull 
and Gemini by Galasso. Cancer and Lion are very different 
indeed in merit from these ; they are unattractive from the 
exaggerated character and rigidity of the forms and masks, 
as well as from their incorrect drawing and sombre tones. 
This, perhaps, is the unadulterated type of Galasso. A little 
better, and therefore perhaps by Cosimo Tura, are the Virgin 
and the Balance, the latter chiefly remarkable for the coarse- 
ness of its allegorical allusions. Keturning to Aries, and 
following the same order for the lower as for the upper course, 
another style is apparent. In Aries, we have said, Borso gives 
judgment in a cause, and starts on a hawking expedition. One 
disadvantage under which the artist labours in representing the 
scene arises from the unpicturesque fit of the dress. Nothing 
could be more disheartening for the draughtsman than the 
tight hose, shell jackets, and skull-caps of the period. Yet he 
dwells with extraordinary minuteness and patience on their 
detail, finishing every part with sedulous care, and giving a 
very decided portrait-character to the heads. His skill in 
arrangement is much less than that of his rival in the upper 
course; the personages are stiff and stilted, the architecture 
poor in taste and defective in perspective, the tone dull and 
dusky ; there is an obvious overcharge of subordinate incidents. 
We admire the detail, but miss the great maxims of composition ; 
finish and accessories are considered more important than effect 

the right Borso, attended by his court, receives an envoy from the Bolognese, 
and to the left goes out hawking ; the whole much injured, and the figure of 
Borso on horseback all but obliterated. Balance : Borso, to the left, receives 
a Venetian ambassador ; to the right, goes out hawking ; much injured. 
1 History of Painting in Italy (1st ed.), ii. 549. 


by light and shade, or brilliancy of tint ; Tura's art seems 
modified by the hand of young Lorenzo Costa. In the next 
fresco, illustrating the sign of the Bull, where Borso makes a 
present to his fool, the portrait-character of certain figures 
recalls Benozzo. Throughout the whole of this lower course, 
excepting in Cancer, and in small portions intercalated by poorer 
hands, the manner is that of Tura and Costa. 1 In the middle 
course Aries and perhaps the Bull are also by Tura or Costa ; 
the Gemini are by Cossa ; Cancer by Galasso ; Lion by Galasso 
or Tura ; the Virgin and Balance by Tura or Costa. 2 We leave 
the hall of the Schifanoia with the impression that the Ferrarese 
school yielded productions not on a level with those of the best 
second-rates, certainly with no higher claims to critical attention 
than those of Bonfigli of Perugia. 

What doubts there may be as to Lorenzo Costa's early 
career relate chiefly to the question whether he went in his 

1 In Cancer, defects common to Galasso are partly covered by finish re- 
minding us of Zoppo. 

* 2 The theory of the authorship of the various frescoes in the Palazzo Schifanoia 
set forth by the authors requires to be corrected on some points. Dr. Harck, 
by whom we have an elaborate monograph on these paintings (published in the 
Berlin Jahrbueh, v. 99 sqq.') came after lengthy investigations to the conclusion 
that, judging from the peculiarities of style, the frescoes dealt with above may 
be divided into three main groups : (i) the paintings on the short or east wall 
artistically the finest of the whole series illustrating the months of March, April, 
and May, and moreover one compartment on the north wall, viz. the right-hand 
portion of the lower course of July ; (ii) June, the uppermost section of July, 
and the left-hand portion of the lowest course of the same month (these frescoes 
are the poorest of all in the room) ; (iii) August and September, and the middle 
course of July. Dr. Harck thought he recognized in the frescoes of group (i) 
the style of Francesco Cossa ; and the subsequent discovery of a document has 
shown that he was right with regard to the paintings on the east wall. The 
record in question is a letter which Cossa on March 25, 1470, addressed to 
Borso I. after all the frescoes in the hall of the Schifanoia Palace had been 
completed and valued. Cossa declares in this letter that he alone painted the 
three compartments towards the ante-room (i.e. on the east wall) which must, 
of course, not be interpreted as meaning that he had no assistants and com- 
plains that as regards remuneration he has been put on a level with the other 
painters who had worked in the same room, not excluding " the most wretched 
journeyman in Ferrara." Cossa's request for a more adequate payment was, 
however, not entertained by the Duke. (Cf. A. Venturi, in Der Kunstfreund, 
i. 129 sqq., and in Atti e memorie della R. Deputations di storia patria per le 
provincie di Romagna, ser. iii. vol. iii. pp. 384 s%.) Dr. Harck's arguments for 
discerning groups (ii) and (iii) are very convincing, though his suggestions for 


youth to Florence to study the works of Lippi and Benozzo 
Gozzoli, or whether his apprenticeship to art was with Tura 
or Cossa. 1 Of his birth in 1460 at Ferrara, as well as of his 
education in his native place, there are satisfactory proofs. 2 
We may therefore assume that after he had spent some years 
in local ateliers he left home and wandered to Florence, re- 
turning subsequently to take a part in the frescoes of the 
Schifanoia, where alone a trace of Benozzo's influence can be 
discerned. 3 

It is quite uncertain when he painted the martyred St. 
Sebastian in the Costabili collection at Ferrara, but in no other 
production is his treatment so defective. We have no reason 
to contest the genuineness of the signature on the base of the 
pillar to which the saint is bound ; it purports to be the name 
of Lorenzo Costa in Hebrew characters, and is acknowledged 
as such by persons competent to give an opinion 4 ; but if this 

naming the authors are open to criticism. All these frescoes bear more or less 
the stamp of Tura's style, but not even those of group (iii) seem worthy of the 
master himself, and it is still less possible to ascribe to him those of group (ii). 
Moreover, we know that Tura was busily engaged elsewhere during the years 
when the Schifanoia frescoes were executed. We may therefore consider groups 
(ii) and (iii) as works of various followers of Tura. That Baldassare Estense also 
had some share in the Schifanoia frescoes is proved by an autograph list of 
paintings executed by him between 1469 and 1471, where it is stated that he 
retouched thirty-six heads of Borso and other portraits at Schifanoia. (See ibid., 
p. 408.) Costa cannot be the author of any of the frescoes, as they were finished 
in 1470, when he was still a child. As to Zoppo, there exists no record proving 
that he was connected with the court of Ferrara; nor is the editor struck by 
any particular affinity to Zoppo's style in the lowest course of July. We may 
add that it is not correct to state that only the east and the north walls still 
contain frescoes ; for there remain a few fragments of paintings on the two other 

1 Vasari says (iii. 131 sq.} that Lorenzo studied for some months the works 
of Lippi and Benozzo. 

2 The register of deaths at Mantua contains an entry of the death of Lorenzo 
Costa of fever at the age of seventy -five in the year 1535. [* D'Arco, Delle arti e 
degli artefici di Mantova, i. 62.] 

* 3 Cf., however, antea, p. 250, n. 2. 

4 Ferrara, Costabili Gallery. Wood, tempera, under life-size, inscribed in 
Hebrew characters : " Magister Laurentius Costa." The colour is of a cold iron- 
grey, and more like metal than flesh ; the tempera is glossy, yet finished with 
fine hatching. 

* This painting is now in the Dresden Gallery (No. 42 A). As also noted by 
the authors, it comes very close in style to Tura. Now, according to Professor 


be so Costa is a pupil of Tura, and not unacquainted with the 
works of Ercole Roberti or Stefano. Large grinning faces, 
with broad shoulders and hips, large hands and feet and flesh- 
less limbs, broken outline and mechanical cast of drapery, are 
clear evidence of Ferrarese teaching, whilst in the pose of an 
armed soldier in the distance traditions of Mantegna are pre- 
served. 1 Another picture, equally Ferrarese in appearance, and 
as surely the creation of a young painter, is the Martyrdom 
of St. Sebastian in the Marescotti chapel at San Petronio of 
Bologna, where the saint is drawn on a curious antique pedestal 
surrounded by his executioners. 

It is not yet absolutely proved when Costa was in Bologna 
for the first time ; but Italian historians seem inclined to admit 
that he was employed there by the family of Bentivoglio as 
far back as 1480 ; they even state that he painted scenes from 
the Iliad and from Greek history in the Bentivoglio Palace in 
1483 2 ; he may therefore have had numerous commissions at that 
period, and perhaps have finished, among other compositions, the 
Martyrdom of St. Sebastian in the Marescotti chapel. 3 

In a portrait of Canon Vaselli, who was patron of the altar, 
as well as in the martyr and his torturers, Costa repeats the 
defects which make his St. Sebastian at Ferrara so unattractive, 
and again suggests reminiscences of Mantegna. The fleshless 
and angular character of the personages, their uniform tint and 
light shading, all betray the youth of a Ferrarese artist, the 
draperies alone showing a tendency to imitate the Umbrians ; 

Schubring (Kunst- Ckronik, ser. ii. vol. xiii. col. 57), the first word of the signature 
should be interpreted as " finisher " instead of " Magister." If Professor Schubring 
is right, we may suppose that this work was for the most part executed by Tura 
and that Costa only gave the finishing touches to it. 

1 Ferrara, Professor Saroli. It may be possible that the Death of the Virgin 
in this collection should be an early Costa ; admitting this, Costa would prove 
to be a disciple of Brcole Roberti. See antea, 

2 See the authorities in Baruffaldi, tib. sup., i. note to 106-14 ; Laderchi, ub. 
sup., p. 42 ; and Vasari, iii. 135. The Bentivoglio Palace was destroyed in 1507. 
[* That Costa was in the service of the Bentivoglii in 1480 is not proved. Cf. 
A. Venturi, in Arcliivio storico delV arte, ser. i. vol. i. p. 244, n. 1.] 

3 Bologna. San Petronio, Cappella Marescotti. Canvas, tempera, figures under 
life-size. The scene is in a landscape. The best figure is in the foreground, 
an archer winding his crossbow. A cartello on the pedestal contains strange 
characters that have not yet been deciphered. 

vii.] LORENZO COSTA 253 

bat as yet Costa would be nnable to produce what we are inclined 
to consider his in the decorations of the Schifanoia. In subse- 
quent years the Marescotti chapel was again the scene of his 
labours, but not till his style had undergone great and remarkable 
changes. By what steps and under what advice these changes 
took place is not quite certain, but the record of them is already 
clear in the votive Madonna placed in 1488 on one of the walls 
of the Cappella Bentivoglio in San Jacopo Maggiore at Bologna. 
The Virgin here is seated on a richly ornamented throne with 
bas-reliefs and trophies on its pillars and base, statuettes on 
crystal orbs at its sides, and two angels playing instruments on 
its pinnacle. At the Virgin's knees Giovanni Bentivoglio and 
his spouse, and on the floor below their family of eleven children. 
A great improvement is here apparent in the tasteful arrange- 
ment of the architecture and skilful correctness of the perspective. 
The drawing is much more satisfactory than that of earlier 
examples, the proportions are better, extremities are more in 
keeping, and the outlines are clean and free from objectionable 
breaks ; but the portraits are Ferrarese in air, and still recall 
Tura or Cossa. Much dignity is given to the Virgin, whose oval 
face expresses serenity ; and the drapery is cast with something 
like ease. The likenesses are individual and very fairly worked 
out, yet on the whole the altarpiece is not without hardness ; its 
flesh tones are dusky and uniform, and the shadows have too 
little depth to produce perfect relief. 1 Costa was not confined to 
the mere furnishing of a votive Madonna, he also composed the 
landscapes which surround an equestrian statue of Annibale 
Bentivoglio on the wall to the right of the entrance, and in 1490 
he finished the Triumphs of Life and Death on the wall to the 
left of the doorway. We shall not attempt to describe the 
minutias of allegories which were invented by some scribe in 
the pay of the Bentivoglii ; it was natural that the creation 
should be represented in the one, and the car of death followed 
by kings and beggars in the other ; enough that Costa carried 

1 Bologna, San Jacopo Maggiore. Canvas, tempera, on the wall to the right 
of the entrance to the Cappella Bentivoglio. On the pedestal, beneath a mono- 
chrome representing a sacrifice, a tablet bears the words : " Me, patriam et dulces 
cara cum conjuge natos comend. precibus Virgo beata tuis. MCCCCLXXXVUI. 
Laurentius Costa faciebat." The figures in general are short. The distance and 
the arch in which the throne stands are thrown out of harmony by restoring. 


out these fanciful subjects with appropriate power and dis- 
tributed the parts with judgment, eschewing alike confusion and 
extravagance, and giving to the human and to the brute form 
its fair proportion. 1 Though still Ferrarese in its impress, his 
art already begins to assume the steadiness and softness which 
finally became its chief characteristics, and which in a still 
higher measure were a source of attractiveness in the pictures of 
his friend Francesco Francia. Some considerable time elapsed, 
however, before Costa substituted the newer Umbrian for the 
older Ferrarese habit. In the Annunciation which he painted 
between 1490 and 1495, at the sides of the Martyrdom of 
St. Sebastian in San Petronio, his manner gains breadth and 
boldness ; his figures are fairly drawn with extremities of select 
shape, but they still remind us of Mantegna by a certain kind 
of regularity, and by their peculiar cast of drapery ; there is 
devotional tenderness in movement and gesture, but the flesh 
tints are still uniform and dusky. If at the same period Costa 
had the commission for the Apostles, which fill imitated niches 
in the chapel, it is not unlikely that he left that portion of the 
work to his disciples. 2 He was busy elsewhere in more interest- 
ing labours, and especially in composing the great Madonna with 
Saints exhibited in 1492 on the high altar of the oratory of the 
Baciocchi at San Petronio. 

He could not have imagined anything more sumptuous than 
the florid decoration of the sanctuary and throne in which he 

1 Same church and chapel. The landscapes on canvas about the statue of 
Annibale are disfigured by repainting, and the inscriptions are in part obliterated. 
The Triumphs are also on canvas, and, according to Lamo, were done in 1490 
The figures are under life-size. (Lamo, Graticola, p. 36.) 

* A picture of the Virgin and Child between SS. James and Sebastian in the 
Pinacoteca at Bologna (No. 392) is inscribed " Laurentius Costa f. a. 1491." This 
painting strongly recalls the little Madonna by Ercole Roberti in the Kaiser 
Friedrich Museum at Berlin (No. 112 D). 

2 Bologna, San Petronio, Cappella Marescotti. Canvas. The figures of the 
Virgin and angel erect, in front of an archway, are in good perspective. The 
Twelve Apostles, in niches round the chapel, are not in good condition ; some are 
spotted, others are restored in oil. The whole chapel must have been finished 
before 1495, when Canon Vaselli caused the following inscription to be placed 
on the footboard of the seats : " Donum quodcumque pio heret sacello. Donati 
cuncta Christo donatus de Vasellis bononiensis hujus excelse canonicus ecclesie. 
dono. dedit, opus vero jacobi et fratru filioru M. Augustini de Marchis de Crema 
bononiem. MCCCCLXXXXV." 


placed his personages. He is prodigal of stone carving, of 
marble relief inlaying and gold ground, balancing the coldness 
of the one against the glitter of the other, projecting shadows 
with careful attention to the forms, noting the reflections of 
surrounding objects in the steel armour of a saint, and those of 
the armour itself on a marble pillar. Against this clear and 
variegated ground he throws the sombre warmth of deeply con- 
trasted dresses and of ruddy flesh tints, even in the latter pitting 
coldish light against reddish half-tone and high surface shadows. 
His medium now is oil of strong varnishy polish ; the figures are 
more calm, composed, and easier in motion than before ; the Virgin 
slender, with a round oval face of gentle aspect ; St. Jerome, 
Bellinesque ; and St. George not unlike a creation of Giovanni 
Santi. St. Sebastian is hard in outline, not quite correct, especi- 
ally in the hands, but boldly set in the left-hand corner of the 
picture in the fashion of Buonconsiglio ; the draperies are almost 
Umbrian in cast, though still overladen. In all this Costa 
approximates to Francia, but remains Ferrarese in the sharpness 
of his tints and in the overcharge of ornament and architectural 
detail. He recalls Melozzo in three graceful angels playing 
instruments in a lunette. 1 In a graver mood about this period 
the sitting St. Jerome in San Petronio was produced, a picture 
of much coarser stuff than the Madonna of the Baciocchi chapel, 
but of such sternness that it might entitle Costa to be called the 
Van Eyck of Ferrara. 2 

From this time forward Costa became more completely 
Umbrian, and commingled the breadth of his own style with 
the softness of that of Francia, yet without Francia's careful 
blending and finish, or his delicacy of tone. He thus painted 
in 1497 the Virgin and Child with Saints at the Segni chapel 
in San Giovanni in Monte of Bologna, and the Glory of the 
Madonna on the high altar of the same church two pieces 

1 Same church, Cappella Baciocchi, formerly de'Kossi. Panel, oil. Virgin 
and Child enthroned between SS. Sebastian, James, Jerome, and George (the two 
centre saints kneeling), and inscribed : " Laurentius Costa MCCCCLXXXXii." 

2 Same church, on an altar, late of the Castelli. St. Jerome in a stone chair 
under a portico ; he stops writing and looks down at the lion to the right. Panel, 
figure of life-size. Some barbarian in 1866 struck a nail into the middle of the 
panel to hang a small picture on. The hands here are coarse, bony, and cramped ; 
the colour dark, rough, and in oil, and not free from retouching. 


which seem done in company with Francia himself. 1 In 1499 
he furnished the predella to Fraricia's altarpiece at the Miseri- 
cordia, an Adoration of the Magi, now at the Brera; 2 and he 
produced likewise the lunette frescoes in the Bentivoglio chapel 
at San Jacopo Maggiore, where his breadth of treatment in 
setting and draping numerous figures of the Virgin and of 
saints almost reminds us of Perugino. 3 The course of Costa 
and Francia during these years was to a certain extent parallel ; 
Costa, we think, was of use to Francia between 1480 and 1490, 
and doubtless gave him many useful hints and much instruction. 
Between 1490 and 1500 Francia rivalled and excelled his friend, 
and Costa willingly followed where at first he had been the 
leader. 4 

1 Bologna, San Giovanni in Monte, Cappella Ercolani e Segni, of old Chedini ; 
done according to Vasari (iii. 136) in 1497. Virgin and Child enthroned, between 
SS. Augustine, John the Evangelist, and two other saints ; originally a fine work, 
but dimmed by time and ill lighted. 

In the same church, high altar. The Virgin between the Eternal and Christ, 
with seven angels, two of whom hang the crown over the Virgin's head ; at the 
sides, SS. Sebastian, John the Evangelist, John the Baptist, Augustine, Victor, and 
another saint. This also is a brown picture with a rich landscape distance, still 
more in Francia's manner than the foregoing. [* The frame of this painting was 
ordered in August 1500 (Gerevich, in Rassegna d' arte, vii. 183).] 

2 Milan, Brera, No. 429. Small panel, m. 0'67 high by 1-79. The Virgin to the 
left in a chair, St. Joseph near her leaning on his staff ; inscribed : " Laurentius 
Costa f. 1499." This predella was once in the Misericordia at Bologna, and 
belonged to Francia's Nativity in that church (see postea). The colour is olive, 
the figures lean and slender, the landscape Umbrian. Laderchi in speaking of 
this predella makes two mistakes (Pitt. Ferr., pp. 46, 48). He supposes the 
inscription to contain an allusion to Costa's being assistant of Francia, and he 
supposes the picture to be the predella of Costa's altarpiece in the Pinacoteca of 
Bologna, representing St. Petronius between two saints. The Adoration in the 
St. Petronius is an imitated bas-relief on the pedestal of the throne. 

3 Bologna, San Jacopo Maggiore, Cappella Bentivoglio. Lunettes : (1) To the 
left hand of entrance and at the sides of the window, five saints. (2) Above the 
altarpiece of Francia, and an Annunciation by Cignani, a Vision of the Apocalypse 
by Costa, with two figures to the right hand added by Felice Cignani in the 
eighteenth century. (3) Virgin and Child between six saints, much injured and 
restored. No doubt the cupola also was by Costa, but its ornaments were renewed 
by Cignani. These paintings are so much in Francia's spirit that they have been 
assigned to him by Kugler (Handbook, p. 265), yet they are undoubtedly Costa's, 
the figures having his Ferrarese type and being draped in his peculiar fashion ; 
as to colour there is nothing to be said, the frescoes being in a bad state of 

* * There exists a record proving that Costa visited Borne in 1503. Venturi, 
loc. cit., pp. 297 sq. 

vii.] LORENZO COSTA 257 

We know of no similar change of parts except in the relations 
of Raphael to Perugino or Timoteo Viti. The master in both 
cases shrank to the second place, and lost something of his 
power in doing so. It is not to be concealed that in the slender 
and dry figures of three or four sacred pictures done by Costa in 
1502, 1504, and 1505, he fell to a lower rank than he had before 
held. 1 The Virgin and Saints of 1505 in the National Gallery 
is neatly arranged, graceful in the movement of the personages, 
and lively in colour ; it reflects a ray of the greatness of the 
Bellinesques, but has not the masculine force of the Madonna 
of 1488. 2 

1 Bologna, Pinacoteca, No. 65 ; originally Santissima Annunziata of Bologna. 
Panel, oil, figures three-quarters of life-size, gold ground. St. Petronius enthroned 
between SS. Francis and Dominic ; on the step of the throne a bas-relief of the 
Adoration of the Magi ; inscribed : " Laurentius Costa p. Mcccccii." The figures 
are lean and dry, the tint generally dark and reddish. In this piece Costa may 
have been assisted by journeymen. No. 66. Lunette of Christ supported by angels 
in the tomb. This piece is catalogued in the Bologna Pinacoteca as by Costa. 
[* It is now labelled " School of Lorenzo Costa."] 

Berlin Museum, No. 115. Panel, 5 ft. 10 in. high by 4 ft. 5 in. Christ in 
his winding-sheet, bewailed by Simon, Nicodemus, and the Marys; inscribed: 
" Laurentius Costa. MCCCCCIIII." Not free from restoring, but carefully executed ; 
the figures slender. No. 112. Presentation in the Temple. Wood, 9 ft. 10 in. high 
by 8 ft. 4 in. ; inscribed : " Laurentius Costa f. 1502." Somewhat coarse, and 
retouched, but in the character of the foregoing. No. 114. Wood, 4 ft. 6 in. high 
by 3 ft. 1 in. Presentation in the Temple. Restored and feeble. [* In the current 
catalogue of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum this picture is ascribed to a Modenese 
master about 1520.] 

2 London, National Gallery, No. 629. Wood, transferred to canvas. Virgin, 
Child, and angels, between four saints. Centre, 5 ft. 5| in. high by 2 ft. 5 in. ; 
sides, 1 ft. 9| in. and 3 ft. 7 in. high by 1 ft. 10| in. ; inscribed : " Laurentius Costa 
f. 1505." This picture, originally in the Oratorio delle Grazie at Faenza, and 
subsequently in the Ercolani collection at Bologna, passed through the hands of Mr. 
Wigram at Rome, Mr. Van Cuyck, and M. Reiset before it came into English hands. 

We may acid to this : (1) Bologna, Sautissima Annunziata. Marriage of the 
Virgin. Panel, oil, figures half life-size; inscribed: " Laurentius Costa f. 1505"; 
of a dull tone, and much below the Madonna of the National Gallery. We are 
reminded here of Manni, Chiodarolo, and Amico Aspertini, the figures being small 
and coldly executed. (2) Sacristy of the same church. The Entombment ; six 
figures in Costa's manner and imitating Francia, feeble, and by the painter's 
journeymen, possibly by the young Mazzolino, the figures being slender and highly 
coloured. [* These two pictures are now in the Pinacoteca at Bologna (Nos. 376 
and 171 ).] (3) Bologna, San Martino. The Assumption. Arched panel, with figures 
less than life-size, assigned to Perugino, but by Costa in Francia's manner, per- 
haps with the assistance of Ercole Grandi or Timoteo Viti. [* Costa received a 
rate of payment for this work in 1506 (Gerevich, loo, oit., p. 183, n. 2).] 
VOL. II 17 


In the oratory of Santa Cecilia alone Costa keeps a respect- 
able level. Like the Brancacci at Florence and the Eremitani 
at Padua, this chapel illustrates an entire period. After its 
rebuilding by Giovanni Bentivoglio in 148 1, 1 it was decorated in 
succession by Francia, Costa, Chiodarolo, and Aspertini 2 ; Costa's 
share consisting of two frescoes, in one of which Pope Urban is 
shown instructing his convert Valerian in presence of the faith- 
ful, whilst in the other St. Cecilia distributes his wealth to the 
poor. The compositions are good, animated, and telling ; the 
figures well set and expressive, of slender proportions, and not 
without feeling ; drapery cast in the Umbrian mould. Costa's 
art, in fact, is to that of the Bolognese what Pinturicchio's was 
to the Perugian. He is second only to Francia, with less 
delicacy and harmony of tone, but with a more powerful 
Ferrarese key of colour. Historians are unfortunately silent as 
to whether during his stay at Bologna Costa came to Ferrara. 
When we consider that the two cities are little more than 
twenty-five miles apart, it seems not unlikely that Costa should 
pay Ferrara an occasional visit without giving up his usual 
residence at Bologna. 3 He would thus have constant oppor- 
tunities of performing the commissions entrusted to him at 
Ferrara, and so have finished at different dates the frescoes 
at the Schifanoia, 4 those of the choir at San Domenico which 

1 Bologna, Santa Cecilia. (See Gualandi, Guida di Bologna, 1860, p. 98.) 
The architect was Gaspare Nadi. The chapel is a rectangle, the long sides of 
which are divided into five fields. The fourth field from the entrance on each side 
is by Costa. Both of the frescoes are injured by damp, stains, and dust ; both have 
landscape distances ; and the figures are almost of the size of life. 

* 2 With regard to the date of these paintings we may note that Anton 
Galeazzo Bentivoglio states in a letter of Jan. 8, 1506, that Costa has been at 
work for some time in the chapel of St. Cecilia (Luzio, in Emporium, xi. 359). 
Moreover, Prof. L. Cavenaghi, who restored the frescoes in this chapel in 1874, 
discovered the date of 1 506 on the portal in the middle distance of the Conversion 
of St. Valerian (Frizzoni, Arte italiana del rinascimento, p. 379). Towards the 
end of 1506 Costa seems to have left for Mantua (cf. postea, p. 260, n. 4). 

* s On March 21, 1499, it was arranged that Costa in conjunction with other 
painters should decorate the semidome of the choir of the cathedral at Ferrara ; 
but it is not known whether this scheme was carried into effect (Gittadella, 
Ducumenti, pp. 69 *#.) Tne same vear on September 11, Costa received pay- 
ment from the Duke of Ferrara for a picture (A. Venturi, loc. cit., p. 246 ; cf. 

p. 260, n. 1). 

* Cf . antea, p. 250, n. 2. 

vii.] LORENZO COSTA 259 

have perished, 1 and others of which the locality is now uncertain. 2 
We may believe that his journeys to Ferrara were frequent and 
irregular the more readily as his pictures there exhibit the 
same changes as those which we have seen at Bologna. 3 In the 
noble Madonna enthroned between saints at the Casa Strozzi, an 
altarpiece once in San Cristoforo degli Esposti, his broadest style 
is displayed with a strong Ferrarese tinge of surface and that 
mixture of the Umbrian or Peruginesque in the figures and 
drapery which marks his manner in the first years of the fif- 
teenth century. Here, too, is the Ferrarese habit of over- 
charging the architectural parts with bas-reliefs and medals. 4 
Equally good and of the same time is the Virgin on a rich 
throne attended by two saints which passed from the Costabili 

1 Vasari, iii. 132. 

2 Ferrara. Amongst missing pictures are : (1) Portrait of Alfonso of Ferrara 
as a child, b. 1476. (Baruffaldi, i. 108.) [* This was probably a work by Tura. 
See A. Venturi, in the Berlin Jahrbuch, ix. 26.] (2) St. Jerome, once in Santa Maria 
in Vado. (Ibid., p. 110.) (3) A dead Christ with SS. Sebastian, Jerome, and Peter 
Martyr in the Chiesa degli Angeli, of which it is said that part of the St. Jerome 
is preserved in the Barbi-Cinti collection. (Laderchi, Pitt. Ferr., p. 50.) [* The 
editor does not know where this fragment is to be found at present.] (4) A Holy 
Family, once in Sant' Antonio. (Baruffaldi, i. 122.) (5) Two Saints in San Vito. 
(Ibid.) (6) Two Virgins in Santa Caterina Martire. (Ibid.) (7) The Entombment 
in Santa Caterina of Siena. (Ibid.) (8) A Crucifixion and a Virgin and Child in 
Sant' Agostino. (Ibid.) (9) A Pieta in San Gabrielli. (Ibid.) 

3 It is said that he visited Eavenna, where frescoes ascribed to him were shown 
of old in San Domenico. (Baruffaldi, i. 123.) 

4 Ferrara, Marchese Strozzi. Wood, oil, figures life-size. In the spandrils of 
the arch behind the throne, medallions with the Virgin and Angel annunciate, 
below which, in imitated mosaic on gold ground, the Judgment of Solomon and 
the Sacrifice of Abraham ; on the throne-plinth monochromes of Adam and Eve, 
the Massacre of the Innocents, the Presentation, the Flight into Egypt, etc. The 
saints at the sides are St. Guglielmo in armour and the Baptist. Since the 
picture was taken from San Cristoforo it has lost much of its old brown patina. 
[* This painting, which is now in the National Gallery (No. 1119), the lunette in 
the Massari-Zavaglia collection (see postea, p. 260, n. 3), the frescoes on the 
ceiling of a room in the Palazzo Scrofa-Calcagini at Ferrara, and a half-length 
of St. John the Evangelist in the Budapest Gallery (No. 69) are all obviously by 
the same artist. These works are characterized by so much vigour and breadth 
of style that it seems impossible that Costa could be their author; they are now 
generally ascribed to Ercole di Giulio Cesare Grandi, for whom the National 
Gallery pala and the Scrofa-Calcaguini frescoes were first claimed by Morelli 
(Die Galerien zu Miinohen und Dresden, pp. 184 sq.). But where are we to look 
for a clue to Ercole di Giulio's style if we are not to accept as his work the 
St. George in the Palazzo Corsini in Rome ?] 


collection into that of Lord Wimborne in England. 1 More in the 
Umbrian mode of Pinturicchio are the small panels with legend- 
ary incidents in the Costabili Gallery, 2 whilst the lunette Pieta 
in the Casa Saroli is in the spirit of Francia. 3 

It was Costa's fortune after the expulsion of the family of 
Bentivoglio from Bologna, and therefore after the loss of his 
most powerful patron, to receive offers of service from the 
Gonzagas of Mantua. The Marquis Francesco offered him a 
large salary and a house in 1509, made him superintendent of 
the painters at his court, and employed him in Triumphs and 
portraits. 4 He remained uninterruptedly at Mantua till his 
death in 1535, and produced there about as much as he had 
already produced in Bologna and Ferrara together ; but in the 
course of centuries the calamities which befell Mantua were 

1 Canford Manor, Lord Wimborne, formerly in the Costabili collection. Can- 
vas, lately restored by the removal of varnishes and retouches in tempera. 
Virgin and Child life-size, with two angels playing instruments on the arms of the 
throne, and two others behind them, and the usual accompaniments of bas-reliefs 
and statuettes. This picture was formerly in the Collegio del Gesu. The mantle 
is fastened at the shoulder with a brooch, representing the eagle of the family of 
the Estes. This may therefore be a canvas, purchased by the Duke of Ferrara in 
1502, of which there is a MS. record in existence. (MS. favoured by Marquis 
Campori.) [* The date of the above record is 1499; A. Venturi, in Arckivio 
storico dell 1 arte, ser. i. vol. i. p. 246.] In this picture, the Child and the saint to 
the right hand turbaned and holding three nails in his hand are quite 

2 Ferrara, Costabili collection. (1) A Combat ; (2) a female led to the presence 
of an armed captain. Free, even neglected in treatment. In the same place, 
(3, 4) Angel and Virgin Annunciate, very graceful little pieces. From the same 
collection, in possession of Lady Layard in Venice, the Adoration of the Shep- 
herds. [* The editor has not been able to trace the four preceding pictures.] 

s Ferrara, Professor Saroli [* now Duca Francesco Massari-Zavaglia]. Lu- 
nette. Pieta, on panel, with half-lengths of SS. Bernardino and Francis at the 
corners ; said to be a part of the altarpiece belonging to the Marquis Strozzi, and 
yet here the treatment and spirit are not of the same period of Costa's career as 
the altarpiece in question. The colours are very glossy, and well preserved. 

* 4 On Nov. 16, 1506, only a few days after the Bentivoglii had been driven 
away from Bologna, Isabella d'Este, Marchioness of Mantua, invited Costa to come 
to Mantua (Luzio, in Emporium, xi. 427). Costa was not long in accepting the 
invitation ; in April 1507 we find him at work in the palace of San Sebastiano at 
Mantua (A. Venturi, Arcliivio storico dell' arte, ser. i. vol. i. p. 251, n. 5). While 
still at Bologna Costa had between 1504 and 1506 executed a painting for the 
studio of the Marchioness no doubt identical with the Poetic Court of Isabella 
d'Este now in the Louvre (see posted, p. 261, n. 3). Cf. Yriarte, in Gazette deg 
Beaux- Arts \ ser. iii. vol. xv. pp. 330 sqq., and Luzio, loo. cit., pp. 358 sq. 


peculiarly fatal to his pictures, and we can almost count them 
now on the fingers of one hand. 1 One of them, the Virgin and 
Child between two Saints in the Gallery of Ferrara, was pre- 
served because it was a commission for a Veronese church ; 
another, the allegory of Isabella's poetic court, reproduced in 
these pages, was purchased by Cardinal Richelieu, and passed to 
the museum of the Louvre ; a third, a small diptych, with the 
Nativity and Christ in the Tomb, had its last resting-place in the 
collection of the late Sir Charles Eastlake ; a fourth, a Madonna 
and Saints of 1525, was presented by Costa himself to the 
church of Sant' Andrea at Mantua. In the first of these we 
perceive a mixture of the Ferrarese and Mantuan, and some- 
thing that recalls Bonsignori 2 ; the Court of Isabella is a 
scattered composition half inspired from Mantegna's allegories, 
and imitating in a certain measure his classicism of attitude and 
slenderness of form, but Umbrian also in the affectation of the 
poses, and somewhat monotonous in its yellow-brown tone. 3 The 

1 See the records of his appointment at a salary of 669 lire and notices of his 
works at Mantua in D'Arco, Delle ArtiMantov., ub. sup., i. 62, ii. 78-9, 156-9, 182, 
and Vasari, iii. 134 sqq. According to the latter author the subjects of Costa's 
paintings in the palace of San Sebastiano were as follows : (1) the Marchioness 
Isabella surrounded by singing and playing ladies of her court ; (2) the fable of 
Latona and the frogs ; (3) the Marquis Francesco led by Hercules on the road 
of virtue ; (4) Francesco on a pedestal surrounded by his suite ; (5) a sacrifice to 
Hercules (this picture contained portraits of Francesco Gonzaga and his sons 
Federico, Ercole, and Ferrante); (6) the Marquis Federico as General of the 
Holy Church. It is moreover recorded that the Gonzagas once possessed two 
pictures of incidents in the story of Coriolanus, a St. John in the Desert, a St. 
Sebastian, and eight scenes from the Old Testament by Costa. (D'Arco, ub. sup., 
ii. 156 sq., 159, 182.) [* The painting of the Marquis Federico as General of the 
Church, signed " L. Costa f. MDXXII," is now in the collection of Prince Clary - 
Aldringen at the Castle of Teplitz. Schaeffer, in Monatshefte fur Kunstwissen- 
cliaft, i. 765 sqq.'] 

2 Ferrara Gallery, Sala II. Wood, figures half life-size. Virgin and Child 
between St. Jerome and a bishop, perhaps by a pupil of Costa and Bonsignori. A 
picture in the Sala III. of the same museum, representing the Virgin adoring the 
Child and Saints, is not by Costa. [* Prof. A. Venturi has shown that the former 
painting is by Pellegrino Munari of Modena and that it was once in the church 
of Santa Maria della Neve in that town. Pellegrino Munari, who is mentioned 
also by Vasari (iii. 649 sqq.), died in 1523. See Archivio storico delV arte, ser. i. 
vol. iii. pp. 390 sqq.'] 

9 Louvre, No. 1261. Canvas, m. 1'58 high by 1-93; inscribed: "L. Costa f." 
[* This is obviously the picture executed by Costa for the studio of Isabella 
d'Este between 1504 and 1506 (cf. antea, p. 260, n. 4). For an interpretation of 


diptych is a pretty little miniature touched with great firmness, 
highly finished, and of bright and polished surface, betraying as it 
were some passing impression produced by the study of Venetian 
art 1 ; the Madonna of Sant' Andrea, though greatly injured, still 
shows how deeply affected Costa had been by Umbrian models. 2 

We might almost conjecture that he had a share in certain 
frescoes in Mantegna's chapel at Sant' Andrea, 3 and in the room 
called the Schalcheria at Mantua. 4 We should remember also 
that he may claim to have been the author of a portrait at the 
Uffizi which purports to be Isabella of Mantua by Mantegna, 
and which we have been inclined to assign to Bonsignori. 5 It is 
a likeness which certainly does not bear the stamp of Costa as 

the subject, see Fbrster in the Berlin Jahrbuch, xxii. 171 sq. Another painting, 
also now in the Louvre (No. 1262) and formerly in the studio of Isabella, was 
probably begun by Mantegna and completed by Costa (see antea, p. 115, n. 4).] 

1 London, collection of the late Sir Charles Eastlake. To the left in the 
Nativity a kneeling figure. In the second composition, Christ in the Tomb sup- 
ported by angels, with St. Jerome penitent to the left hand; Calvary and St. 
Francis receiving the Stigmata in the distance. The figures are thin and slender, 
but in Costa's most chastened manner, the colour powerful and bright. [* This 
picture now belongs to the National Gallery (No. 141 1), where it is ascribed to 
Ercole Roberti ; and in the opinion of the editor the colouring, the forms (note 
especially the long narrow hands), and the types point decidedly to him and not 
to Costa as the author of this work.] 

2 Mantua, Sant' Andrea, Cappella San Silvestro. Virgin and Child between 
SS. Sebastian, Silvestro, Roch, and two others. Canvas, oil, life-size ; inscribed : 
"A. D. MDXXV. L. Costa fecit et donavit." The composition is not without 
grandeur, and there is life in the figures. The colours have lost their freshness 
and are now very dim. 

3 Mantua, Sant' Andrea. Four Evangelists in the angles of the ceiling ; much 
injured, and recalling in a certain measure Costa. (See antea.) 

* Mantua, Castello, Schalcheria. Ceiling with ten medallions containing heads 
of emperors and females, and others simulating bronze reliefs with incidents of 
Roman history ; also fourteen lunettes with hunts and episodes from the fable of 
Diana. These are well composed and more chastened than the work of Giulio 
Romano, to whom they are usually assigned. The figures are elegant and slender ; 
the colouring is soft, and on the whole seems a mixture of the styles of Lorenzo 
Costa and Caroto. 

5 Uffizi, No. 1121. This cannot be the portrait mentioned by the Anonimo as 
having been sent to Venice to the Marquis Francesco when he was a prisoner 
there. That portrait was a joint one of Isabella and her daughter. It was in the 
Anonimo's time in Casa Jeronimo Marcello. (Anonimo, pp. 67, 202.) [* The 
Anonimo's words are somewhat obscure ; but it seems as if they must be inter- 
preted as meaning that two separate portraits were sent to the imprisoned 
Marquis, one of his wife and one of his daughter. We know from contemporary 
records that he wanted to have a copy of a much-admired portrait of Isabella 


unmistakeably as the fine one at the Pitti, in which the strong 
brown tone, broad treatment, and successful modelling of the 
master's best period prevail. 1 

Costa, at his death in 1535, left an entire family of craftsmen 
in Mantua, some of whom served under Giulio Romano ; we 
shall not dwell upon their lives and works, which may be found 
registered in the local history of Mantua. It is of more interest 
to notice the pupils whom Costa left behind on his retiring from 

which had been executed by Costa in 1508 (Luzio, loc. clt., pp. 355 sq.~). It seems 
possible that a portrait shown in the Collection of Coins and Medals at Vienna is 
a reproduction of that painting (ibid., p. 435). The above-mentioned picture in 
the Uffizi represents, as we have seen (antea, p. 186, n. 4), Elisabetta Gonzaga, 
Duchess of Urbino. The following works by Costa may also be noticed : (1) 
Berlin, Kauffmann collection, St. Jerome. (2) Berlin, Wesendonck collection. The 
Holy Family with Saints. Signed " L. Costa f." (3) Bologna, Pinacoteca, No. 215. 
The Virgin and Child between SS. Petronius and Thecla. Originally in Santa Tecla 
at Bologna. (4) Budapest, Picture Gallery, No. 124. Venus. (5) Dublin, National 
Gallery of Ireland, No. 526. The Holy Family. (6) Florence, Uffizi, No. 1559. 
St. Sebastian. (7) Hampton Court, No. 295. Portrait of a Lady. (8) London, 
National Gallery, No. 2083. Portrait of Battista Fiera of Mantua. (9) London, 
Mr. R. Benson. The Dead Christ ; The Baptism of Christ. (10) Mr. H. Yates 
Thompson. Two Miniatures in Albani Missal.] 

1 Florence, Pitti, No. 376. Wood, m. 0-19 high by 0-15. Half -length of a man in 
a red cap, with falling hair, a chain, and green dress (retouched in the cheek and 
hair) ; inscribed : " Laurentius Costa f." This fine portrait is of a strong tone, a 
little raw in touch ; the forms are well defined and modelled. It is a question 
whether this is not the so-called portrait of Giovanni Bentivoglio, once in the 
Isolani collection at Bologna, but described by Lanzi as having the signature 
" Laurentius Costa. Franciae discipulus." At all events the addition of " Franciae 
discipulus " is not on the portrait at the Pitti, and Lanzi doubted its genuineness 
in the portrait of the Isolani collection. 

We may catalogue as not seen, or missing, the following: (1) Bologna, alia 
Misericordia. St. Sebastian, in oil, dated 1503 (?). (Lamo, Graticola, p. 14.) 
(2) San Tommaso. Virgin, Child, SS. Proculus, Bartholomew, and others ; sold 
1832. (Baruffaldi, i. 112.) (3) Santa Maria della Mascarella. Resurrection. 
(Ibid.") (4) San Lorenzo de' Guerini. Virgin, Child, SS. Lawrence, Jerome, and 
angels. (Ibid., p. 113.) (5) San Francesco. Nativity with SS. James and 
Anthony of Padua. (Vasari, iii. 136.) (6) Signer Testa, from the Certosa of 
Ferrara. Pieta. (Baruffaldi, i. 121.) (7) Biblioteca dell' Istituto di Bologna. 
Portrait of Andrea Bentivoglio and Elena Duglioli; not seen. (Litta. cit. in 
notes to Baruffaldi, i. 120.) (8) Carpi, San Niccol6, and afterwards in the collec- 
tion of Conte Teodoro Lecchi, but not there now. St. Anthony of Padua, be- 
tween SS. Catherine and Ursula. (Cronica del Pad. Gio. F. Malazappi. Passavaut, 
Raphael, i. 97, and Campori, Gli artisti, p. 168.) (9) Mantua, Sant' Andrea. 
Adoration of the Magi, and Nativity; two large pictures. (Donesmundi, 1st. 
Eccles. di Mantua, lib. vi. No. 46.) (10) Correggio, San Francesco. St. Anthony 
the Abbot. (Campori, Gli artisti, pp. 168-9.) 


Bologna, the most interesting of whom, no doubt, is Ercole di 
Gitilio Grandi. 1 

We have already given an outline of Grandi's life in the 
attempt to distinguish him from Ercole Robert! Grandi. He is, 
no doubt, the disciple of Costa ; but even as such he inherits the 
art derived by Costa from Francia, and not that of Costa's 
earlier and more exclusively Ferrarese period. There are two 
pieces which may be cited as typical of Ercole ; these are the 
martyred St. Sebastian with saints and three kneeling patrons in 
San Paolo at Ferrara, and St. George fighting the Dragon in the 
Palazzo Corsini at Rome. At the sides of the St. Sebastian an 
aged saint leans on a staff and St. Fabian halts in prayer; the 
martyr himself standing on a bracket bound to the trunk of a 
tree in a landscape of Venetian air. The principal novelty in 
this picture is attributable to its combination of Umbrian and 
Ferrarese features ; the bright sharp colour with its enamel 
surface being distinctly Ferrarese, whilst the slenderness and 
neatness of the figures with their soft look and gentle movement 
are Peruginesque in the mode of Costa. This is very noticeable 
in the St. Sebastian as well as in the two standing saints ; the 
patrons are also small and dry in shape, but well made out and 
with a good portrait-character, reminding us by precise outlines 
of Timoteo Viti's altarpiece in the Duomo of Urbino. 2 

The St. George, on the harness of whose horse Ercole placed 
his monogram, is also Umbrian in the cold gentleness of its 
aspect 3 ; and yet brings up reminiscences of Filippino Lippi, so 

* ' Ercole di Giulio Cesare Grandi offers at present a very difficult problem to 
art-criticism, the solution of which must be left to future research. If, in common 
with most connoisseurs of to-day, we do not accept the St. George in the Palazzo 
Corsini as a work by this master, then there is no painting which can be ascribed 
to him even on any semblance of documentary evidence. 

2 Ferrara, San Paolo. [* Now Gallery, Sala VII.] Wood, oil, figures under 
life-size ; in the distance the Flight into Egypt. This picture is correctly assigned 
to Ercole Grandi. We note here how the saint, leaning on his pole, bends to one 
side as Costa's figures frequently do. The landscape is strong and sombre in 
tone. The surface, however, is slightly changed by dust and dirt. 

3 Kome, Palazzo Corsini, Galleria Nazionale, No. 712, with the monogram 

on the horse's hind-quarter. Small panel, 2 ft. 4f in. high by 1 ft. 9 in., well 
served, oil. We remember that there is a fine Filippino in San Domenico of Bologi 

* Morelli ascribed this picture to Francesco Francia (Die Gallcrien Borgliese ' 
Doria Panjili, p. 253), and has been followed by many critics ; as to the monogi 


gay and lively is the play of its tones. The horse is heavy 
in shape, but grace dwells in the kneeling female, and a pleasant 
variety in the lines of the landscape. The finish and polish of 
this little miniature are very remarkable. If we could conceive 
Grandi at some period of his youth to have been more distinctly 
Ferrarese than he appears in the works we have named, he 
might be mentioned as probable author of the St. Dominic 
ascribed to Zoppo at the National Gallery, and companion pieces 
at Ferrara and Dresden. 1 He may also be the painter of the 
small panel at Dudley House, representing the Gathering of 
the Manna, of which there is an old copy at Dresden 2 ; but in 
his late manner, and when he imitates Costa, his style is easily 
distinguished in a number of small pieces which have come into 
the hands of English collectors from Ferrara or have remained 
in Ferrara itself. 3 One of his Madonnas we have seen in Casa 
Nordio at Padua with a forged signature of Giovanni Bellini. 4 

it has been suggested that it might signify " Eques Georgius." In the opinion of the 
editor, however, the picture under notice differs on many essential points from 
the style of Francia ; while it comes close to the little Nativity ascribed to Ercole 
in the Ferrara Gallery (Sala III. ; see postea, n. 3). 

1 London, National Gallery, No. 597. Ferrara, Casa Barbi-Cinti. Dresden 
Museum, No. 43. (See antea in Baldassare.) 

2 (1) London, Dudley House. Small panel. To the left hand Moses with his rod, 
seven figures gathering the manna in bags and baskets, a woman with a child, 
distance of houses with many figures. The personages are all well formed, slender, 
and in good drawing ; the heads a little round and high in forehead a Ferrarese 
peculiarity ; the colours strong and sharp, highly fused and a mere film in the 
distance. Here we are reminded of the Umbriaris and of Timoteo Viti. [* This 
picture is now in the National Gallery (No. 1217). Morelli {Die Galerien zu 
Miinchen imd Dresden, p. 181) ascribed it to Ercole Eoberti, and his view 
seems to be fully justified by the types and forms of the figures, their movements, 
the colouring, etc.] (2) Dresden Museum, No. 47. Wood, 1 ft. high by 2 ft. 4 in. 

3 (1) London, Mr. Barker. St. Michael with the balance, erect, in a landscape. 
Wood, oil, figures one-quarter life. St. Francis ditto, the latter spotted in flesh. 
[* Present whereabouts unknown.] (2) Venice, Lady Layard. Small panel, oil. 
Virgin and Child between St. Dominic and St. Margaret; in a landscape, in front, 
a monkey. From the Costabili collection. Warm in tone and treated with a 
certain ease. (3) In the same collection, Moses and the Israelites coming into Egypt, 
with some dancing females that recall those of Mantegna. Israelites gathering 
the Manna. These are two small canvas temperas, from the Costabili collection, 
of which there are six companion pieces still in that repository ; namely : 1, the 
Death of Abel ; 2, the Expulsion ; 3, the Creation of Eve ; 4, the Temptation ; 

For note 4 see next page. 


To Panetti and Coltellini, the last of the Ferrarese of whom 
we shall treat in this place, but a few lines can be devoted. We 
are told of the first that he was born about 1460. 1 He died in 
151 1-2. 2 He was a contemporary of Costa, and according to 
Vasari the master of Garofalo. 3 His earliest productions betray 
the teaching of Bono Ferrarese. As he progressed, he came 
nearer to Costa in his Umbrian phase ; his figures are dry and 
bony, as well as rigid and stilted ; but they are outlined with 
extreme precision and carefulness. Peculiarly his own is a 
varnishy surface of reddish flesh tone, hardened by the use of 
grey shadow and a minute finish in rich and varied landscapes 
that gives to these portions of his pictures undue importance. 

5, Moses striking the Rock ; and 6, the Lord appearing to Moses. With the excep- 
tion of the latter, which seems to have been done anew by a pupil of Garofalo, 
these are all in the character of Grandi. Adam in the Temptation is injured. 
[* At present No. 1 is in the Galleria Morelli at Bergamo ; Nos. 2-5 belong to 
the Marchese Visconti-Venosta of Rome, while No. 6 is untraceable. Prof. A. 
Venturi suggests (L'Arte, Hi. 201) that these are the eight pictures of subjects 
from the Old Testament ascribed to Costa in the inventory of the works of art 
belonging to the Marquis of Mantua in 1665 (D'Arco, iib. sup., ii. 182).] (4) Ferrara 
Gallery, Sala III. Nativity. Small panel, in oil. The Child lies on the ground in a 
landscape between the Virgin and a kneeling shepherd, St. Joseph to the right 
hand seated in thought. In the sky are three angels. The style is like that of 
the foregoing, that of Grandi approaching to that of Mazzolino ; the colours gay, 
lively, and glossy. [* Closely allied in style to this picture is a large Annun- 
ciation in the collection of Sir F. Cook at Richmond.] (5) Ferrara, Signor Francesco 
Mayer. Same subject, small panel, but here the shepherd and St. Joseph stand. 

4 (1) Padua, Casa Nordio. Virgin and Child in front of a green curtain, 
St. Joseph behind to the right hand. Panel, half-length ; signed : " Joannes 
Bellinus F. 1408." Figures one-third of life. There are other Madonnas of the same 
kind ; e.g. : (2) Padua, Conte Leon Leoni. The Virgin with the Child on her lap 
offering a piece of fruit, the Child holding a bird ; distance, landscape with 
St. Jerome in a cave to the right hand ; half-length, half-size of life ; purchased 
from the General of the Camaldoles at Rome in the nineteenth century. (3) Rome, 
Gallery of the Capitol, No. 142. Female portrait, three-quarters to the left, in a 
red dress with slashes, her hair in a net. This seems to be by our Grandi, though 
ascribed to Giovanni Bellini. [*This picture is now labelled Ercole di Giulio 
Grandi.] (4) London, National Gallery, No. 73. The Conversion of St. Paul. 
Wood, 1 ft. 11 in. high by 2 ft. 3 in. This looks almost too modern for Ercole, but 
if by him must have been one of his last productions. (5) Naples, Signor Gaetano 
Zir. Two small panels with allegorical subjects, one of them a dance in which 
seven males and females take part. These panels are very carefully finished, not 
free from retouching, and recall at once the schools of Mantegna and Francia. 
The treatment is like that of an artist accustomed to the use of the graver. 
1 Baruffaldi, i. 181-94. 2 See notes postea. 

3 Vasari, vi. 458. 


In this and the use of strong contrasts in dresses he recalls the 
Cremonese. In other respects he may remind us of the Faventine 
Bertucci, or the followers of Pinturicchio. One of his youngest 
efforts is in the sacristy of the Duomo at Ferrara l ; the only one 
of his works in foreign galleries is the Dead Christ bewailed 
by the Marys in the Museum of Berlin. 2 Of Coltellini we may 

1 Ferrara, Duomo, sacristy. Wood, oil, with figures one-third of life-size. Virgin 
and Child enthroned, with two small figures of donors kneeling at the sides, and a 
landscape distance ; inscribed : " Dominions Panetus." Low-toned dull picture ; 
ugly types, recalling the Flemings. 

2 Berlin Museum, No. 113. Wood, 6ft. 3 in. high by 4ft. Tin., originally 
in San Niccol6 of Ferrara ; inscribed : " Dominici Paneti opus." The kneeling 
figure to the right hand is that of the donor ; distance, landscape. We add the 
following : (1) Ferrara Gallery, Sala II. Canvas, figures half -life. Annunciation, 
inscribed : " Domenicus Panetus pingebat." This is better than the old organ- 
shutters now in the choir of Sant' Andrea at Ferrara, representing the Virgin, the 
Angel, St. Andrew, and St. Augustine (canvas). [* The latter are at present also in the 
Ferrara Gallery (Sala II.).] (2) Ferrara Gallery, Sala VI. Visitation. This is an 
Umbrian composition in the fashion of Santi's at Fano. (3) Sala VII. Half-lengths 
of St. Helen and St. Stephen ; these last very glossy and finished in Panetti's best 
manner. (4) Sala VIII. St. Andrew erect. Panel, oil, life-size. This is the best 
of Panetti's works, of better form and face than most ; inscribed : " Dominicus 
Panetus." (5) Ferrara, Galleria Costabili. Here are eight pieces by Panetti : 
1, Transit of the Virgin, canvas, figure one-quarter of life-size ; 2, Presentation in 
the Temple ; 3, half-lengths of St. Job, St. Anthony, and a bishop, fragment ; 
4, Deposition, small panel ; 5, Virgin and Child, the Child injured ; 6, St. Jerome, 
half-length, fine for Panetti ; 7, Virgin and Child, the latter holding a chalice, the 
former a book ; 8, Virgin and Child, half-length, behind a parapet, hard ruddy 
tone. [* The Deposition (4) belongs now to the Ferrara Gallery (Sala III.) ; 
where the other of the last-mentioned paintings are to be found at present is 
not known to the editor.] (6) Ferrara, Conte Mazza : 1, Virgin and Child ; 
2, Virgin and Child between the Baptist and two Saints, St. Jerome and three 
other saints, fragments. [* These pictures can no longer be traced.] (7) Ferrara, 
Professor Saroli [* now Duca Massari-Zavaglia]. Ecce Homo. (8) Rovigo Gallery, 
No. 152. Nicodemus holding the Nails and supporting the dead Saviour ; St. John 
the Baptist and St. Lucy. Panel, oil, figures half life-size ; the Baptist injured. 
(9) Louvre, No. 1401. Nativity ; a cold painting, recalling the styles of Francia 
and Costa, a little more modern in air than Panetti. 

Domenico Panetti was the son of Gasparo "de Panetis' r of Ferrara; the date 
of his birth is uncertain. He married in 1503, the year in which, according to 
Baruffaldi (ub. sup., i. 187, 193), he painted a St. Job, inscribed "Dominicus 
Panetius 1503 Klis Aprilis " ; and a Virgin and Child between SS. Anthony, Job, 
Peter, and Vito, signed " Dominicus Panetus cepit anno Nativitatis Domini 
MDlil. Kalendis Aprilis." [* This picture is now in the Kauffmann collection at 
Berlin. See Harck, in Archivio storico delP arte, ser. i. vol. i. p. 103.] In 
1509, to the order of Alfonso I., he painted the frescoes in the chapel of San 
Maurelio at San Giorgio extra muros of Ferrara. In 1511 (Sept, 5) he received 


notice the Christ on the Lap of the Virgin at Dresden, assigned 
to Squarcione, in which the hard bony forms and broken drapery 
are almost Flemish in aspect ; the distance of rocks being cut 
up into strange and incongruous shapes very characteristic of 
the Ferrarese. 1 The oldest authentic panel by this painter is the 
Death of the Virgin, dated 1502, in possession of Count Mazza 
at Ferrara, a quaint and unattractive cento of the Ferrarese and 
Flemish. 2 In a Madonna with Saints, finished four years later, 
at Sant' Andrea of Ferrara, his style is a mixture of that of Costa 
and Francia 3 ; and in 1542, the date of a Virgin and Child with 
Saints in the Ferrara Gallery, he is a follower of Panetti and 
Garofalo. 4 

payment for a banner representing, on one side, a skeleton of Death, on the other 
a Virgin and Child. The banner was done for the brotherhood della Morte at 
Ferrara. In February (17th) 1513 his widow had married again. (Seethe records 
in L. N. Cittadella, Documenti ed Illustrazioni risguardanti la Storia artistica 
Ferrarese, 8vo, Ferrara, 1868, pp. 46-8.) 

1 Dresden Museum, No. 149 A. Wood. 2ft. 5 in. high by 1ft. 10 in. [*In 
the current catalogue of the Dresden Gallery this picture is ascribed to an unknown 
Ferrarese painter of the sixteenth century.] 

2 (1) Ferrara, Conte Mazza. A raw hard dry piece, without relief, brownish 
yellow in flesh, the dresses in deep heavy tints, the masks repulsively ugly; 
inscribed : " Michael de Cultellinis MCCCCCII." In the sky, the Virgin's soul in the 
arms of Christ. Small panel. [* This painting belonged subsequently to Signer 
Santini of Ferrara, and is now in the Pinacoteca at Bologna.] (2) Ferrara, Signer 
Mayer. Life-size figure of St. Peter. Panel as above. 

* The Kaiser Friedrich Museum at Berlin possesses a picture of the Bisen Christ 
between four Saints (No. 1115 A), signed " Michaelis Cortelini opus. MCCCCCiil. 
pestis tempore." 

8 Ferrara, Sant' Andrea. The Virgin and Child between SS. Michael, Catherine, 
John, and Jerome ; inscribed : " Michaelis Cortelinis MCCCCCllilil." [* This picture 
was in 1903 in the Santini collection at Ferrara, which has since been dispersed ; 
its present whereabouts it not known to the editor. It is reproduced in ISArte, 
vi. 144.] Baruffaldi mentions a Martyrdom of St. Lawrence in this church, dated 
1517, which has perished (i. 159). 

4 Ferrara Gallery, Sala VI. ; originally in Santa Maria del Vado. Virgin and 
Child and young Baptist, with several saints, and lower down SS. Agatha, 
Appollonia, and Lucy, dated " MDXLII." This picture has no name, but may 
well be by Coltellini. An autograph inventory of the effects which Coltellini gave 
his daughter as a dowry in 1532 exists in the archives of Ferrara (see Cittadella, 
Notizie, ub. sup., p. 601 ; and for notices of Coltellini's family, the same author's 
Documenti, etc., ub. sup., p. 117). 



A CCORDING to a sixteenth-century tradition, Francesco di 
J--L Marco Raibolini, commonly known as " il Francia," was 
born at Bologna in 1450. 2 Having been apprenticed to a gold- 
smith, he slowly rose to eminence in his profession, matriculating 
in 1482, and steward of guild in 1483. 3 Appointed master of 
the mint to the reigning family of the Bentivoglio, he gained 
a respectable name as an artist in dies, silver ornaments, arid 
niello. 4 At what period he directed his attention seriously to 
painting has not been ascertained, but he was probably no stranger 
even as a journeyman to a practice common amongst Italian 
goldsmiths, and familiar to such men as Pollaiuolo, Verrocchio, 

1 Before treating of Francia, it would be necessary to touch on Antonio da 
Crevalcore, of whom Bumaldi (Minervalia, ub. sup., p. 243) gives us some notices. 
He was a painter of fruit and flowers, and lived, says the author above quoted, 
about 1480. The half-length Madonna with the Child on a parapet, St. Joseph 
and a profile of a donor, in the Gallery of Berlin (No. 1146), is the only one of his 
pictures with which we are acquainted. It is signed : " Opra de Antonio da 
Crevalcore 14. 3 " (? 93). His style here is not unlike that of Bernardino of 

2 Vasari (iii. 533) states this as a fact ; but further : no goldsmith could be 
steward of his guild before the age of thirty, and Francia held this office in 1483: 
see postea, and see also Calvi ( J. A.), Memorie, etc., di F. liaibolini, 8vo, Bologna, 
1812, p. 6. 

8 Ibid. He was steward of the goldsmiths (Massaro) in 1483, 1489, 1506-8, 
and 1512, and " steward of the four arts " in 1514. 

4 He was not only mint-master to the Bentivoglio, but also to Julius II. at 
Bologna (Vasari, iii. 535 sq.). Two niello pax by Francia are in the Academy of Arts 
at Bologna; but see as to this, and as to the dies for Bolognese coins by Francia, 
Cicognara's Memorie, and Gaetano Giordani's essay on the " Money of Julius II." 
in the Almanack of Bologna for 1841. 



and Botticelli. 1 The goldsmith's atelier was never exclusively 
confined to works of silver, gold, or bronze, and it was open to 
every person who was free of that guild to be a sculptor or a 

Francia, according to some, may have been taught by Marco 
Zoppo, but if we compare the styles we see nothing to confirm 
such a theory. 2 It is much more likely that Francia was 
encouraged to the study of tempera and oils by Lorenzo Costa ; 
and that he owes to that master his first instruction in the 
secrets of colour. From Costa he derived something of the 
Ferrarese quality in producing ruddy flesh and glossy sharpness 
of contrasted tints ; from the goldsmiths, polished surface, clean 
outline, silvery reflections, and chiselled detail. A short interval 
of probation enabled Francia to equal and then to surpass Costa ; 
and ten years before the close of the century he was to be reckoned 
the most able draughtsman and composer, not only at Bologna, 
but in all the cities on the banks of the Po. From the day on 
which his name first emerged into notoriety, he showed a distinct 
Umbrian character in the form of his art, and it has been justly 
said by Vasari that his panels and those of Perugino displayed 
a novel spirit and softness. 3 Of the mode in which this new 
spirit expanded in Perugino, we have had occasion to speak ; it 
was the fruit of a happy combination of Umbrian and Florentine 
habits. How it expanded in Francia would be a mystery if we 
did not know that towards the close of the fifteenth century the 
pictures of Perugino were carried to Bologna. It may be the 
fortune of future historians to prove that ties of friendship united 
Francia and Vannucci ; at present we see no cause for Francia's 
adoption of the Peruginesque style except in Francia's study 
of Perugino's works. But the Umbrian in Francia was not 
an early impress; it came some time after he had begun seriously 
to paint, and there are two or three pieces which very clearly 

1 Vasari says that Francia " having known A. Mantegna and other painters, 
determined to try if he could not succeed with colours." He might chance to meet 
Mantegna at Bologna, who, as we know, visited that city in 1472. 

2 Malvasia (Felsina Pittrice, i. 35) holds that Zoppo was the master of Francia, 
and Baldinucci {Opere) shares this error, which has been accepted by Calvi, 
ub. sup., p. 8. 

Vasari, Proemio, iv. 11. 

vin.] EARLY WORKS 271 

illustrate his pre-Peruginesque period. 1 A likeness assigned to 
Raphael in the Northwick collection is one of these 2 ; the Virgin 
and Child with St. Joseph in the Berlin Museum is another ; 
St. Stephen kneeling in deacon's dress at the Borghese Gallery 
in Rome is a third. 3 The two first are peculiarly interesting 
as proof of the intimacy which existed between Francia and 
Bartolommeo Bianchini, a Bolognese senator, not unknown in the 
sixteenth century as a collector and a contributor to light literature 
and poetry. In a Life of Codrus he eulogizes Francia's talents 
with the fulsome flattery of that age. He is represented holding 
a letter on which his name appears. At Berlin the parapet on 
which the Virgin supports the standing Child bears a motto 
allusive of the friendship which united him to Francia. 4 It is 
characteristic of all these pieces, but especially of those at Berlin 
and at Rome, that they betray the hand of a goldsmith not only 
in the metallic surface, tone, and reflections of the flesh, but in 
the cleanness of the contours; the hairs of the head might be 

1 Florence, Uffizi. It has been usual to assign to Francia a small cartoon, half- 
length portrait of a man in a cap, in this collection (Vasari, Com. iii,. 557, 563), 
and a probable date, 1486, has been given to it ; on a tablet to the left hand of the 
head one reads : " M r Alex r Achillin an. xxni. " The drawing is Bolognese, but 
has not the sharpness and firmness of outline we expect from Francia. The 
tablet and its inscription are comparatively modern, and the date is a mere 

2 England, late Northwick collection. Panel, bust, 1 ft. 3f in. broad by 1 ft. 
9| in. Portrait, three-quarters to the right, injured by flaying; distance, landscape. 
[* This picture is now in the National Gallery (No. 2487).] 

* Home, Borghese Gallery, No. 65. Wood, figure one-third of life-size ; the 
saint kneels in profile in an opening between two pillars, with a landscape dis- 
tance. The hands and face are a little abraded ; inscribed on a cartello to the left 
" Vincentii Desiderii votum Fracie express am manu." 

We note also in this gallery, besides No. 61, Virgin and Child, panel, and 
No. 57, half-length of St. Anthony, a little under life-size, a well-preserved figure 
not by Francesco, to whom it is assigned, but by Giacomo. A Virgin and Child, 
also called Francesco Francia, is in the manner of Boateri. 

4 Berlin Museum, No. 125. Wood, oil, 1 ft. 9 in. high by 1 ft. 3f in., from the 
Solly collection. The Virgin holds the Child erect on a stone parapet, St. Joseph 
at her side; distance, a hilly landscape ; inscribed : " Bartholomei sumptu Bianchini 
maxima matrum. Hie vivit manibus Francia picta tuis." The surface is of a 
vitreous enamel perfect preservation. [* With these works we may also class 
a Crucifixion in the library of the Archiginnasio at Bologna. A Nativity in the 
Glasgow Gallery (No. 369), which shows the artist while still in possession of very 
undeveloped powers and strongly influenced by Ferrarese painting, belongs 
obviously to an even earlier stage of his career.] 


counted if one had but the patience ; the colour is even and flat, 
without transition from light to shade, stippled with all but 
imperceptible streaks in the prominences, and fused to a varnish 
enamel ; the red glare of the flesh betrays a Ferrarese education. 
When his experience became enlarged in 1490, Francia painted 
in a very different style, and the Virgin enthroned amidst Saints, 
which he finished at that time for Bartolommeo Felicini in the 
church of the Misericordia outside Bologna, shows that he had 
mastered the art of religious composition, the rules of architecture, 
and the science of perspective. 1 

What he presents to us here is a quiet Umbrian scene of 
worship ; the Virgin on a marble throne with the Infant stand- 
ing in benediction on her lap, an angel at her feet playing the 
lute, six saints on the steps and foreground, between the square 
pillars and beneath the arches of an ornamented portico, a 
kneeling patron devoutly looking up. In the distribution there 
is symmetry and order ; in the figures, comeliness, regularity 
of proportion, and plumpness of flesh; the forms are gentle, 
well if not searchingly made out, and of some elevation ; they 
are fairly relieved with shadow, very fine in outline, and softly 
modelled ; and the drapery of Umbrian fitness, here and there 
overcharged with folds. A reddish tinge in the flesh, some 
abruptness in the transitions, and a certain sharpness in the 
contrasts of tints, produce a metallic rawness that recalls Costa ; 
the handling is that of the Ferrarese, but of a smoother grain, 
producing surface of extreme polish. It is a delicate and some- 
what feminine style, the devotional feeling of which is much 
on the surface, and wants life and glow, commingling in equal 
parts the tenderness of Perugino and Spagna, the smoothness 
of Credi, and the ruddiness of the Ferrarese, with a veil of 

1 Bologna, Pinac., No. 78, formerly in the Misericordia. Wood, oil, figures all 
but life-size. The saints are SS. John the Baptist, Monica, Augustine, Francis, 
Proculus, and Sebastian ; inscribed : " Opus Franciae Aurificis MCCCCLXXXX." 
There is some doubt whether we have not to add four ciphers to the date, because 
there is faint trace of these on the signature, but they may have been added at 
a later time, and Vasari states that the picture was done in 1490 (iii. 537). There is 
a reddish stare in the picture, in consequence of varnishes and partial restoring. 
There was a predella to this piece with the Nativity, the Baptism of Christ, 
St. Francis receiving the Stigmata. In the upper ornament was a Christ between 
two Angels. (Calvi, ub. sup., p. 15.) 


coldness over all. Francia, in fact, is to Perugino what Cima 
was to Bellini ; lie is at home in quiet scenes where he intro- 
duces a pretty pleasant Madonna, a kindly Babe, and saints of 
small and elegant stature, but he has neither the fervency 
of Vannucci nor the power of Conegliano. When Raphael at a 
later period declared that Francia's Virgins were the most 
beautifully devout that he was acquainted with, he was 
indulging in flattery. When Michelangelo said to Francia's 
son that his father's living creations were better than his 
painted ones, 1 he gave vent to the same scorn with which he 
had already treated Perugino ; there was as little cause for the 
exaggerated praise of the first as for the excessive abuse of the 
second. And yet we can understand why Raphael should find 
much to praise and Buonarroti to abuse. As a portraitist 
Francia excels ; he frequently introduces a kneeling patron into 
his altarpieces, and always with capital success ; and here the 
praying profile of Bartolommeo Felicini is quite life-like and 
extremely well rendered. In technical treatment Francia is a 
perfect master of the method of oil, using much colour tempered 
with abundance of vehicle, laying in the parts full, retouching them 
afterwards with semi-transparents, and finishing them with glazes. 
Such was his art in 1490, and such it remained till the 
opening of the sixteenth century. 2 We see the same com- 
bination of softness and strong tone in the beautiful Virgin 
with the Child and Angels at the museum of Munich, which 
King Maximilian II. obtained from the Zambeccari collection in 
Bologna in 1833 3 ; in the Annunciation at the Brera, which has 
something of the spirit of Giovanni Santi 4 ; in the similar 

1 Vasari, vii. 170. In the first edition of Vasari are some very sharp 
expressions against Francia and Costa, supposed to have been uttered by 
Michelangelo. These were withdrawn in the second edition. 

2 From 1492 dates a Madonna with an Angel in the collection of the late 
Dr. Ludwig Mond (signed " Opus Francisci aurificis MCCCCLXXXXII "). The 
grouping of the Mother and Child in this painting closely resembles that in 
the altarpiece just dealt with. 

* Munich, Pinak., No. 1040, curiously catalogued as doubtful. [* This is no 
longer the case.] Wood, 2 ft. high by 1 ft 6 in. The Virgin supports the 
Child erect on a table ; he holds a bird ; in rear two angels. 

4 Brera, No. 448. Wood transferred to canvas, m. 2-37 high by 2'27. The 
Virgin stands as she receives the message from the kneeling angel. Here and 
there are some retouches. 

VOL. II 18 


subject, with an attendance of monkish saints, belonging to 
M. Keiset in Paris J ; and in the Virgin and Child with St. Joseph 
dated 1495 in the collection of the Earl of Dudley. 2 In 1499 
Francia painted the great altarpiece at San Jacopo Maggiore 
for Giovanni Bentivoglio, in which the Virgin sits enthroned 
with adoring angels at her side and playing angels at her feet, 
attended by SS. Florian, Augustine, John the Evangelist, and 
Sebastian. 3 This was the most important and the finest 
picture that he had yet completed, exhibiting all the qualities 
of his previous ones, with a deeper feeling and a purer harmony 
of proportions. He seemed as he proceeded to mitigate in some 
measure the glare of his tone, to cast his drapery more effectively 
and simply, to gain firmness in the flow of his outline, freshness 
in form, and ease in movement, and to blend his light into 
semi-tone and shadow with a clearer and more silvery warmth. 
He never imagined up to this time a more charming group of 
the Virgin and Child; and the Child especially is the most 
beautiful that he had as yet created. He had not conceived 

1 Paris, M. Keiset, from the Northwick collection. Wood, figures three- 
quarters of life-size. The Virgin to the right, the Eternal in the sky; on the 
foreground a demon in female shape, a Carmelite, three friars, and angels; 
the episodes are all well arranged. The Ferrarese impress is still strong. 
[* This picture is now in the Musee Conde at Chantilly, No. 17.] 

Of the same period but injured by restoring is the Crucified Saviour (Louvre, 
No. 1436) between the Virgin and Evangelist, with St. Job lying at the foot 
of the cross, signed " Francia Aurifaber." This picture was once in San Giobbe 
at Bologna, and was sold in London with other pictures belonging to Conte 
Cesare Bianchetti. 

2 London, Dudley House. Virgin, Child, and St. Joseph ; inscribed : " Jacobus 
Cambarus Bonon. per Franciam aurifabrum hoc opus fieri curavit 1495." The 
distance is a landscape. Francia was intimate with Jacopo Gambaro, a gold- 
smith and die-sinker at Bologna, with whom he stood godfather to the child of 
a mutual acquaintance in 1500 ; but there was another Jacopo Gambaro of whom 
Bumaldi speaks in the Minervalia as living in 1498 at Bologna. (Jdinerv., 
ub. sup., p. 101 ; see also Vasari, Com., iii. 556). The head of the St. Joseph in 
the picture before us is retouched. In this collection is a Virgin and Child by 
Francia, of soft style and clear tone, in the painter's later and more ordinary 
manner. [ * The last-mentioned painting is now in the collection of Sir George 
Otto Trevelyan at Wallington Hall (Cambo, Northumberland) ; while the Holy 
Family of 1495 at present belongs to Count Jean Palffy of Pressburg.] 

* Bologna, San Jacopo Maggiore, Cappella Bentivoglio. Wood, oil, figures 
life-size ; inscribed in a cartello : " Johanni Bentivoglio II. Francia Aurifex 
pinxit"; done in 1499 (Lamo, G ratio., p. 36) ; well preserved. In the upper part 
of the picture is a half-length Ecce Homo. 


Alinari photo.] 

[Bologna Gallery. 


[II. 274] 


anything finer or grander than the St. Sebastian, nor anything 
more naturally innocent and fresh than the angels, ingeniously 
combining in their production the type of Perugino with the 
thought of Cima and Bellini. For Francia the Bentivoglio 
| Madonna may justly be called a picture of style. Yet it was 
! not so perfect in its way but that he was enabled immediately 
after to compose a better. His masterpiece at this time, indeed, 
is the Nativity executed for the church of the Misericordia at 
the request of Monsignor Anton Galeazzo Bentivoglio, proto- 
notary of Bologna and red-cross knight. This pious churchman 
and his retinue of saints and angels are placed with great 
skill in kneeling and standing attitudes round about the Virgin 
adoring the Infant Christ, in front of a ruined arch in an 
exquisite landscape. 1 On the lines of Credi, but with more life 
and breadth and grandeur, he gives to his personages a more 
masculine character and greater expressiveness than he had 
ever done before, shining as usual in portrait, yet not without 
nun-like or monkish coldness in some parts, and as yet not 
free from rawness in his argentine tints. To this piece, which 
was followed by equally beautiful ones of a Pieta 2 at the 
museum and of the Virgin and Child with Saints at the 
Misericordia of Bologna, 3 Costa furnished the predella with the 

1 Bologna, Pinac., No. 81. Wood, oil, figures life-size. It has been said that 
this picture was done after Anton Bentivoglio's return from the Holy Land 
(Vasari, iii. 537 .9^.), but this is proved to be untrue by Calvi, uf>. sup., p. 19. 
The Virgin kneels in the centre of the picture with the Infant on the ground 
before her; to the left, the kneeling patron, an angel, St. Joseph, and St. 
Francis; to the right, St. Augustine, an angel, and a standing figure leaning on 
a staff. This picture was carried off by the Bentivoglii when they were expelled 
by Julius II. from Bologna to Milan, and it was brought back only in 1816. 
(See Rosaspina, Pinacoteoa della Pontijicia Ace. d. B. A. in Bologna.) On a 
panelling beneath the foreground one reads : " Pictorum cura opus mensibus 
iuobus consumatum Antonius Galeaz. L>. II. Bentivoli fil. Virgini dicavit." 
The date of the completion of the altarpiece is on the predella by Costa, the 
Adoration of the Magi, of 1499, No. 429 at the Brera. (See antea.) 

2 Bologna, No. 83. Wood, oil. Christ supported on the tomb by two angels, 
:he counterpart of Perugino's Christ in the collection of the late Lord Taunton, 
and better preserved. 

Bologna, Pinac., No. 80, from the Misericordia, done for one of the 
Manzoni family. (Vasari, iii. 543, and Lamo, Oratic., p. 45.) Virgin and 
Child enthroned in a court opening out on a landscape, an angel at the foot of 
the throne ; left, St. Augustine and St. George ; right, St. John the Baptist and 
St. Stephen. Wood, oil, figures of life-size. 


Adoration of the Magi of 1499, which gives us the comparative 
measure of the two men and testifies to their common friendship. 
It is a proof of the popularity which Francia had acquired 
that his panels are almost as numerous in modern galleries 
as those of del Sarto or Perugino. Even of those illustrating the 
period on which we are now dwelling, there are numerous 
specimens abroad as well as in Italy. The Virgin adoring the 
Infant before her, a panel of life-size in the gallery of Munich, 
affords a rare example of dignity in Francia's works ; it is also 
distinguished by a more tender blending and harmony of silvery 
tone than any we have hitherto met with. 1 The Virgin annunciate 
attended by Saints in the Santissima Annunziata at Bologna, 
an altarpiece of 1500, exhibits his more usual carefulness and 
coldness of treatment. 2 The Madonna with Saints and Angels 
painted in 1500, for San Lorenzo of Bologna, keeps its place 

1 Munich, Pinac., No. 1039. Wood, oil, 5 ft. 4 in. by 4 ft. ; inscribed : " Francia 
Aurifex Bono. . . ." It was originally in the Mantuan collection, and remained 
there till 1786 (D'Arco, ii. 214). It belonged in the beginning of the nineteenth 
century to Baron St. Saphorin, Danish envoy at Vienna ; it afterwards came into 
the gallery of the Empress Josephine at Malmaison, and was bought from that 
gallery for Munich in 1815. There is a copy of it (No. 126) in the Museum 
of Berlin [* now on loan to the Gallery at Osnabriick], another copy in the 
Pinacoteca of Bologna. 

2 Bologna, Santissima Annunziata, outside the Porta San Mammolo. Wood, 
oil, figures life-size. The Virgin stands in the centre of the picture, looking up to 
the angel in the air, whilst the Infant Christ in benediction appears in a glory in 
the sky. At the Virgin's side, standing, are SS. John the Evangelist, Francis, 
Bernardino, and George. On a cartello, beneath which is the escutcheon of the 
Franciscans, a cross and two arm-bones, one reads : " Francia Aurif. B. pinxit. 
MCCCCC." In the upper part of the frame, the Eternal. This picture has been 
taken to the Bologna Pinacoteca (No. 371). The colour is still a little raw. From 
the same church, and taken to the Bologna Pinacoteca, we have further two large 
pictures (Nos. 372 and 373) : the Virgin and Child enthroned between St. Paul and 
St. Francis, with the young Baptist holding the cross in the middle of the fore- 
ground. Wood, oil, figures about life-size; inscribed: "Joannes Scappus ob 
immaturum Lactatii filii obitum pientissime affectus hoc Virgini a paulo 
dicavit." This piece was in the second chapel ; it is much in the manner of the 
Madonna and Saints at the Hermitage, about to be described, but less ably 
executed, and probably done partly by some of Francia's pupils, the figures being 
colder and shorter in stature than usual. The colour is injured and scaling 
in parts. In the third chapel was the Crucified Saviour, with the Magdalen 
at the foot of the cross, the Virgin and St. Francis to the left ; St. Jerome 
kneeling and another saint standing to the right hand. Wood, oil, figures almost 
of life-size. Here also the execution is in part that of Francia's disciples, and 
the inscription, " Francia Aurife," is of dubious authenticity. 


amongst the better productions of the master by freedom of 
touch and expanded form, in spite of short proportion in the 
figures. 1 It surpasses in many respects the Virgin in Glory with 
Saints executed two years later for the church of the Osservanza 
at Modena and now at Berlin, 3 and is about equal to the 
Madonna and Saints in San Martino of Bologna. 3 In the pleasing 
Peruginesque manner likewise we have the Virgin and Child 
with St. Francis of the Zambeccari collection at Bologna, where 
gloss arid finish are still united to a slight rawness. This 
charming picture bears the date of 1503, and closes, so to speak, 

1 St. Petersburg, Hermitage, No. 19. Wood, oil. The Virgin is enthroned with 
the Child in benediction. In front St. Lawrence and St. Jerome, and two playing 
angels ; inscribed : " D s Ludovicus de Calcina Decretoru Doctor Canonicus S. P. 
Bon. redificator auctor Qs domus et restaurator hums Eclesise fecit fieri p. me 
Franciam aurifice Bonon. anno MCCCCC." In the upper corner, two prophets 
reading, in monochrome ; the colour is still a little raw and sharp in the 
transitions. This picture was taken to Rome by Cardinal Ludovisi ; it passed 
afterwards into the Ercolani collection at Bologna (Calvi, ub. sup., p. 27). In the 
same collection, No. 68, much inj ured in the flesh parts, half-length of the Virgin 
and Child. In the distance on one side the Resurrection, on the other the 
Transfiguration. Wood, transferred to canvas, with a doubtful signature. 

2 Berlin Museum, No. 122. The Virgin and Child in glory with angels between 
SS. Geminiano, Bernard, Dorothea, Catherine, Jerome, and Louis, in a hilly 
landscape. Wood, oil, 8 ft. 4 in. high by 6 ft. 6 in. ; inscribed : " Francia Aurifaber 
Bonon. 1502." The total repainting which this piece has undergone makes 
it appear a weak example of the master. It was painted for Santa Cecilia 
of Modena, and after the demolition of this church, in 1737, passed to that 
o Santa Margherita (Campori, G li Artisti, ub. sup., p. 393, cites the authorities 
for these facts). In the same gallery we have the following : No. 121 [* now 
on loan to the Kaiser Friedrich Museum at Magdeburg]. The dead Christ on 
the Virgin's knees ; a lunette, copy of that in the altarpiece, No. 180, at the 
National Gallery. No. 123 [* now in the Provinzialmuseum at Hanover], Virgin, 
Child, and youthful Baptist ; a pallid and mannered copy by a scholar of Francia. 
No. 126 [* now in the Museum at Osnabriick]. Virgin adoring Christ ; copy 
of No. 1039 at Munich. No. 127 [* now in the Town Gallery at Hildesheim]. 
St. John the Baptist and St. Stephen ; also probably a school-piece. [* A full- 
length figure of St. Roch which in 1905 was in a private collection at Naples is 
signed " Francia aurifaber MCCCCCII." See Colasanti, in Rassegna d'arte, 
v. 188 *#.] 

3 Bologna, San Martino. Wood, oil. Virgin enthroned and two angels on the 
foreground, SS. Roch, Sebastian, Bernardino, and Anthony of Padua. Through 
the base of the throne and at sides one sees a landscape ; above, Christ in the 
tomb between two angels ; below, Christ carrying his cross ; inscribed : " Francia 
Aurifex p." This fine work is only below that of the Bentivoglio chapel and 
others of that period. The figures are rather too lean, the shadows are dark. 
One would think that Costa laboured here with Francia. 


an epoch in Francia's pictorial development. 1 But that we have 
no warrant historically for supposing that he now visited 
Florence, we should almost suppose that he did so, when we 
look at the dramatic composition of Christ deposed from the 
Cross and bewailed by the Marys in the Gallery of Parma. 
There we see the Saviour in the lap of the Virgin, St. John 
raising the lifeless head, the Magdalen embracing the feet, 
Mary Salome with outstretched arms looking down, Nicodemus 
in passive grief with his back to the spectator, the whole depicted 
in a landscape of varied lines. 2 The Peruginesque here is that 
of Perugino's grand time when he most combined Umbrian 
softness with the energy and power of the Florentines. The 
scene is rendered with an intense expression of affliction unusual 
in Francia, with considerable facility in the grouping, with great 
nature in the representation of instant action, and with little of 
the frigidity which is his predominant feature. Powerful colour 
and gloss still betray the Ferrarese origin of Bolognese art, 
although the tones are fused with capital success. But now 
came forth a new and strongly contrasted series in which 
conception was regulated by most engaging grace a grand 
Coronation of the Virgin in the Duomo of Ferrara, which reminds 
us of Fra Bartolommeo, with kneeling and standing saints in the 
landscape below 3 ; an Assumption at San Frediano, 4 a Madonna 

1 Bologna, Zambeccari collection. Wood, oil, figures almost of life-size; 
inscribed : " Francia Paulo Zambeccaro pinxit. MCCCCCili." The Virgin holds 
the Child in benediction on her lap ; in his left hand is a bird ; near him, right, 
St. Francis with the cross and book; distance, landscape. The Virgin here 
resembles that of Munich. The transition of light into half -tint is still somewhat 
raw (but since writing these lines we find the picture has been sold). 

2 Parma Gallery, No. 123, and originally done for Parma (Vasari, iii. 541) 
Wood, arched, oil ; inscribed : " Francia Aurifex Bonon. f." In the middle of the 
picture and behind the group is the cross. 

3 Ferrara, Duomo. Wood, oil, arched, but cut down at top, and otherwise, 
injured. On the foreground SS. George. Stephen, Bartholomew, and John the 
Baptist ; SS. Peter, Augustine, and Paul erect ; in the middle of the foreground 
the Infant Christ, foreshortened, with his head to the spectator, between the 
kneeling St. Catherine and another female saint. 

4 Lucca, San Frediano. Wood, oil. The Virgin in glory with angels, receiving 
the blessing from Christ ; below and erect, SS. Anselmo, Augustine, David, and 
Solomon, and St. Anthony kneeling with his back to the spectator before the 
tomb. In a predella four monochromes. 


at Casa Mansi, of Lncca. 1 In a Nativity at Forli 2 also Francia 
illustrates a milder treatment and tone, finishing with extra- 
ordinary care, losing all rawness, and producing a clear bright 
light, and movements and expressions attuned in the greatest 
perfection to the height of religious composure. Following the 
same sweet vein he produces the Virgin with the Child and 
St. Anne enthroned amidst saints, and its lunette Pieta, in the 
National Gallery ; rising to a high level as a composer, reminding 
us as ever of Perugino, but suggesting at the same moment 
memories of Leonardo. 

This, the time in which young Raphael became imbued at 
Florence with novel principles, is also the time when Francia's 
impersonations display additional repose and noble sentiment, 
when to power he unites exceeding harmony, when his hand 
acquires a cunning hitherto unattained, especially in the skill 
with which half- tint is used and subtle glazes are applied, when 
a better sense of atmosphere is conveyed, when modelling and 
contrasts of light and shade yield their truest and best 
results. 3 

By what causes, we may inquire, was this last purification of 
Francia's style brought about ? It might be considered due to 
his study of Raphael, but it was more probably owing to the 
personal influence of Raphael himself. In 1491 Francia counted 

1 Lucca, Casa Mansi. Wood, oil, figures half life-size. Virgin and Child, 
half-length, in a landscape. The Virgin's face a little injured. 

2 Forll, Museo Civico, No. 98. Christ adored by the Virgin, St. Joseph, two 
angels, and two shepherds. This is a picture originally painted for Paolo 
Zambeccaro (Vasari, iii. 543 *#.). Wood, oil, figures half life-size. 

8 London, National Gallery, Nos. 179, 180. The first : wood, oil, 6 ft. 6| in. high 
by 6 ft. ; inscribed : " Francia Aurifex Bononiesis p." Originally in the Buonvisi 
chapel at San Frediano of Lucca. The Virgin is enthroned, with St. Anne and 
the Child, in front of a pillar between two arches, through which the sky appears. 
In front of the throne the boy Baptist with the cross pointing upwards; at 
the sides, SS. Sebastian, Paul, Lawrence, and Romualdo. The second : 3 ft. 2 in. 
high by 6 ft., lunette, wood, oil, containing the Saviour on the Virgin's lap and 
two angels. [* The chapel for which this altarpiece was painted was founded in 
1510. Williamson, Francesco Raibolini, pp. Ill sq.] In this gallery also we have ; 
No. 638. Virgin and Child with two Saints, half-lengths. Wood, oil, 2 ft. 8 in. high 
by 2 ft. 1| in., from the Beaucousin collection. This piece was originally of a 
clear bright tone, but was glazed in the National Gallery with a glaze of 
burnt sienna. 


amongst his disciples Timoteo Viti, a youth of twenty, who had 
come from Urbino to perfect himself in the goldsmith's art. 1 
For several years this youth remained at Bologna. In 1495 he 
went home to marry and settle, with the blessing of Francia to 
cheer him in his progress. 2 A correspondence was probably 
kept up between them, and thus no doubt it happened that 
pictures of Francia were sent to Urbino. 3 

Viti more than once, we are inwardly assured, conversed with 
Raphael of the kind master at Bologna ; on the other hand, 
Francia may have heard from Timoteo what promise young 
Raphael was giving of growing talents and fame. He may even 
have recommended his works to the attention of the Bentivoglii. 
Certainly Giovanni Bentivoglio received a picture of the Nativity 
from Sanzio, 4 and letters were exchanged between Raphael and 
Francia. Writing in 1508 to Bologna, Raphael acknowledges 
the receipt of Francia's portrait, promises his own, and sends 
the drawing of a Nativity, hoping that he may get in return that 
of Francia's Judith. He states that " Monsignore il Datario and 
Cardinal Riario were both expecting their Madonnas, which no 
doubt would be equally beautiful, devout, and well done as 
previous ones." 5 It is clear from this that the two masters were 
on friendly terms, though it remains uncertain whether they met. 
Vasari suggests that they merely corresponded ; but as Raphael 
went in 1505-6 from Florence to Urbino, he may have taken 
Bologna on his way, and we are the more inclined to think 
that he did so, as Francia then became still more strongly 
Raphaelesque than before, and much more so than was possible 
from a mere acquaintance with Raphael's works. 6 

He had painted numerous decorations in the houses of the 
Bolognini and Polo Zambeccari, 7 and in the palace of the 

1 Malvasia, Felsina Pitt., ub. sup., i. 55. 

2 Ibid, and Pungileoni, Elogio Storico di Timoteo Viti, 8vo, Urbino, 1835, 
p. 5. 

8 He painted for the Duke of Urbino some horse-trappings and a Lucretia, of 
which there is not a trace at this time (Vasari, iii. 544 *.). 

4 Baldi, in Passavant's JRafael von Urbino, ub. sup., i. 96. 

5 Ibid, and Vasari, Com., iii. 553. 

6 Passavant (ub. sup., i. 95) is also of opinion that Baphael and Francia were 
personally acquainted and met at Bologna in 1505-6. 

7 Vasari, iii. 543 sqt. 


Bentivoglii, which was destroyed in 1507. 1 But his only extant 
frescoes at the present time are those in the oratory of Santa 
Cecilia, which were done before Costa's departure to Mantua in 
1509. 3 They represent the Entombment of St. Cecilia and her 
Marriage with Valerian. 3 In the one, St. Cecilia seems to sleep 
as she lies outstretched in the winding-sheet ; her forms regular 
and softly yielding, her youthful and pleasing head crowned with 
roses, and her hands and feet beautifully formed ; she seems to 
have gone to a sweet rest unhurt by the boiling oil in which she 
perished ; four youths hold her suspended over the opening of 
the vault, two of them nearest the spectator stretching the sheet 
between them with muscular exertion of limb ; to the left a 
Cardinal, a youth with a torch glancing upwards in the true 
Umbrian style, a Pope, a female, and an aged man looking down 
at the saint's face ; to the right two women and a young torch- 
bearer ; in the air an angel carrying the martyred soul to heaven, 
and floating lithely over a quiet landscape. Tenderness and 
affected grace are carried almost to excess even in the figures 
most strongly engaged in the action, and some necessary coldness 
arises from that cause ; the left-hand group is skilfully 
arranged and composed of personages individually interesting, 
whilst that to the right is ill balanced and throws the com- 
position out of focus ; but the feeling evinced in every part is 
of a very select kind, and a wonderful resignation and melan- 
choly are infused into the slender actors in the scene. Great, 
perhaps excessive, care is displayed in the casting of the drapery, 
and the drawing is of a pure and finished outline. Opposite 
to this St. Cecilia, united to Valerian, stands under the arches of 

1 He painted portraits there, an imitation of a bronze relief, and a Judith 
about to decapitate Holophernes. Ibid, and Bumaldi, Minervalia, ub. sup., p. 250. 
Some of the portraits, by the extracts quoted in Bumaldi, appear to have been 
done in 1502. 

2 For 1509 read 1506 ; see antea, p. 260, n. 4. [* There also exists in the 
Palazzo Comunale at Bologna a fresco of the Virgin and Child protecting that city, 
which was executed by Francia in 1505 in fulfilment of a vow made by the magis- 
trates of Bologna during the earthquake which devastated the town in the begin- 
ning of that year. See Malaguzzi-Valeri, in ArcMvio storico dell' arte, ser. ii. vol. i. 
p. 125 ; C. Ricci, in La Vita, italiana, nuova serie, anno iii. vol. ii. pp. 881 sqq.~\ 

3 Bologna, Oratory of Santa Cecilia. Francia's two frescoes are at the bottom 
of the chapel right and left of the altar. They have been engraved for the 
Arundel Society, 


a chapel opening out on a hilly landscape, the high priest between 
them looking at the bride benignantly, and a bevy of handsome 
women to the left and three men to the right witnessing the 
ceremony. There is something most engaging in the modesty of 
St. Cecilia, as well as in the timid bearing of the girl at her side 
looking on, whilst another holds the hand on which Valerian is 
to place the ring ; a charming nobleness is infused into the mien 
and movement of these dames, and there is an unusual variety 
for Francia in their expression ; fine are the proportions, simple 
and flowing the draperies ; one or two of the males have the 
modest bearing and honest look of Raphael's creations ; the 
composition is better and more masterly than in the Entomb- 
ment, the drawing is more perfect in outline. In composing and 
carrying out such a work as this, Francia cannot but have been 
guided by maxims derived from personal acquaintance with 
Raphael. The taste is much too pure, the style much too 
chastened, the colour much too soft and harmonious, the feeling 
much too genuine, to have been acquired without some such new 
and subtle influence. 1 

Even Francia's portraits in the first years of the sixteenth 
century exhibit a gradual change from the Peruginesque to the 
Raphaelesque. Looking at his fine likeness of Vangelista Scappi 
at the Uffizi, it is obvious that Perugino was the master whom 
he then admired and imitated. A pleasing head, well furnished 
with falling locks, covered with a silk cap, the vest, the cloak, 
all black, the distance a landscape of Umbrian character, with 
the minutiae only suggested, yet without much atmosphere ; the 
face self-complacent in smile, of ruddy tone with transitions into 
greenish grey, and good modelling and relief ; Peruginesque in 
the thought, the treatment and mechanism, but Peruginesque 
only as Francia could be, and without Perugino's power. 2 Not 

1 Francia's admiration for Kaphael is expressed in a sonnet, in which he says : 

"Tu sol, cui fece il ciel dono fatale, 
Che ogn' altro excede, e sora ogn' altro regna, 
Ueaccellente artificio a noi insegna, 
Con qui sei reeo ad ogn'antico uguale." 

Malvasia, Fels., vol. i. p. 46. 

2 Florence, Uffizi, No. 1124. Wood, oil, half-length, life-size ; the left hand 
gloved ; in the right hand a letter with the words " S Vangelista Scappi." 
There is some restoring in the distant trees to the left. 


so, however, the head of a man of forty, with a distance of hills, 
in the Liechtenstein collection at Vienna, known for a time as 
a Raphael in possession of the Marquis Bovio at Bologna. To 
say that this bust is not by Sanzio is merely to echo the opinion 
of critics generally, to call it by Francia's name is no heresy ; 
yet it emulates the Raphaelesque after Raphael, under the 
influence of Leonardo and the Florentines, began to surrender 
the Peruginesque. If we remember that the Bovios are an old 
Bolognese family, the picture may be assumed to represent, not 
a Duke of Urbino, but a gentleman of Bologna. The treatment 
most reminds us of Raphael's in the Madonna of Blenheim, the 
Madonna of Vienna, or the Doni at the Pitti. The landscape is 
full of Raphaelesque depth and vapour ; an easy composure and 
lifelike readiness, very truthful modelling, and rich transparent 
colour are prominent qualities ; what betrays Francia is the 
finish and minuteness of the hair and other parts, in which the 
clean touch of the goldsmith is apparent. The panel is, in fact, 
as much evidence of the friendship which united Raphael and 
Francia as the letters which they interchanged. 1 

The loss which Francia incurred by the expulsion of the 
Bentivoglio family was severe, and Raphael kindly alludes to 
it in 1508, when he tells his friend to "take courage" and 
assures him that he feels his affliction as if it was his own. Bat 
Francia speedily found favour with Julius II., as he had done 
with the previous rulers of Bologna ; he remained master of the 
mint, made the dies for the Pope's new money, and painted 

1 Vienna, Liechtenstein collection. Wood, oil, bust, under life-size, in a black 
cap, with long hair, a green vest, parti-coloured supervest, and brown coat. On 
the back of the panel we read : " Galleria del Marchese Bovio in Bologna in 
Strada San Stefano. Kittratto di un Duca di Urbino di l a rnaniera di Kaf Sanzio 
di Urbino." All the lower part of the face and part of the distant hills to the left 
is rubbed down. A third portrait by Francia is No. 23 in the Staedel Gallery at 
Frankfurt, but so injured that the landscape alone betrays the hand of Francia. 
There was once also a portrait, said to be that of Francia himself and supposed 
to be that which he sent to Eaphael, in the Harrache Gallery at Turin, but 
this picture has been mislaid. A portrait in the collection of Earl Cowper 
at Panshanger has been noticed in the Life of Perugino (History of Italian 
Painting, 1st ed., iii. 255). It has something of Francia's manner, derived, however, 
from him by Francesco da Imola, who entered his atelier in 1508. In a sonnet 
by Girolamo da Casio (Calvi, ub. sup., p. 54) there is loud praise of two female 
portraits by Francia. 


pictures as before. 1 From this time till his death his manner under- 
went no farther changes. 2 We admire him in his Peruginesque and 
Raphaelesque phase in the Annunciate Virgin between Saints at 
the Museum of Bologna ; 3 in the predellas with scenes from the 
life of the Virgin and of Christ which decorate that gallery and 
the Museum of Dresden ; 4 in the Presentation in the Temple at 
Ceseria. 5 We observe with what tenderness and melancholy 
softness he still labours in 1509, when he finishes the Baptism of 
Christ at Dresden, and its counterpart at Hampton Court. 6 We 
find him feeble in a Madonna and Saints dated 1515 at Parma, 7 

1 See the record of payments for dies, Nov. 21, 1508, in Annot. Vasari, iii. 536, n. 1. 

2 That Francia died in the manner described by Vasari, that is, because 
Eaphael's St. Cecilia, which came to Bologna in 1514-6, convinced him of his 
own inferiority as a painter, is now rejected, and properly so, by historians. 

* Bologna, Pinacoteca, No. 79. Wood, oil, figures life-size. The Virgin stands 
in prayer between SS. Jerome and John the Baptist in a landscape ; the Virgin of 
tender air, very reminiscent of the types in the frescoes at Santa Cecilia. This 
picture was ordered for the company of San Girolamo at Bologna (Vasari, iii. 543). 
The Baptist recalls Credi ; the angel, Mariotto and Fra Bartolommeo. 

4 (1) Bologna, Pinacoteca, No. 82. Wood, oil ; predella with the Nativity, the 
Virgin giving the breast to the Saviour, attended by saints, and the Redeemer 
crucified. The figures are graceful, the colouring harmonious and clear. (2) Dresden 
Museum, No. 49. Wood, oil, 1 ft. 6 in. high by 2 ft. 1 in. Quite in the spirit of 
Raphael's youth, and recalling his predella with the same subject (1503) in the 
gallery of the Vatican at Rome. Even to do so small a thing as this, Francia 
must have done more than casually study Sanzio's works. There is a copy of this 
Adoration, No. 512, at Schleissheim, under the name of Baldovinetti. [* In the 
current catalogue of the Schleissheim Gallery this picture is correctly described as 
a copy after Francia.] 

4 Cesena, Municipal Gallery. Wood, oil, 6 ft. 4 in. high by 4 ft. 7 in. ; inscribed : 
" Francia Aurifex." The Virgin in the temple is accompanied by St. Joseph with 
the doves and the prophetess Anna ; Simeon to the right accompanied by an old 
man with a book. This piece, in the character of the Adoration at Dresden, is 
much injured by scaling and restoring. 

6 (1) Dresden Museum, No. 48. Wood, 7 ft. 5 in. high by 6 ft. ; inscribed : 
"Francia Aurifex Bon. f. M. vim." Originally at Modena; damaged in the 
bombardment of Dresden in 1760. (2) Hampton Court, from Mantua, No. 456. 
Wood, oil ; inscribed : " Francia Aurifex Bon." ; with some variety in the placing 
of the angels and landscape. Both pictures clear and silvery. In a small pre- 
della with the same subject which belonged to the late Lord Taunton at Stoke, 
the hand of an assistant is seen in the execution. 

7 Parma Gallery, No. 130. Wood, oil, almost size of nature. Virgin and Child 
with the infant Baptist below, pointing upwards ; at the sides, SS. Benedict, 
Joseph, Scolastica, and Placida ; inscribed : " Francia Aurifex Bononiensis f . 
MDXV." There is much frankness in the touch and treatment, but the finish is 
not so clear and sharp as usual. 


and still powerful in the Piet& of the same year in the Museum 
of Turin. 1 He died at an advanced age on the 5th of January, 
1517, leaving several sons behind him. 2 

1 Turin Museum, No. 155. Wood, oil, m. 1-61 high by 1-30; inscribed: 
"F. Francia Aurifex bononiensis f. MDXV"in gold letters. This is a fine com- 
position of Christ supported by the Evangelist and Magdalen, bewailed by the 
Virgin. In rear a monkish saint with a lily, and Nicodemus. The colour was 
very clear no doubt, before it was altered by restoring. 

Of other works by Francia we still may notice the following: (1) London, 
Baring collection [* now collection of Earl of Northbrook], The Virgin, Child, and 
St. Anthony of Padua. This picture with its inscription seems an old imitation ; 
the inscription runs : " F. Francia Aurifex faciebat anno MDXII." (2) In the 
same gallery, a half-length of Lucretia stabbing herself. This is a feeble picture of 
Francia's school. A genuine Francia representing this subject is said to exist in a 
private gallery at Modena. (3) London, Mrs. Butler Johnston. St. Francis receiving 
the Stigmata. This seems a picture by Francia's pupil Timoteo Viti. [* Of. postea, 
p. 294, n. 3.] (4) Paris, Louvre, No. 1435. Nativity; a beautiful little miniature, 
which might lead one to call Francia the Italian Memling. (5) Vienna Academy, 
No. 505. Virgin and Child between two Saints ; all renewed with the exception of 
the Virgin's head. The inscription, too, is new : " Opus Francis Aurificis MDXIII." 

(6) Vienna, Imperial Gallery, No. 47. Virgin, Child, St. Francis, and St. Catherine, 
and the young Baptist in the foreground; signed : " Francia Aurif aber Bono." This 
picture is so entirely repainted that no opinion can be formed of its original value. 

(7) Modena Gallery, No. 476. Annunciation. See the proofs that this picture is 
not by Francia (antea, p. 76, n. 3). (8) There is notice of a picture of 1511 in the Casa 
Pertusati at Milan Virgin and Child (not seen), and of an Eternal, dated 1514, in 
the Ercolani Gallery at Bologna (not seen). (9) Naples Museum. Virgin, Child, 
and young Baptist ; feeble productions of a follower of Viti or Orazio Alfani. 

* In addition to the paintings by Francia noticed above we may enumerate 
the following : (1) Bergamo, Galleria Lochis, No. 221. Christ carrying the Cross. 

(2) Brescia, Galleria Martinengo. The Virgin and Child with St. John the Baptist. 

(3) Brescia, San Giovanni Evangelista, first chapel to the left. The Trinity with 
four Saints. (4) Budapest, Picture Gallery, No. 75. The Virgin and Child with 
St. John. (5) Cirencester (Gloucestershire), Miserden Park, collection of Mr. 
A. W. Leatham. Portrait of Federico Gonzaga as a boy. Painted in 1510. See 
Cook, in The Burlington Magazine, i. 186. (6) London, National Gallery, No. 2671. 
Pieta. (7) London, collection of Mr. Kobert Benson. The Virgin and Child with 
St. Francis. (8) London, Mrs. J. E. Taylor. The Virgin and Child with St. 
Francis and St. Jerome. (9) London, Sir J. Wernher. The Virgin and Child with 
St. John and some Virgin Martyrs. (10) Liitschena, Baron Speck von Sternburg. 
The Virgin and Child. Signed and dated 1517. (11) Madrid, Casa Fernan Nunez. 
St. Sebastian. (12) Milan, Museo Poldi-Pezzoli, No. 601. St. Anthony of Padua. 
(13) Milan, Crespi collection. St. Barbara. Signed. (14) Milan, Dr. Gustavo 
Frizzoni. St. Francis. (15) Paris, collection of M. H. Heugel. Portrait of 
Bernardino Vanni. (16) Paris, collection of the Comtesse de Pourtales. The 
Virgin and Child with St. John and an Angel. (17) St. Petersburg, late Leuchten- 
berg collection. The Virgin and Child with SS. Anthony and Barbara (repro- 
duced in L'Arte, vi. pi. facing p. 336). 

2 See the authorities in Vasari, Annot., iii. 547, n. 3, 


Of these Giacomo and Giulio followed the paternal profession; 
but though their art had a natural affinity to that of Francesco, 
they never brought it to any very great perfection. We may 
believe indeed that both Giacomo, who was born before 1486, 
and Giulio, who was born in 1486, were assistants to their father 
as long as he lived, and that their workmanship impressed 
certain pictures of Francesco with a stamp of comparative infe- 
riority. Giacomo painted his best frescoes in the oratory of 
Santa Cecilia, coming third after his father and Costa ; 1 he also 
finished numerous altarpieces 2 and portraits. 3 At Santa Cecilia 
his figures are short, coarsely outlined, and comparatively without 
life or expression. After 1526, the date of an altarpiece repre- 
senting the Virgin and Child with Saints in the gallery of 
Bologna, he strove to keep pace with the spirit of his time in 

1 Bologna, Santa Cecilia. Giacomo Francia's subjects, composed probably by 
Francesco, are the Baptism of Valerian and the Martyrdom of St. Cecilia in 
boiling oil ; both frescoes are much injured, abraded, and discoloured. 

* Dr. Frizzoni (Arte italiana del rinascimento, pp. 382, 389 sq.) ascribes these 
paintings to Cesare Tamaroccio, who, according to Lamo (Grativola, p. 34), 
worked in Santa Cecilia, and by whom there is a signed picture of the Virgin and 
Child with St. John the Baptist in the Mnseo Poldi-Pezzoli at Milan (No. 551, 
inscribed " Cesar Tamarocius ") which exhibits close analogies with the two 
above-mentioned frescoes. 

2 (1) Bologna, Santo Stefano, assigned by Malvasia (Felsina, p. 57) to Francesco 
Francia, but described by him as executed in 1522, really therefore by Giacomo. 
The subject is Christ on the cross between St. Jerome and St. Francis, with the 
Magdalen grasping the foot of the cross. Here Giacomo's art is a miniature of 
his father's. The colour is scaling in many parts. Wood, oil, figures all but life- 
size ; distance, landscape. (2) Florence, Galleria Antica e Moderna, No. 64. Wood, 
oil, figures all but life-size. Virgin and Child enthroned between the kneeling 
SS. Francis and Anthony of Padua, in a landscape. The forms are square and 
short, the masks lifeless, the drawing and colour hard and raw. (3) Bologna, 
Pinac., No. 84, from San Francesco. Wood, oil, life-size. Virgin and Child and 
young Baptist, attended by SS. Francis, Bernardino, Sebastian, and George ; 
inscribed : " I. Francia Aurifex Bonon. fe. MDXXVI." (There are not two I. 
before the word Francia, as the commentators of Vasari [iii. 559] aflSrncu) (4) 
Some gallery, No. 87. Arched panel. Virgin in Glory ; below, SS. Peter, Francis, 
Mary Magdalen, and six maidens. Here the figures are not without a stamp of 
grandeur, and the colour is well blended and enamelled. (5) No. 85. Virgin and 
Child enthroned between St. Paul and Mary Magdalen, and the young Baptist. 
Arched altarpiece. (6) Milan, Brera, No. 436. Virgin and Child, young St. John, 
and two boy-angels, SS. Sebastian, Jerome, Stephen, and Anthony the Abbot, 
life-size. (7) No. 437. Virgin and Child, two boy-angels, two saints in armour, 
SS. Justina, Catherine, and four others ; life-size, panel ; inscribed : " Jacobus 
Francia p. MDXLIIII." Fine works, next to which in value are the following : 


free handling and rapid execution, and then his art fashioned 
itself pretty much after that of Bagnacavallo. 4 He died in 1557. 
There are also some extant pieces, the joint production of 
Giacomo and Giulio, 5 and a Descent of the Holy Spirit at 
Bologna by Giulio alone. 6 

If it were worth while to dwell at any length on the lives 
of the contemporaries of the younger Francias, we should find 
some amusement in describing the eccentricities of Amico 
Aspertini, an artist who was born at Bologna about 1475 and 
died in 1552. He also was employed in Santa Cecilia of 
Bologna, and produced various altarpieces in which we see that 
his manner was derived in part from that of Ercole Eoberti 
Grandi, and from that of the second-rate Umbrians of 
Pinturicchio's school. He was a free and bold third-rate, of 
a quaint and fantastic character. 7 

(8) Berlin Museum, No. 271 [* now on loan to the Wallraf Richartz Museum at 
Cologne]. Small allegory of Chastity. (9) No. 281. Virgin, Child, young Baptist, 
SS. Mary Magdalen, Agnes, Dominic, and Francis ; inscribed : " I. Francia." 
(10) No. 293 [* now in the collection of the University of Gottingen]. The 
Virgin with the Child erect before her on a parapet, and St. Francis ; signed : 
" F. Francia." (11) Bologna, Chiesa del Collegio de' Spagnuoli. St. Margaret 
with St. Jerome and St. Francis; feeble. We omit other pieces of a similar kind. 

3 (1) Florence, Pitti, No. 44. Bust of a beardless man in a cap, holding an apple. 
A little raw in colour, and coldly executed, but precise in outline (retouched). 
(2) No. 195. (See antea in Bonsignori.) 

4 Bologna, Pinacoteca, No. 84, supra. 

5 (1) Bologna, Pinac., No. 86. Arched panel, with SS. Frediano, James, Lucy, 
and Ursula, and a portrait, inscribed : " I. I. Francia." (2) Parma, San Giovanni 
Evangelista. Nativity, inscribed: "I. I. Francia Bon. MDXVIII."; injured by 
restoring, but fairly done. A saint in glory, with a viol, and another saint 
reading; St. Joseph and other figures and portraits, inscribed: "I. I. Francia 
Bon. MDXVIIII." On the altar the words " Antonius Ferratus & a condiderunt " ; 
on the base, three injured half-lengths of saints. (3) Berlin Museum, No. 287. 
Virgin in glory and saints, inscribed : " I. I. Francia, Aurifi bonon. fecer. MDXXV," 
from San Paolo in Monte of Bologna. 

* To these may be added : (4) Modena Gallery. The Assumption of the Virgin, 
signed " I. I. Francia. B. M.D.XIII." Formerly above the high altar of Santa Maria 
Maggiore at Mirandola. 

6 Bologna, Pinacoteca, No. 88. Descent of Holy Spirit, with SS. Gregorio and 
Petronius ; retouched. 

7 Vasari has written the Life of Amico Aspertini (v. 179 sqq.), and states that 
he learnt his art by going round Italian cities and copying everything that fell 
in his way. His earliest works are in Santa Cecilia of Bologna, after which he 
painted frescoes in San Frediano of Lucca (post 1506). In 1514 he painted the 
front of the library of San Michele in Bosco, which was subsequently repainted 


CModarolo is the name of another modern Bolognese who 
works in a feeble style, imitating the Umbrians as well as 

by Canuti. He tried his hand as a sculptor in rivalry of Properzia di Kossi, and 
produced the Dead Christ in the Arms of Nicodemus at San Petronio of Bologna 
in 1526. There are records of works undertaken at Bologna in 1527 for one 
Annibale Gozzadini. In 1530 he married, and he died in 1552, having shown 
unmistakeable symptoms of insanity. His frescoes in the Cappella della Pace at 
San Petronio, carried out in competition with Bagnacavallo and Innocenzo da 
Imola, have perished, as well as the decorations of several house-fronts. He 
certainly visited Rome. (See Vasari, v, 179 and foil., and Gualandi, Memorie, 
ser. i. 33, and iii. 178.) The general character of his art is this : his compositions 
are ill put together, with here and there a group or an episode of compact 
arrangement. He is fanciful in the choice of accessories, in which he uses 
embossment like Pinturicchio. He also embosses the hems of his draperies, 
which are bundled and confused like those of the earlier Ferrarese. His figures 
are strange in action, and have many of them the pug face derived from Ercole 
Roberti Grandi ; his types are ugly, vulgar, and trite in expression ; as a colourist 
he takes after the Ferrarese, being red and fiery in flesh tone. His frescoes at 
Santa Cecilia the Funeral of SS. Valerian and Tiburtius, and their Decapitation 
are much injured and in part obliterated. Of another fresco in the same place, 
representing St. Cecilia before the Emperor, it is not certain whether Amico is 
the author. [* Dr. Frizzoni (ub. snp., pp. 381, 390) ascribes this painting to 
Chiodarolo.] The subjects which he painted in the chapel of Sant' Agostino at 
San Frediano of Lucca are : 1, the story of the Volto Santo, in which there is a 
fair group of a man kneeling before a saint; 2, baptism of a proselyte, with 
much embossment of statues and other accessories (greatly injured) ; 3, lunette 
above No. 2, Christ taken from the cross ; 4, St. Frediano tracing the course 
of the river; 5, the Nativity (very feeble and much damaged by damp); 6, 
lunette with an almost obliterated subject; 7, ceiling, with the Eternal and 
angels, reminding us of Mazzolino's art ; 8, pilasters with Eaphaelesque orna- 
ment, on one of which the inverted name of Aspertino, i.e. " I.M.A.G.O. f."; 9, 
soffit of arch with scenes from the Passion, and figures reminding us of some in 
Raphael's " Disputa del sacramento " ; one of the scenes is Christ on the Mount, 
a Peruginesque composition. 

Of other extant works the following is a list: (1) Berlin Museum, No. 119. 
Nativity, signed : " Amicus bononiensis faciebat." Wood, tempera, 3 ft. 8 in. 
high by 2 ft. 7 in., from the Solly collection. An Umbrian picture with dry figures 
and hideous heads. (2) Madrid Museum, No. 524. Rape of the Sabines. Small 
panel, assigned to the Sienese school [* now to the Umbrian school together 
with its companion-piece, No. 525, representing the Continence of Scipio]. (3) 
Bologna, Pinac., No. 297. Panel, oil. Virgin and Child, SS. John the Baptist, 
Jerome, Francis, George, Sebastian, and Eustace, and two portraits of patrons. 
This also is Umbrian in character, and not unlike Manni in style. (Much injured.) 
[* Signed " Amici pictoris bonon. tirocinium."] (4) Bologna, San Martino Maggiore. 
Virgin and Child, SS. Lucy, Augustine, and Nicholas giving their dowry to three 
young girls. (5) Ferrara, Palazzo Strozzi [* now Florence, Villa Strozzi, Marchese 
M. Strozzi]. Predella with the Visitation, Nativity, Presentation, and Sposalizio ; 
reminiscent of Ercole Grandi. [* For further notices of Amico Aspertini, see 

Vlii.] T1MOTEO VlTl 28$ 

Francia and Costa, 1 and Boateri is a weak artist of the 
same class. 2 

What honour may have accrued to Francia from the pro- 
ficiency of his numerous pupils is due in no small degree to 
Timoteo Viti, to whom he expresses an almost paternal affection 
in a page of his journal. Timoteo was the son of Bartolommeo 
della Vite and Calliope, the daughter of Antonio da Ferrara ; he 
was born at Ferrara in 1467, and brought up to be a goldsmith. 3 
In Francia's atelier between 1491 arid 1495 he learnt to paint, 
and returned a master to Urbino. 4 There are few men of sub- 
ordinate rank whose career is more clearly traced. After his 

Lisetta Ciaccio in Thieme and Becker, Allgemeines Lexilton der Uldenden 
unstler, ii. 188 sqq.] 

Amico had a brother named Guido, of whom we have one picture in the 
Pinacoteca of Bologna (No. 9), the Adoration of the Magi, a composition treated 
in Amico's manner and coloured in ruddy Ferrarese tints. 

1 Of Giovan Maria Chiodarolo we know nothing, but that according to tradition 
he painted one of the frescoes in Santa Cecilia of Bologna Angels crowning 
St. Valerian and St. Cecilia. This much injured wall-painting, recalling the style 
of Francia and Costa and the Umbrian of Pinturicchio, is a cold and feeble work. 
In the same style we have No. 60 in the Pinacoteca at Bologna, a Nativity a poor 
work of a follower of Francia and Costa, but as likely to be by young Timoteo 
Viti as by Chiodarolo. 

2 Boateri is only known by a Holy Family in the Pitti at Florence (No. 362, 
wood), inscribed : " Jacobus de Boateris." This is an exact imitation of Francia, 
and there is a counterpart of this picture under the name of the latter in the 
Scarpa collection at La Motta in Friuli. [* This collection was sold by auction at 
Milan on Nov. 14 and 15, 1895.] 

3 Tavola alfabetica delle vitedegli artefici desoritte da Gioryio Vasari, published 
separately, 8, Florence, Le Monnier 1864, ad. lift., and Laderchi, Pitt. Ferrarese, 
p. 29. Pungileoni's date of 1470 is incorrect. See Elog. Star, di T. V., ub. siip.,^. 1. 

* Laderchi's statement that Timoteo Viti was born at Ferrara in 1467 is not 
to be relied upon. There is every reason to think that he was born at Urbino, 
where both Bartolommeo della Vite and Antonio da Ferrara were living ; and if, 
as Vasari says (iv. 494), he was aged twenty-six when he left the school of 
Francia i.e. in 1495 then the date of his birth would be about 1469. 

* Judging by his later works we might properly recognize as youthful produc- 
tions of Timoteo Viti the following: (1) Ferrara Gallery, Sala VIII. The 
Assumption of St. Mary of Egypt, and St. Zosimus in the landscape below, once 
in Sant' Andrea of Ferrara. This small panel has something of Francia and 
Costa, and is not unlike a Nativity, No. 60, in the Bologna Gallery, assigned 
(antea) to Chiodarolo. It is varnishy in treatment with slender and affected 
figures, very carefully executed. (2) Ferrara, Conte Mazza [* subsequently in 
the Santini collection ; reproduced in V Arte, vi. 142]. Crucified Saviour between 
the Virgin and Evangelist. Small panel, (3) Ferrara Professor Saroli [* now 

VOL. II 19 


marriage in 1501 he practised with but little interruption at 
Urbino for fifteen years. There was not an occasion for pictorial 
display that did not give him an opportunity to exhibit his 
talents. When Caesar Borgia treacherously seized the city and 
expelled Guidobaldo in 1502, Viti designed the scutcheon of the 
usurping prince. 1 In obedience to the will of Giam Pietro 
Arrivabene, Bishop of Urbino, who died in 1504, he was in- 
structed to set up an altarpiece in a mortuary chapel in the 
cathedral, the walls of which were covered with frescoes by 
Girolamo Genga 2 ; both artists laboured together at the 
tabernacle of Corpus Christi in the same cathedral during the 
year 1505. 3 In 1509 Viti took part in the adornment of 
triumphal arches erected to celebrate the meeting of Eleoriora 
Gonzaga with her bridegroom, Francesco Maria. 4 His election 
to the office of " priore " in 1508, and to that of " primo priore " 
in 1513, are evidence of the respect and esteem of his fellow- 
countrymen 5 ; he became the professional adviser of the Duke 
Francesco Maria, 6 and furnished pictures for his palaces at 
Urbino and Urbania. 7 Of all his works the most important 
and the best is the altarpiece commissioned by Elizabeth Gonzaga 
and Alessandro Ruggeri for the chapel of Giam Pietro Arrivabene 
at Urbino in 1504. It represents the bishop and the Duke 
Guidobaldo kneeling at the sides of an altar, whilst above them 
St. Thomas a Becket and St. Martin sit enshrined in a ruined 
arch. 8 Nothing can exceed the precision and carefulness of 
finish in the outline and modelling ; there is no lack of pro- 

Duca Francesco Massari-Zavaglia]. Virgin, Child, and young Baptist. Small 

* The circumstance that Timoteo Viti was probably not as supposed by the 
authors a native of Ferrara makes it a priori seem less likely that he was the 
author of these works. See also A. Venturi, in L'Arte, vi. 141 sq. 

1 Pungileoni, Elog. Stor. di T. V., ub. sup., p. 10. 

2 Ibid., pp. 11, 12. 3 Ibid., p. 13. 4 Vasari, iv. 498. 

* Pungileoni, ub. sup. t pp. 18, 105. 6 Vasari, iv. 498. 

7 Ibid., pp. 496 sqq., but most of these works are lost, and particularly an 
Apollo with the Muses. (Vasari, iv. 498, and Baldi in Passavant, Rafael, i. 9.) 

* Eight pictures of this series are now in the Palazzo Corsini at Florence 
(Nos. 407-14) ; two of them Apollo (No. 409) and Thalia (No. 407) are by Viti, 
the others by Giovanni Santi. See Calzini, in ISArte, xi. 227 &([C[. 

* Urbino, Duomo, sacristy. Wood, oil, 4 ft. 9 in. broad by 6 ft. 5f in. The face 
of Arrivabene in profile, aged about sixty, is injured in part by abrasion. The 
picture was ordered on the 15th of April, 1504. (Pungileoni, ub. suj)., pp. 11-13.) 


Alinari photo.'] [Milan, Brera. 


II. 290] 


portion or appropriate movement in the figures, no fault to be 
found in the drapery, which is of Umbrian cast : but the delicacy 
of the whole piece is cold and chilling ; it reveals a patient and 
passionless spirit like that of Sassoferrato. We admire on close 
inspection the blending and gloss of the parts, the pearly ashen- 
pink of the flesh light and the grey of its shadows ; but at a 
distance all effect disappears, and emptiness is revealed. We 
meet with the same frigidity and precision of treatment in later 
pieces, such as the Magdalen ordered about 1508 for the chapel 
of Lodovico Amaduzzi in the cathedral of Urbino, 1 and the 
Annunciate Virgin between Saints at present in the Brera at 
Milan. 2 The masters of whom we are reminded in every instance 
are Francia and Pinturicchio, only that Viti is much beneath 
those masters in power, seldom revealing anything like inspira- 
tion, rarely rising above the level of ordinary model-painting, 
and frequently indulging in triteness, vulgarity, and posture. 

As a landscapist he has a class of faults natural to a man of 
his fibre. He is copious in detail, but the very richness which 
he displays gives prominence to the emptiness observable in 
other respects. As he grew older Viti adopted the Raphaelesque 
as evolved in the art of Spagna a change of which we have an 
example in the figure of St. Apollonia at the Santissima Trinita 
of Urbino 3 ; whilst in the Noli Me Tangere and Saints, finished 

1 Bologna, Pinac., No. 204. This picture was exchanged for another by the 
Marchese Antaldo Antaldi, and represents the Magdalen erect in prayer in a 
wilderness of rocks (the rocks retouched), figure life-size. On a dry bough to the 
left is a cartello on which we read : " Di epi et ma. Ma. Lo. Amatutius archip 
sci cipri. dica." The chapel of San Cipriano in the Duomo was founded by 
Amaduzzi in 1508. (Pungileoni, p. 19.) 

2 Milan, Brera, No. 507. Wood, oil, m. 2-60 high by 1-82; formerly in San 
Bernardino degli Osservanti outside Urbino, and at the altar of the Buenaventura. 
The angel is in the sky, whilst below the Virgin stands on a foreground of rock 
between St. John the Baptist and St. Sebastian bound to a tree. This is a form 
of Annunciation already used by Francia (see antea). The figures are plump, 
coarse in limb and extremities, and cold in expression. Their proportions are 
short and thickset. There is some sharpness and rawness in the contrast of light, 
half -shade, and shadow. The surface has been cleaned, which is most apparent 
in the St. Sebastian. 

3 Urbino, church of the Santissima Trinita. Canvas, oil, almost life-size. The 
saint stands in a landscape holding a book and pincers. Injured in the landscape, 
mantle, and tunic; a piece has been sewn on to the right side of the picture, 
[* This picture is now in the Gallery of Urbino.] 


in 1518 for the brotherhood of Sant' Angelo at Cagli, he unites 
to the Raphaelesque a little of the hardness and conventionalism 
of Santi and Palmezzano. 1 It was about this time, or perhaps 
just before, that Timoteo proceeded to Rome, arid became 
Raphael's assistant 2 ; and there is not the slightest reason to 
doubt the correctness of the judgment which assigns to him the 
execution on Sanzio's cartoons of the prophets above the sibyls 
in the church of the Pace, and even the draperies in the sibyls 
themselves. If we had space to dwell at length upon the 
grounds which have led criticism to accept the authorship of 
Timoteo in these frescoes, we might prove conclusively that it is 
not Raphael's hand that worked out the parts we have men- 
tioned, and that amongst his disciples no other than Timoteo 
could have completed them as they are; but there is no differ- 
ence of opinion on the question, and it is therefore sufficient to 
state the fact 3 ; whereas in another case it has not yet been 
hinted that Viti was the painter. The panel in which we 
believe his hand may be found is that of St. Luke at the easel, 
painting the Virgin and Child in the presence of a youth. The 

1 Cagli, brotherhood of Sant' Angelo Minore. Wood, oil. St. Michael tramp- 
ling on the dragon, and weighing the souls, and St. Anthony the Abbot, in front 
of a ruined arch, through which a landscape is seen. In the foreground of this 
landscape is the Magdalen kneeling and yearning for the touch of the Saviour, 
who bids her hold back. The St. Anthony is good, St. Michael seems to be 
dancing, the Magdalen looks copied from Raphael. The colour is a little raw, 
the balance of light and shade incorrect, and the composition is affected and 
conventional ; there is little or no atmosphere. On the basement of the arch 
and between the two figures of saints one reads: " Timotheo Viti Urbina opus." 
This work was painted on the 2nd of May, 1518. (Pungileoni, nb. sup,, p. 50.) 

2 Pungileoni has proved by documents, such as receipts acknowledged, records 
of purchases of land, registries in the brotherhood of San Giuseppe at Urbino, of 
which the painter was a member, that Viti was in Urbino in 1501, 1503, 1505-9, 
1513, 1515, 1516, 1518, 1519, and 1520-23. It is possible that he should have 
been in Rome in 1514-15, 1516-17, or in 1519-20. (See the long and somewhat 
confused Life of Pungileoni, ub. sup.^) In favour of the last of these dates, it is to 
be noted that the chapel of the Pace was still unfinished in 1519. See the will of 
Agostino Chigi, in Passavant, Rafael, ii. 168. 

3 Rome, Santa Maria della Pace. Vasari contradicts himself when speaking 
of these frescoes. He says (Life of Raphael, iv. 341) the sibyls and prophets 
were the finest things of the master ; (Life of Timoteo Viti, iv. 495) that the 
sibyls were Viti's in invention and execution. There is no doubt that the prophets 
and sibyls are both done from Raphael's cartoons, the former entirely, the latter 
in the draperies, by Viti. See also Passavant, Rafael, i. 192, ii. 165. 


picture is in the Academy of Rome, and there are two versions 
current respecting it. According to one class of judges it is an 
injured Raphael ; according to another it is partially by Sanzio 
and partially by one of his disciples. 1 We believe the author to 
be Timoteo Viti, because in such parts of it as are preserved 
Timoteo's mode of colouring is obvious. The yellow lights, 
the pearly half-lights, and the grey shadows are as clearly 
characteristic of his style as the cold and careful finish and 
gloss of the surface. The heavy forms of the Virgin and 
Child appearing as a vision to St. Luke are his as contra- 
distinguished from Raphael's they have his usual rotundity 
and plumpness, the superficial air, without the life and inspira- 
tion, of Sanzio ; they are of ice as compared with such elevated 
creations as the Madonna of Saint Sixtus. The action and 
movement of St. Luke are as cold and lifeless as they well 
can be ; there is an indication and surface of action without 
life and strength to carry out that action ; and it is hard to 
tell why the brush does not slip from the hand of St. Luke, 
and the paint-pot fall to the ground. In the cast of the drapery 
Raphael's manner is imitated, in the motion of the figures his 
turn is aped, but the result is timidly imperfect. We may 
conclude, in fact, that a sketch of Raphael was enlarged by Viti 
to the life-size of this picture, and that in this way, and with 
Timoteo's knowledge of Raphael, a false air of the great master 
was produced by the poorer art of his assistant. A more genuine 
specimen of Viti when under Raphael's influence is the Madonna 

1 Rome, Academy of San Luca. Professor Cav. Ferdinando Cavalleri has 
written a pamphlet of twenty-two octavo pages to affirm the authenticity of this 
picture. It was given by Pietro da Cortona to the church of Santa Martina in 
Rome, which was ceded in 1588 to the Academy of Painters. The original piece 
was afterwards removed to the Academy, and a copy was placed on the altar (see 
Passavant, ii. 416). The Virgin, Child, the arms, hands, and feet, the yellow 
mantle and green sleeves of St. Luke, are all by one hand, the flesh being pale, 
yellowish in light, sky-blue in half-tone, grey in shadow, of strong substance and 
gloss in Viti's manner. The head of St. Luke and the youth beside him, which 
may or may not be the portrait of Raphael, are of another tone, which may be 
owing to the copious retouches which the picture has received. None of the 
figures are set on the ground according to the true laws of perspective. A cartello 
in the left-hand corner is a blank slashed with a knife ; it was introduced there 
by Scipione of Gaeta, a restorer of the eighteenth century, whose name was after- 
wards erased by Federico Zuccaro. 

294 TIMOTEO VITI [CH. vm. 

with Saints in the Museum of Berlin a very soft, formal, but . 
kindly mixture of the Umbrian of Sanzio and his father, with 
Timoteo's own peculiar coarseness in the size of the extremities. 1 
In a similar way we detect his peculiarities in the thin rubbed 
tone of the Penitent Jerome of the Berlin collection, 2 and the 
St. Francis belonging to Mrs. Butler Johnston in London. 3 

After Raphael's death Viti no doubt returned to Urbino, 
where he died on the 10th of October, 1523. 4 

1 Berlin Museum, No. 120. Wood, oil, 5 ft. 8 in. high by 4 ft. 10 in. ; formerly 
catalogued as by Santi, and with a false inscription of " Jo Sanctus Urbi. p." 
Subject, the Virgin and Child, the young Baptist, and a boy in prayer, St. James 
the Younger and St. James the Elder. 

2 Berlin Museum, No. 124. Arched, 1 ft. 3J in. high by 10 in. St. Jerome 
kneels before the Cross. [* This picture is now on loan to the Provinzialmuseum 
at Munster.] 

8 London, Mrs. Butler Johnston. Small panel. [* Bought at the Munro sale 
in 1878 by Mr. Cassels.] 

4 It is proved of Timoteo that in 1520 he empowered an agent to ransom his 
wife's relative, Federico Spaccioli, at Pesaro, for 50 scudi. Of his pictures, lost 
or otherwise unaccounted for, the following list may be made : (1) Urbino, Duomo, 
altar of Santa Croce. The Virgin and Child, St. Crescentius, St. Vitale, and an 
angel playing a viol (Vasari, iv. 494). Pungileoni (p. 7) and Passavant (Rafael, 
i. 376) state that this picture was in the Brera. It is not there now, nor was it 
ever catalogued. [* This is not correct. The picture in question has been at the 
Brera since 1811, though it was not on view for some time. It is now exhibited 
in the Sala XXV. as No. 508.] (2) Urbino, Sant' Agata and Cappuccini. Pictures 
the subjects of which are not given (Vasari, iv. 497, and Pungileoni, ub. sup., 
p. 17). (3) Urbino, brotherhood of San Giuseppe. Virgin, Child, and St. Joseph 
(Pungileoni, note to p. 46). Two crosses, done in 1520 (Pungileoni, p. 107). 
(4) Marciolla, near Urbino. Two Angels playing the Lute (ibid., p. 8X (5) Home, 
Santa Caterina da Siena. Frescoes, and a cataletto, which, however, was also 
assigned to Peruzzi (Vasari, iv. 495, 596). (6) Rome. Liberation of Andromeda 
(Pungileoni, note to p. 63, but see also Bottari, Lettere Pitt., iii. 480). (7) Pesaro, 
San Francesco. Holy Family and St. Francis, and in the distance a Procession of 
the Kings (Pungileoni, p. 14). (8) Forli, San Francesco, with Genga. A chapel 
containing the Assumption, since destroyed (Vasari, iv. 496, and Pungileoni, p. 48). 
(9) Citta di Castello. Pictures (Vasari, iv. 496). 

* Extant paintings by Timoteo Viti hitherto unmentioned are : (1) Bergamo, 
Galleria Morelli, N 7 o. 30. St. Margaret. (2) Gubbio Cathedral. Coronation of 
Mary Magdalen. (3) Formerly High Legh Hall (Knutsford, Cheshire), and after- 
wards in the Rodolphe Kann collection, Paris, and now sold. The Agony in the 
Garden (reproduced in Gazette des Beaux-Arts, ser. iii. vol. xxiii. p. 187). (4) 
Milan, Brera, No. 509. The Trinity adored by St. Jerome and a Donor. Formerly 
in SS. Trinita at Urbino. (5) Urbino Gallery, St. Sebastian, SS. Joseph and Roch. 



T)ARMA, we may believe, was never without artists, but till 
the advent of Correggio they were men of acknowledged 
mediocrity ; and yet it would be unfair to assume that they did 
not share to some extent in the progress of the age. It is hardly 
doubtful that the Canozzi, who became famous at Padua, had 
considerable influence on Parmese painting; they brought with 
them some of the qualities of the Mantegnesques, but they intro- 
duced also the trick of tarsia, and it is curious to observe that 
pictures of the fifteenth century look as if they had been executed 
under all the disadvantages to which the wood-inlayer is subject. 
We have spoken casually of Bernardino Loschi as a man affected 
in his style by the Canozzi and by Costa. This Bernardino was 
the son of Jacopo Loschi, whose name is in records of 1449, and 
who died at Carpi in 1504. 1 

He was fortunate enough to compose for the Servi at Carpi in 
1496 a Virgin and Child famous for its miracles ; and the Gallery 
of Parma still possesses a very unattractive Madonna by him 
dated 1471, in which we observe something like the formlessness 
peculiar to the San Severini or Guidoccio of Imola. 2 There is 
nothing characteristic in this production, if we except its ugliness, 

1 Jacopo d'lllario Loschi paints, 1488, for San Giovanni of Parma, a standard 
and an altarpiece (Aff6, P. J., Vita del Parmigianino, 4to, Parma, 1784, p. 6) ; paints 
in 1496 the miraculous Virgin of the Servi at Carpi, still existing in 1707 and since 
lost ; is mentioned at Carpi in records of Jan. 1, 1500, and June 3, 1504 ; is noted in 
a record of Jan. 23, 1505, as dead. (Campori, Gli Artisti, ub. sup., pp. 293-4.) 

* Parma Gallery, No. 58. Panel, tempera, figures almost life-size. Two angels 
at the Virgin's side play viols, two others in prayer in a quaint sort of balconies ; 
in the sky the Saviour in benediction ; inscribed : " Opus Jacobi de Luschis de 
Parma MCCCCLXXI. die xvi. Junii." This panel is much injured by time and 



but the length and slenderness of the figures. They are the 
prototypes of numerous others on walls or panels in churches at 
Parma, commissioned we may suppose of Loschi and his father- 
in-law, Bartolommeo Grossi. 1 

Bernardino Loschi, who continued the art of his father, as we 
see by his altarpiece of 1515 in the Gallery of Modena, 2 was born 
at Parma before 1488, was the author of several pictures and 
frescoes in the churches and castle of Carpi, and died in the 
service of Alberto Pio of Carpi in 1540. 3 

Contemporary with Jacopo Loschi was Filippo Mazzuola, 
whose birth is uncertain, but who died in 1505, a man with some 
claim to attention, if only because he was the father of Parmi- 
gianino. 4 There are large compositions in his native place which 
afford a perfect insight into his style the Virgin and Child 

1 Parma. San Francesco. There are records of 1462 which prove that Jacopo 
Loschi and his father-in-lawpainted in this church. (We are obliged to Signor Carlo 
Malaspina for this and other intelligence respecting Parmese painters.) San 
Francesco is now a prison, and we have already noticed some old paintings there 
(Italian Painting, ed. Douglas, iii. 256, n. 1). In the convent church there is a 
Virgin and Child between SS. Francis and John the Baptist and a kneeling donor 
a fresco much in Loschi's manner. In the same style : (1) Parma, Santa Barbara, 
St. Anne and the Virgin giving the breast to the Child ; fresco, with figures under 
life-size, circa 1440-50. (2) Parma, Santissima Trinita, from San Barnaba. Virgin, 
Child, and St. James. Fresco, sawed from the wall, figures under life-size. (3) Parma, 
Duomo, 4th chapel in the right aisle. Here are frescoes with incidents from the 
legends of SS. Fabian and Sebastian, lately rescued from whitewash, done after 
1400 (Aff6, Storia dellaCitta di Parma, Parm. 1792), much restored. (4) Same 
church, Cappella Baganzola, built 1420-23 (Angelo Pezzana, Storia della Citta di 
Parma, 8vo, Parm. 1837-59). Frescoes with scenes from the lives of SS. Christo- 
pher and Catherine, also rescued from whitewash, but restored previous to the 
whitewashing and subsequently. Both chapels are assigned to Loschi and Grossi, 
and the style is truly that of Loschi's altarpiece. 

2 Modena Gallery, No. 477. Wood, m. 2-35 high by 1-68. Virgin, Child, SS. 
Nicholas and Anthony, and four angels ; inscribed : " Alberto Pio principe opt. 
aspirante Bernardinus Luscus Carpen. fecit. 1515." Done for the Scuola di 
S. Niccol6 at Carpi. 3 Campori (Gli Artisti, pp. 294 sqq.'). 

4 See the pedigrees of the Mazzuoli in Gualandi, Memorie, ub. sup,, ser. vi. 
p. 122. [* Nine children of Filippo Mazzuola were baptized at Parma between 
1490 and 1505. It is furthermore recorded that the wife of the painter Francesco 
Tacconi of Cremona (who was staying at Parma for some time towards the end of 
the fifteenth century) adopted Mazzuola and his wife as her children, and be- 
queathed the whole of her property to them. She, however, altered her will in 
1494, when she constituted her own son Jacopo Tacconi her sole heir. See Ricci, 
in Napoli nobilissima, vii. 5. There existed also relations as regards their art 
between Mazzuola and Tacconi; ct.postea, p. 297, n. 4.] 


between two Saints in the Gallery of Parma dated 1491, l the 
Baptism of Christ in the Duomo of 1493. 2 These and the Dead 
Christ on the Virgin's knees in the Naples Museum, which was 
finished in 1500, have all the same character. 3 The figures are 
usually lean and dry, and curiously stiff, at the same time ill 
drawn and short in stature ; sometimes they have a gentle air, 
they are almost always regular in the division of the proportions. 
Round heads, curt extremities, and styleless draperies are like- 
wise recurring features. We are reminded of the school of tarsia 
by the sharpness and abruptness of the contrast between the 
lights and the spare dark shadows that cling to the contours, as 
well as by the mapping of the dull tints investments. Mazzuola 
was no colourist, and his tempera is invariably raw and of a sad 
grey tone ; he was not master of any rules of perspective. His 
manner thus far is a mixture of the local one and of that of the 
Canozzi, with a slight approach to Cima's. 4 Some improvemetit 

1 Parma Gallery, No. 46. Virgin and Child enthroned, between St. Francis 
and St. John the Baptist ; inscribed : " Filipus Mazolus 1491 " ; the chin and neck 
of the Virgin and other parts injured and restored ; distance, sky. This may be 
the picture noticed by the Anonimo at San Domenico of Cremona (Anon. ed. 
Morelli, p. 34). 

2 Parma, Duomo, formerly in the baptistery. Arched panel, with life-size figures 
of Christ and the Baptist, with five saints at the sides, and the Eternal above ; 
inscribed : " Fillippus Mazolus p." and " Tempore d. Karoldi de Bucanis. P. Posti 
d. Jobs de Cribellis. d. Marci de colla de Lodovici de arietis, d. Andree de Vagiis, 
baptiste de clericis. Hoc opus fecit fieri Caplani canonicor senarii numeri baptis- 
terii Parmensis & R ano Dn MCCCCLXXXXIIT." The figures are long and slender and 
defective, the surface much injured by scaling and dirt ; there is a split along the 
body of the Baptist, and copious retouches in other parts. 

3 Naples Museum, Eoom XI., No. 22. Panel, oil, figures half the size of life ; 
inscribed on a cartello: " Filipus Mazola pinxit 1500"; at the Virgin's sides, the 
Magdalen, SS. Catherine, Monica, Apollonia, and Barbara ; distance, landscape. 

In the same gallery (Koom XL, No. 26), the Virgin adoring the Child between 
SS. Agnes and Chiara ; the figures are better than in the former painting, and 
more in the style of the altarpiece at Berlin (see posted, p. 298). Figures half life- 
size ; a cartello on the foreground bears the signature " Filipus Mazolla p.p." 

* 4 There is reason to think that Mazzuola studied in Venice for some time, 
probably before 1490. We have by him a free copy of Bellini's Resurrection of 
Christ which originally was in San Michele di Murano (see antea, i. 160, n. 2) ; 
this copy, signed " 1497 Filipus Mazolus," is now in the Strassburg Gallery 
(No. 225). The Museo Civico of Padua possesses a Madonna by Mazzuola (No. 411), 
bearing a mutilated inscription which may perhaps originally have read " Filipus 
Mazolus dis, Joanis Bellini p." This picture reproduces a composition by Bellini 
which also appears in the Madonna in the Scalzi, whether this be an original 
work by the master or not (see antea, i. 184, n. 4). The immediate model of 


may be found in his Madonna of 1502 at the Berlin Museum, 
which evinces more study and displays better forms than the old 
ones. 1 In a bust of the Redeemer of 1504 belonging to the 
Raczynski collection at Berlin, the regular mask of the Bellin- 
esques is reproduced 2 ; and in two bust portraits at Milan and 
Rome, respectable power is revealed in drawing, in modelling, 
and in light and shade. 3 

Mazzuola in most but not in all respects seems, however, to have been Francesco 
Tacconi's version of the same composition now in the National Gallery (No. 286), 
dated 1489. (See Moschetti, in Bollettino del Museo Civioo di Padova, x. 151 sqq.) 
In Mazzuola's portraits and in the picture of Christ at Agram it is possible to trace 
the influence of Antonello. 

1 Berlin Museum, No. 1109. Wood, 7 ft. 9 in. high by 3 ft. 9 in. ; inscribed in a 
cartello : " D. M.COCOC2. Philipus mazola parmensis p." Subject, Virgin and Child 
under a dais with two angels, between SS. Catherine and Chiara ; injured by 

In the same collection, No. 206, half-length portrait of a man, in style not 
unlike a portrait (No. 55) in the same gallery, signed " Me fecit B'nardinus de 
Comitibus," or a Madonna of 1500 by the same Bernardino in the Lochis Gallery. 
Of this last-mentioned Madonna with the Child in a landscape, there is a replica 
under Garofalo's name (No. 1115 in the Gallery of Schleissheim). [* This picture 
is now in the Gallery at Augsburg (cf . postea, p. 394).] 

2 Berlin, Kaczynski collection [* now in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum at Posen], 
No. 57. Wood, 1 ft. 11 in. high by 1 ft. 1| in. ; bust, in benediction ; on the parapet 
a cartello with " Filipus Mazola parmensis p. MCCCCCiiii." [* From the same year 
dates a picture representing the Conversion of St. Paul, which originally was in 
the Monastery of the Franciscans at Cortemaggiore and now belongs to the Gallery 
at Parma (No. 51).] 

3 Milan, Brera, No. 417. Bust of a man in a black cap and vest on a green 
ground. On an opened letter cartello on the parapet : " Flipus Mazollus Par- 
mensis." Wood, m. 0-44 high by 0-28. This portrait is much in the style of that 
of Bonsignori in the National Gallery, though of a lower class. 

Rome, Palazzo Doria. Wood, tempera, all but life-size, bust of a man in a 
black cap and red vest, with a Latin motto "... me Deus et sit fort . . ." on 
his collar, and on the parapet " Fili. Mazola." Here Mazzuola is in the path of 
Melozzo. The panel is damaged by cleaning and is darkly olive in complexion. 

* Yet another portrait by Mazzuola is to be found in the Vieweg collection at 
Brunswick (inscribed " Alex, de Richao. F. M. Par. p. " ; see Harck, in Archivio 
storico dell 1 arte, ser. i. vol. iii. p. 172). A portrait in the Galleria Borromeo 
at Milan is perhaps also by him (see posted, p. 354, and Morelli, Die Galerie zu 
Berlin, p. 130). 

The following are also works by Mazzuola : (1) Agram, Strossmayer collection. 
Christ at the Column (signed " Filipus Mazola p. p."). Frizzoni, in IS Arte, vii. 
435 sq. (2) Cortemaggiore, San Lorenzo. The Virgin and Child with Saints 
(dismembered polyptych). Ricci, in Napoli nobilissima, vii. 5 sq. (3) London, 
National Gallery, No. 1416. The Virgin and Child with two Saints (signed 
" Philippus Mazola p. p."). 


Alinari photo."] 
II. 293] 

, Brera. 



Mazzuola's pupil, Cristoforo of Parma, earned his livelihood 
as a journeyman at Venice from 1489 to 1492, 1 and painted an 
altarpiece in 1495 which still hangs in the sacristy of the Salute. 
Previous to visiting Venice he no doubt completed the Madonna 
with Saints in the royal gallery of Parma. 2 The figures are an 
improvement on those of Mazzuola mild, thin, gentle, and not 
without a feeble sort of grace ; and Cristoforo seems to exhibit 
some of the tenderness and smorphia which mark the works of 
Francesco Francia and Rondinello. The action of his personages 
is timid and embarrassed, the draperies are overcharged, and the 
colours are cold and neutral. At the Salute a subject of the same 
nature is represented much in the same manner, but with more 
sombre shades of colouring which recall Buonconsiglio, and with 
changes in contours that prove the influence of Cima and Bellini. 3 
In 1496 Cristoforo was a master in his native place of Parma, 
where he was known by the sobriquet of " il Temperello " or 
Caselli. 4 Here he rises to greater dignity. The saints and angels 
round his Madonna of 1499, in the Sala del Consorzio dei Vivi e 
dei Morti at Parma, have some of the grace of Cima with an 

1 Gaye, Cart., ii. 71 ; he began with a salary of three ducats a month, which 
was increased in 1492 to eight ducats. 

In 1489 Cristoforo, together with Gentile Bellini, witnessed the will of 
Giovanni Mansueti's wife (see Ludwig, in the Berlin Jahrbuch, xxvi. Supplement, 
p. 63). He is mentioned in Grapaldi's De partibus aedium (lib. ii. cap. viii.), 
which was first published at Parma about 1494. 

2 Parma Gallery, No. 50. Tempera. Virgin and Child in an archway between 
88. John the Baptist and Jerome ; figures under life-size. 

1 Venice, Santa Maria della Salute, sacristy ; engraved in Zanotto, Pinacoteca 
Ven., fasc. 2. The colour, tempera of much substance, is injured in the lower 
parts of the picture. Subject, the Virgin and Child, with a bishop kneeling at 
her feet, attended by St. Christopher and a bishop ; inscribed : " Cristoforus Par- 
mensis pinxit MCCCCLXXXXV " ; figures half life-size. [* This triptych was executed 
for the church of San Cipriano at Murano. Cristoforo moreover painted the 
shutters of the organ of Santa Maria del Carmine at Venice with the figures of 
the Virgin Annunciate, St. Gabriel, Elijah, and St. Albert (Sansovino, Venetia, 
p. 263 ; Boschini, Le Ricche Minere, Sest. D.D., p. 44) ; these paintings are now lost. 
The signed picture of St. Peter enthroned in the church of Almenno San Barto- 
lommeo, near Bergamo, also probably dates from the time of Cristoforo's stay at 

4 He is mentioned as " Cristofano Castelli " by Vasari, vi. 485. [* The Caselli 
and the Temperelli were both Parmese families. It appears that Caselli was the 
original family name of the painter, and that later in his life he was also called 
Temperelli. Eicci, La R. Galleria di Parma, p. 107.] 


excess of corpulence, and are freely treated considering their 
peculiar style. The withered Baptist on the right is also one of 
Cima's types, whilst the bishop to the left and the bust of the 
Eternal in a lunette are of Mazzuola's less elevated stamp. The 
Virgin and Child alone betray some acquaintance with methods 
of contour common to Montagna and Canozzi; and indeed the 
whole arrangement presupposes Caselli's knowledge of Paduan 
maxims for distributing space and balancing the various parts of 
a picture ; the colour, far from being treated in the fashion of the 
Venetians, is without modulation and full of gloss, and preserved 
in keeping by contrasts of light and shade rather than by con- 
trasts of tints. In this, and in the masks and shape of angels, 
we see the germ that expanded fully in Correggio. 1 We cannot 
ascertain where Caselli acquired this novel breadth, but there are 
two panels representing winged boys playing instruments in the 

1 Parma, Sala del Consorzio del Vivi e dei Morti, originally in the Duomo ; men- 
tioned with praise by Vasari, vi. 485, and ordered on the 10th of March, 1496, for 
a chapel in the cathedral. The Virgin and Child are on a high throne between 
six angels playing instruments, and attended by SS. Ilario and John the Baptist ; 
at the foot of the throne ten angels in adoration ; inscribed : " Christophori 14. 
Caselli 99. opus." Figures life-size, wood, oil ; in the sky the Eternal with the orb 
in a glory of -cherubs. The price of the piece was 55 ducats of gold. [* This 
picture has now its place in the Gallery at Parma.] 

2 Parma, San Giovanni. Sacristy, wood, once part of the organ; much 
injured and blackened. [* These panels are now in the Gallery at Parma 
(Nos. 48 and 49).] 

3 Parma, Duomo, southern transept. That this was done in 1499 is stated in 
the dictionary of Orlandi. 

4 Parma, San Giovanni Evangelista. The Virgin (all repainted) in the middle 
of the picture, the kings to the left, and St. Joseph to the right ; signed with 
a new signature : " Christophorus Caselli opus, 1499." The figures are small and 
paltry, the colour of full substance and high in the shadows, the tints of dresses 
strongly contrasted, the composition arranged, unnatural, and lifeless. We are 
reminded here of Bertucci of Faenza and Tiberio, as well as of Araldi, whose 
fresco of the Virgin, Child, and Donor in the Duomo of Parma has been mistaken 
for a work of Caselli. It is therefore not unlikely that in this piece Araldi was 
Cristoforo's assistant. [* See postea, p. 301, n. 6.] In the same mixed style is 
a Visitation in the upper sacristy of the canons of the Duomo at Parma (panel, in 
oil, with figures of half life-size), inscribed : " Ms. Cabrielo Mandrio f. f." There 
is also in San Francesco of Osimo a large Madonna under a baldaquin, attended 
by SS. Bernardino, Jerome, Ursula, the Magdalen, Anthony, and three other erect 
saints, with St. Francis and a captain in armour kneeling at the sides, of which 
we are not certain whether to ascribe it to Caselli or to Kondinello. It bears the 
inscription (a forged one) of " Gio. Piero Perugino." The composition is good, and 


Alinari photo.-] [Parma Gallery. 

1 II. 300]J 


sacristy of San Giovanni at Parma which almost conclusively 
prove that he must have been inspired by the grand freedom and 
science of Mantegna as shown in the works of the Mantuan 
period. 2 

Of the same year, 1499, we have an Eternal on gold ground 
in a chapel to the right of the choir in the cathedral of Parma, 3 
and a repainted Adoration of the Magi in San Giovanni, in 
which we are reminded of the school of Palmezzano and the 
Faventiries. 4 The latest date . recorded of Caselli is 1507. 5 Of 
his pupil Alessandro Araldi, whose panels are exclusively con- 
fined to the city of Parma, we can only say that they show 
a decided leaning to the Umbrian models of Francesco Francia 
and the Peruginesques of the lowest class, and that in his most 
ripe productions he saved himself much trouble and thought by 
appropriating the forms and arrangements of other and greater 
men. 6 

the style is reminiscent in part of Luigi Vivarini and Montagna, the colour dull 
and sombre (injured and spotted) as in Caselli. 

* This painting is by Antonio Solario ; see postea, p. 437, n. 3. From 1502 dates 
a picture of the Nativity of Christ by Caselli in Santa Maria at Castell' Arquato, 
near Piacenza. Kicci, La R. Galleria di Parma, p. 108. 

3 Parma, Duomo, round. Monochrome of Christ in the Tomb between two 
angels, under the arch of the monument erected in 1507 to Bart. Montino, canon 
of Parma and apostolic protonotary. 

* We know from contemporary documents that Caselli was commissioned to 
execute various works of little importance between 1515 and 1521. He died in 
June 1521. Kicci, ub. sup., pp. 108, 106. 

6 Alessandro Araldi, according to Zaist (Notizie Ixtoriclie de' Pittori $ a 
Cremimesi, 4to, Cremona, 1774, i. 100), was a native of Casal Maggiore ; but 
this is an error, for according to Padre Affo (Life of Pavmigianino) he was 
born at Parma about 1465. His first public work (as we are informed by 
reports kindly furnished by Dr. Luigi Konchini and Signer Carlo Malaspina) 
was an altarpiece furnished in 1500 for San Quirino of Parma, in payment of 
which he received a small sum and a present of clothes. He painted a fresco 
of the Virgin and Child and a Donor in the Duomo of Parma in 1509 ; the Last 
Supper, the Capture, and other scenes from the Passion in the choir of San Paolo 
of Parma in 1510, which have perished. In 1514 he finished the Annunciation 
of the Carmine now in the Gallery of Parma, and in 1520 he received an order, 
which was never carried out, for an altai-piece in the Duomo. He made a will in 
1528; and a banner done for the company of San Cosimo e Damiano was presented 
to that company by his heir, Filippo Pozzioli, in 1530. The following is a list of his 
works : (1) Parma, Duomo. Fresco, Virgin and Child, St. Joseph, and a kneeling 
donor with the bishop's mitre at his feet ; life-size (the blue mantle of the Virgin 
and the distance abraded) ; inscribed : "Alex . nder D. Araldus pinxit. 15 . 9 " (1509). 
The fresco is on the wall to the right as you enter the Duomo, and is usually 


East of Parma and Bologna, and chiefly in the cities of Forli, 
Ravenna, and Rimini, we trace the influence of Giovanni Bellini 
commingled with that of Palmezzano, the chief representative 
of this class being Niccol6 Rondinello, the best artist of 
Ravenna in the first years of the sixteenth century. It was 
fortunate for Rondinello that he was enabled in his youth to 
attend the schools of the most eminent Venetians. He is 
described and, no doubt, correctly described by Vasari as 

assigned to Caselli. The forms are imitated from those of the Bolognese school 
of Francia, but outlined more strongly and in a more broken manner, the figures 
small in stature, bony, angular, and short in the limbs, the drapery of cutting 
folds ; the Child square in the fashion of the Veronese Caroto, the treatment like 
tarsia, the colour (much abraded) dull and raw. [* This fresco seems really to 
have been executed by Giovanni Pietro Zarotti in 1496 (Kicci, ub. sup. , p. 108).] 
(2) Parma Gallery, No. 45. Annunciation. Wood, oil ; inscribed : " Alexander 
Araldus faciebat 1514 " ; from the Carmine. The Virgin is affected, especially in the 
air of the head, the colour much abraded, raw and hard, the landscape the best part 
of the work. (3) Same gallery (No. 180), in the same style, but under the name 
of Giovanni Bellini, a Christ erect in benediction with a book, on green ground. 
[* Now labelled "Mocetto (?)."] (4) Parma, San Paolo, a chamber in the 
lunettes of which are various subjects. Ceiling, blue ground, arabesques and 
monsters, angels playing instruments, and medallions representing the Samaritan 
Woman at the Well, Moses receiving the Tables, Adam and Eve, a cento of imita- 
tion from Raphael and Michelangelo, and the Sacrifice of Abraham, recalling 
a composition of Bazzi. In other divisions, Judith decapitating Holophernes 
(reminiscent of Costa), Sermon of Paul, Massacre of the Innocents (copied from 
Raphael), the Miraculous Draught of Fishes, the Marriage Feast in Cana, the 
Judgment of Solomon. In the angles of the ceiling, gambols of children. The 
lunettes contain allegories of obscure meaning, feebly composed, but inspired 
from Mantegna, Costa, and Francia ; on the chimney-piece is the inscription : 
" Transivimus per ignem et aquam . . . MDXIIII." (5) Finally we have, in San 
Sepolcro of Parma, St. Ubaldus between the Archangels Michael and Raphael, 
with the Virgin annunciate and a Pieta in the pediment ; a fresco in the Cusani 
chapel, long concealed under another picture. But this fresco may be in part by 
Lodovico da Parma, a poor dependent in art of Araldi, to whom we may give the 
following : (1) Parma, ex-convent of San Paolo, Cella di Santa Caterina. Fresco, 
representing St. Catherine before Maximian. [* Signor Corrado Ricci ascribes 
this painting and the figures of SS. Catherine and Jerome in the same room to 
Araldi ; cf. Le gallerie nazionali italiane, i. 42 sq. See also the article on Araldi 
by the same writer in Thieme and Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Uldenden 
Kunstler, ii. 54 sq.] (2) Church of San Pietro, beneath the organ. Fresco of the 
Virgin and Child with St. Joseph to the right (all but gone). (3) Collegio 
delle Scuole Tecniche a San Paolo, facade. Fresco, much abraded, a Pieta. 
(4) Pinacoteca, No. 122. Annunciation, with the angel and the Eternal in the 
sky, and two saints, Catherine and Sebastian, to the left of the Virgin in an open 
archway. The character of Lodovico's paintings is that of a follower of the 
Bolognese school on the level of Melanzio and Tiberio d'Assisi. 


having been one of Giovanni Bellini's most industrious assist- 
ants. 1 During his stay at Venice he contributed to the 
production of pictures which Bellini did not disdain to sell 
as his own, and painted Madonnas which might well pass for 
school-pieces out of his master's atelier ; and it is not without 
interest to find amongst the treasures of the Doria Palace at 
Rome a Virgin and Child with Rondinello's signature, the exact 
counterpart of another in the same collection signed by Giovanni 
Bellini. 2 Such a striking concordance as this would not be 
explained by the mere supposition that Rondinello copied 
Bellini. We may presume that Bellini employed him on the 
principal parts of the panel to which he appended his name, 
and that Rondinello used the same design subsequently. The 
two pictures are alike in workmanship and composition, that 
which Bellini signed being less correct in outline and in 
colouring than it would have been had he done it entirely 
with his own hand, that of Rondinello being more paltry in 
shape and darker in tone. What distinguishes Rondinello in 
this and other productions of the same sort is a certain help- 
lessness in the setting of his figures, want of breadth and size 
in the figures, broken contours, and poor, cornered or tortuous 
drapery. 3 His handling testifies to no delicacy or subtlety 
of means, and his colour is uniform and sombre. There is 

1 Vasari, iii. 170 sqq., v. 253, vi. 323. 

2 Rome, Palazzo Doria, No. 126. Virgin and Child with St. John the Baptist to 
the right hand, inscribed : " Joannes Bellinus." Rondinello's copy (No. 163) is 
without the figure of the Baptist. The Child is varied in the movement of one 
arm, and holds a bird fastened by a string. The distant landscape is also varied ; 
on a parapet : " Nicolaus Rondinelo " ; wood, oil, below life-size ; much injured 
by restoring. 

s Same gallery, No. 159. Wood, oil, almost life-size. Virgin, half-length, with 
the Child on her lap ; green ground. This picture is much dimmed by time and 
restoring. The name of Rondinello is said to be concealed by the beading of the 

But there are other copies of Bellini's Madonna at the Doria Palace which 
may be by Rondinello, e.g. (1) Rovigo Gallery, No. 3. Virgin and Child in front 
of a green hanging which half conceals a landscape. On a cartello fastened 
to the parapet, the false inscription: " Gentilis Bellinus eques. 1483." 
(2) Ravenna, Rasponi Gallery. Replica of the above, but probably a copy 
from Rondinello by one of the Cotignola. [* The collection of Count 
Ferdinando Rasponi of Ravenna was sold by auction at Ravenna on Oct. 25, 
1880.] Reminiscent of Rondinello at the school of Bellini is a half-length 
Virgin and Child, signed " Joannes Bellini," in Dudley House, London. (See anteu.) 


evidence in his works and this is an advantage in the case 
of a man respecting whom we have not a single date l that 
he was particularly impressed by one class of Bellinesque 
models. In Bellini's altarpieces of 1505, and upwards, we 
observe a marked breadth of head and a vigorous compression 
of the horizontal facial lines. This peculiarity Rondinello 
took with him when he left Venice and transferred his easel 
to Forll and Ravenna. At first he preserved a grateful re- 
membrance of the lessons learnt in Venice, reproducing the 
masks of Cima and Bellini ; but his earlier impressions were 
rapidly superseded by others, and in the course of time he 
became as much an imitator of Palmezzano as of the Venetians. 
In a half-length Virgin giving the breast to the Child at the 
Forli Museum he is not wanting in feeling, nor is he forgetful 
of the laws of appropriate composition and proportion. His 
principal figure has a broad high forehead, which suggests 
reminiscences of Cima ; his drapery is cast in the Bellinesque 
fashion, bnt the colour, of a deep varnish-brown and freely 
impregnated with vehicle, is altogether unbroken. 2 On the 
same technical principle, with the mask peculiar to Bellini in 
1505, he produced a male portrait ascribed to Giorgione in the 
gallery of Forli, a likeness in which nature is not enlarged 
and ennobled as it might have been by the genius of a first- 
rate artist, in which monotony is created by general tinting, 
but in which a sombre glow proves attractive. 3 It is charac- 
teristic of Rondinello's progress from this time forward that 
he gains more and more freedom of hand without altering his 

* l We now know records proving that Niccolo Rondinello was at Venice in 
1495, In that year he got into trouble there for having married without 
observing all the formalities prescribed by the law. See Ludwig, in the 
Berlin Jahrbuch, xxvi. Supplement, pp. 6 sqq. 

2 Forli, Galleria Comunale, No. 131. Wood, oil, under life-size. Virgin 
and Child in front of a green curtain, at both sides of which landscape. (Ihe 
blues are all repainted.) On the parapet a twig, cherries, and nuts, beneath 
which the words " Nicolaus Rondinelus." The hand and head of the Child are 

8 Same gallery, No. 110. Wood, oil, 1 ft. 3 in. broad by 1 ft. 8| in. Bust likeness 
of a young man in a black toga, three-quarters to the left in a landscape, called 
" Portrait of the Duke Valentino " by Giorgione. The colour is deep and of full 
body, but unbroken and highly fused. It is not free from restoring. [* This 
picture is now officially ascribed to Palmezzauo.] 


technical process. His flesh is commonly of a red-brown tinge 
with olive-brown shadow and little or no transitions ; it is laid 
in with copious substance and vehicle at one painting with 
a sweeping touch, then scumbled with half-transparents and 
finished with light glazes. The burnish thus attained is dark 
and untrarisparent ; the vertically compressed form of heads 
becomes usual, and is accompanied by plumpness and fleshiness ; 
the eye is covered by a long horizontal lid ; the nose broad in 
barrel and nostril. 

The first example of this treatment is the St. Sebastian at 
the Column in the cathedral of Forll, where, however, the 
influence wielded by Palmezzano is already noticeable in the 
head, the broken outline, the drapery and architectural distance. 1 
In other pictures assignable to Rondinello at the Brera there is 
an obvious mixture of the schools of Venice and the Romagna. 2 
In this fashion too we have four Angels and an Annunciation 
in San Pietro Martire of Murano, 3 in which we are reminded 
of Pier Maria Pennacchi. 

1 Forli, Duomo. Wood, oil. The saint is bound to a pillar, and stands under 
an arch on an octagonal pedestal. Distance, houses and landscape. The 
drawing is broken in Palmezzano's fashion, and the drapery cast in Palmezzano's 

2 (1) Milan, Brera, No. 452. Wood, oil ; classed in school of the Bellini " ; 
m. 1'75 high by 1-75; originally at San Giovanni Evangelista of Kavenna 
(Vasari, v. 254). Subject, St. John Evangelist in front of an altar, on which a 
picture of the Virgin and Child is placed. St. John wields a censer before the 
kneeling Gal la Placidia. Angels minister at each side. This is a well-preserved 
picture by Rondinello, coloured as stated in the text; the Virgin and Child 
Bellinesque, St. John reminiscent of the high-priest in Bellini's Presentation 
at Castle Howard. The angels are square and short in head as described. 
(2) Same collection, No. 453, under the name of Stefano da Ferrara. Wood, 
oil, m. 2-69 high by 2-18. Virgin enthroned between SS. Peter, Bartholomew, 
Nicholas, and Augustine, and three angels in front playing instruments. Same 
character as the foregoing, but broader in treatment. 

* Both these paintings are now catalogued under Kondinello. The Brera 
Gallery also contains a picture by Rondinello representing five saints 
(No. 454), which originally was in San Giovanni Evangelista at Ravenna 
(Vasari, v. 254). 

3 Murano, San Pietro Martire, but originally in Santa Maria degli Angeli. 
Four panels, in each of which is an angel; two play instruments, two are in 
prayer. In Santa Maria degli Angeli are two panels by the same hand, hanging 
in the spandrils of the great arch of the nave. They represent the Virgin and 
the Angel Annunciate. 

VOL. ii 20 


As Rondinello grows older he loses more and more Venetian 
character, and in several votive altarpieces at Ravenna he boldly 
assumes the manner of Palmezzano. 1 

1 (1) Ravenna Gallery, No. 7. Virgin and Child, SS. Thomas, Magdalen, 
Catherine, and Baptist, and two angels playing instruments ; injured in part (arm 
of Child, cloak of Virgin). This piece, in which the Baptist strongly reminds us 
of Palmezzano, belongs to a religious corporation (La Congregazione di Carita) at 
Kavenna. Wood, figures life-size. (2) Ravenna, Santa Croce, originally in Santo 
Spirito (Vasari, v. 254). [* Now Gallery, No. 6.] Virgin, Child, and SS. Jerome 
and Catherine: greatly injured. (3) Casa Lovatelli, originally at San Giovanni 
Battista (Vasari, iii. 171 *#.). Virgin and Child, SS. Albert and Sebastian. Wood, 
life-size, full length ; much injured and repainted, but with marks of having been 
one of Rondinello's boldest productions. (4) San Domenico, choir. The Virgin, 
the Angel annunciate, SS. Dominic and Peter Martyr, each on a separate canvas, 
and represented standing under archways ; genuine pieces by Rondinello, but 
dimmed by age and dirt. Figures life-size. These may be parts of one of the altar- 
pieces mentioned by Vasari (v. 254). The other of which he speaks, namely that 
to the left of the high altar, is by Benedetto Coda. [* The four above-mentioned 
figures originally adorned the shutters of the organ of San Domenico (Ricci, 
Raocolte artistiche di Ravenna, p. 10). The following are also works by 
Rondinello at Ravenna : (1) Gallery, No. 8. The Virgin and Child with two 
Saints. (2) Monte di Pieta. Madonna (fragment of a fresco). (3) Casa 
Nadiani-Monaldini. SS. Peter and Mary Magdalen.] 

We may mention here Baldassare Carrari, a pupil, we believe, of Palmezzano 
and a disciple of Rondinello. He is the painter of a Coronation of the Virgin 
with an attendance of saints (amongst whom St. Mercuriale), No. 105 in the 
Communal Gallery of Forli. This piece is inscribed : " Baldassar Curulis foro- 
liviensis fecit R di hujus edis abate Dm Fhilipus MDXII." It was originally in 
San Tommaso Apostolo. The upper part recalls Rondinello, the lower Palmezzano. 
By the same hand apparently we have the following : (1) Ravenna, Rasponi 
Gallery [* of. antea, p. 303, n. 3], No. 10. Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew, spirited in 
the fashion of the school of Signorelli (predella) ; and, unnumbered, a second 
predella representing the Baptism of Christ between four angels. (2) Forli, San 
Bartolommeo [* now Communal Gallery, No. 107]. Christ on the Virgin's lap, 
with the Magdalen, Evangelist, Nicodemus, and Joseph of Arimathea. There is 
a replica of this in Ravenna, Chiesa della Croce [* now in the Ravenna Gallery], 
See also antea. 

* The earliest record of Carrari dates from 1489, and in 1519 we know he was 
dead. In addition to those mentioned by the authors the following works are 
also by him : (1) Forli, San Mercuriale, first chapel to the right. The Baptism 
of Christ (fragment of a fresco executed in 1498). (2) London, collection of 
Mr. Robert Benson. The Adoration of the Magi. Signed " Baldasar Forliviensi 
pinsit." (3) Longana (near Ravenna), Sant' Apollinare. St. Apollinaris between 
SS. Sebastian and Roch. (4) Milan, Brera, No. 466. The Virgin and Child 
between SS. James the Greater and Laurence. Signed " Baldasara Forliviensis 
pinxit." Originally in Sant' Apollinare Nuovo at Ravenna. For notices of this 
painter, see Grigioni in Arte e storia, new series, vol. xv. pp. 91 sqq., and in 
Rasaegna bibliograjica deW arte italiana, i. 237 sqq. 


Benedetto Coda of Ferrara, whose habitual place of residence 
was Rimini, is of the same genus as Rondinello, but of lower 
rank. He is justly described by Vasari as a Bellinesque of small 
merit ; 1 we might almost add, a disciple of Rondinello. Being a 
Ferrarese by birth, 2 he imported into his style something of 
Francia ; and his figures may be distinguished by their regularity 
as well as by a feeble sort of tenderness. Some of his panels 
bear the dates of 1513-1515. They are exclusively to be found 
in Rimini, Ravenna, and Pesaro. 3 

1 Vasari, iii. 172. 

2 Ibid., v. 183. 

s The following is a list and description of them : (1) Rimini, Duomo. Mar- 
riage of the Virgin, with life-size figures ; inscribed on a cartello :".... bene- 
dicti . . . ." Laderchi (Pitt. Ferrar., lib. sup., p. 60) says it was signed "Opus 
Benedict!, 1515." This is a picture of fifteen figures, including a couple of children 
seated at the corners of the foreground. The forms are slender, affected, and 
feebly like those of Francia's school, and seem to have been produced by one who 
had seen the frescoes of the oratory of Santa Cecilia at Bologna. The colours are 
saturated with vehicle and sombre in hue as in Rondinello. (2) Rimini, Chiesa 
de' Servi, formerly in San Domenico. Virgin and Child between SS. Francis and 
Dominic, with three angels playing instruments at the base of the throne ; inscribed 
on a cartello : " MDXIII opus Benedict! faciebat " (sic). The altarpiece is injured 
by splitting and scaling. The angels are like those in the pieces assigned in these 
pages to Rondinello at the Brera. For the rest, the style is that above described. 
(3) Rimini, Duomo, sacristy. Six panels, one-quarter of life-size, representing the 
Meeting of St. Francis and St. Dominic, St. Anthony, Peter and Paul, a young saint 
and a bishop in couples, and a saint in episcopals. These are wrongly assigned to 
Perugino ; they are poor things by Benedetto Coda. (4) Pesaro, Scoletta di San 
Giovanni, originally at the Padri Riformati f uor di Porta d'Arimini. Arched panel, 
with the Assumption and two Saints (male and female) in a foreground, m. 1-60 
broad by 2'90, figures life-size. Umbro-Bolognese in character as above, feeble, 
and without effect of light and shade. (5) Ravenna, San Domenico. Arched panel, 
made square. Virgin and Child between SS. Dominic and Jerome ; on the steps of 
the throne, St. Joseph and St. Francis in converse ; on a cartello to the left hand : 
"Opus benedicti arimensis"; figures life-size. This is Benedetto's best production, 
taken, we believe, by Vasari for a Rondinello (Vasari, v. 254). It is more broadly 
handled than the foregoing, yet in the same style, a mixture of the Raphaelesque 
of the Bolognese school and the Venetian of Palma Vecchio. 

Vasari mentions Bartolommeo, son of Benedetto Coda (Vasari, iii. 172), and 
Lanzi (History of Painting, iii. 27) assigns to him a Madonna between SS. Roch 
and Sebastian in San Rocco of Pesaro on which he observed the date of 1528. 
This Madonna, which still exists, is by an imitator of the Raphaelesque style, 
and looks like a work of Coda's school. On the cartello but one letter B. 
remains. In the sacristy of the Duomo at Rimini is a Descent of the Holy Spirit 
(panel, life-size, split horizontally in three), attributed to the father of Benedetto. 
It is by a follower of Coda. In the church of the Madonna del Rosario, between 
Pesaro and Gradara, is a Virgin and Child between SS. Dominic and Paul, and 


Of a more distinctly local class at first was the manner of 
Francesco Zaganelli, born at Cotignola in the duchy of Ferrara, 
but a resident subsequently in Ravenna. He was a pupil of 
Rondinello, 1 but not of Rondinello alone, for in an altarpiece of 
1505 at the Brera, representing the Virgin between two saints 
and a kneeling patron, he shows himself acquainted with the 
school of Palmezzano. 2 In the first period, to which this picture 
belongs, Zaganelli gives promise of slender talents ; his thin 
dry forms are drawn with a finished and careful contour, but are 
curiously stiff and lifeless ; the dresses are broken into rectilinear 
sections, and the colours lie dead and flat. At this level we have 
already seen Bertucci of Faenza, to whom Zaganelli at this stage 
has some resemblance, and the teaching of Palmezzano is betrayed 
in part by the cast of draperies and in part by the arabesques on 
gold ground in the architecture. A similar dilution of Palmez- 
zano is noticeable in a second altarpiece at the Brera, done, 
according to some authors, by Zaganelli in company with his 
brother Bernardino, but without any sign of distinct treatment 
on that account. 3 We shall see that Bernardino was frequently 

around this principal scene a framework of fifteen scenes from the Passion. 
This also is of Coda's school. But with reference to the name Bartolommeo, we 
may notice a Resurrection of Lazarus with figures of life-size, in the church of the 
Esposti of Fano, signed on a cartello " Bartholom "* et Pom ^ et filius fanen. f." 
Also a similar subject in the church of San Francesco at Filotrano, inscribed : 
" Pompeus Morgantis Fanensis 1543." These are all productions of a very worth- 
less and uninteresting kind, nor is it of much interest to inquire whether Barto- 
lommeo of Fano is the same of whom Lanzi in his index says that he signed 
himself " Bartolommeo Ariminensis," was the son of Benedetto Coda, and lived 
in 1543. 

1 Vasari, v. 255. We shall see that Francesco's name was Francesco di Bosio 
de' Zaganelli di Cotignola. (See posted.) 

2 Milan, Brera, No. 455. Wood, oil, m. 1-44 broad by 1-13; originally in the 
Minori Riformati of Civitanova. Virgin, Child, SS. Francis, Nicholas, and a 
kneeling patron ; inscribed : " Hoc op' f. f . Petrus Marinatie et ego Franc' Coting- 
nolensis feci feci A. D. M- 1505." The painting has undergone cleaning and 

* Of earlier date than this painting is a joint work by Francesco Zaganelli and 
his brother Bernardino executed for the church of the Padri Osservanti at Cotig- 
nola, and now the property of the Brera (No. 457). It represents the Virgin and 
Child with three angels and SS. John the Baptist and Florianus, and is signed 
" YHS. Franciscus & Bernardinus f ratres Cotignolanj de Zaganelis faciebant 

Milan, Brera, No. 458. Wood, oil, m. 2-30 broad by 1-50 assigned to Bernardino 
M chesi (?). [* Now catalogued under Francesco and Bernardino Zaganelli.] 



Alinari photo.} 
II. 308 


[Milan, Brer a. 


an assistant to Francesco, and that when he worked alone he 
was a man of small attainments. 1 From these comparatively 
poor beginnings Zaganelli gradually ascended to a more com- 
manding height by studying the masterpieces of Francesco 
Francia. Though stilt a feeble artist, he produced two pictures 
in 1509 in which a marked improvement is discerned. In the 
Adoration of the New-born Christ at the National Gallery of 
Ireland, the figures are more cleverly set and better outlined 
than of old; they have a calm and kindly movement, and 
pleasant faces ; the draperies are more judiciously arranged 
and the colours, though injured from various causes, are in better 
tone. 2 It was not strange that, after contemplating the saintly 
creations of the Bolognese, Zaganelli should learn to express 
a deeper and more genuine feeling. In the second creation of 
the same year, now at Berlin, he composes the Annunciation 
in the fashion of Francia, the Virgin standing on a pedestal 
between two saints and looking up to the angel who is wafted 
to her presence from heaven. In this as well as in the tender 
glance and movement, or slender proportions of both these 
apparitions, the change in Zaganelli may be detected ; whilst 
in the Baptist at one side a reminiscence of Rondinello, and in 
the arabesques of the archings, or the rectilinear style of drapery, 

Virgin and Child enthroned between SS. John the Baptist and Francis. This seems 
to be the altarpiece described as by Francesco and Bernardino Zaganelli inBeltrami, 
Forestiere . . . nella citta di Ravenna, 1783 (quoted by Baruffaldi, Vite da' Pitt. 
Ferr. t ii. 514, and by Lanzi, iii. 26). Both authorities agree in saying it was in the 
Minori Osservanti of Ravenna, and that the date of its execution was 1504. The 
surface is also injured by cleaning. Vasari mentions (v. 255 s#.) a Christ carrying 
his Cross left unfinished by Zaganelli. An unfinished picture with this subject is 
No. 460 in the Brera Gallery, but is only a school-piece. 

1 L. N. Cittadella publishes (in Document^ ub. sup., p. 154) a record, dated 1509, 
in which the brothers " Francesco and Bernardino de Zaganellis de Cotignola " 
exchange certain lands for others. 

2 Dublin, National Gallery, No. 141. 5ft. 11 in. high by 5ft. The Infant 
Christ on a pedestal in a chapel, through the arches of which the sky is seen, is 
adored to the right by St. Francis and St. Anthony of Padua, to the left by the 
Virgin and St. Joseph. On a cartello on the pedestal we read: "B . . narets 

mediana pois. . his ossa reliq* h . c testameti jure dedit superist 

. . nards o . . . . ot pin . ebat ano <f 1509, 7 Aprilis." This picture, once in the 
church of the Riformati at Iinola (Lanzi, iii. 26), has been through the hands of 
Mr. Van Cuyck in Paris, Mr. Wigram, and Mr. Nieuwenhuys. At Mr. Van Cuyck's 
it was transferred to canvas and the sky was repainted. The colours are blind 
from restoring. 


the effects of Palmezzano's precepts are apparent. 1 The writhing 
St. Sebastian with hands bound high above the head to a tree, a 
life-size figure in the Costabili Gallery at Ferrara, throws some 
further light on the progress of our artist. He did this in 1513, 
with firmness and mastery of drawing and comparative lightness 
of tone, felicitously repeating one of the bold postures peculiar to 
Paris Bordone, imitated in later years by Guido and the Caracci. 2 
Of the same time, and better, is the Eternal in glory adored 
from earth by companies of saints, an altarpiece that once 
adorned the fifth chapel in San Biagio of Forli. 3 During his 
visits to Bologna Zaganelli had evidently paid some attention to 
the modifications wrought amongst the younger disciples of its 
school by Raphael ; and amidst the angels who flit about the 
Eternal and support the floating folds of his garments, there are 
some whose attitudes are those of Innocenzo da Imola in his 
Raphaelesque period. Where this influence is less apparent and 
the master's old habit is preserved, there is still some advance 
to note ; the forms without the amplitude of the moderns, the 
drapery still in the customary cast, are bathed in a fresher atmo- 
sphere, and the colours, if cold in the grey and purple enamel of 
the flesh, or in the sharp tints of landscape, are lively and clear. 
But the most important and most freely treated of all 
Zaganellfs sacred pieces is the Virgin and Child with the 

1 Berlin Museum, No. 1164. Wood, 6 ft. 4 in. by 5 in., from the Solly collection. 
The Baptist to the left recommends a kneeling patron. St. Anthony of Padua 
(right) stands in prayer. The cartello at the Virgin's feet is abraded and contains 
but the words " 1509. Aprilis." 

Of the same character as this of Berlin, and somewhat reminiscent of Bart. 
Montagna, is a Virgin and Child enthroned between St. John the Baptist and 
St. Sebastian, a small panel in the hands of M. Eeiset in Paris. [It is now in the 
Musee Conde at Chantilly (No. 22).] 

2 Ferrara, Costabili, all but life-size ; inscribed : " Xhristus. 1513 Franciscus 
de Zaganellis Chotignolensis pinxit." [This picture is now in the Gallery at 
Ferrara (Sala II.).] 

* Forli Gallery, No. 135. Arched panel, with life-size figures, much injured 
by time and restoring. The Eternal, in heaven, is attended by angels. Below, 
SS. Buonaventura, John Evangelist, and a female saint, Jerome, Mary Magdalen, 
and yet another; inscribed on a cartello : "A. S. 1514 (?) Francischus Chotigno- 
lensis pinxit." 

A Baptism of Christ of 1515, once in San Domenico of Faenza (Laderchi, Pitt. 
Ferrar., p. 59), is missing. [* This picture and the accompanying lunette con- 
taining a Pieta are now in the collection of Mr. David Erskine at Linlathen, near 


portraits of the Pallavicini family executed in 1518 for the 
church of the Nunziata outside Parma. 1 In none of his previous 
performances are greater skill in arrangement and better drawing 
to be found, though it cannot be denied that coarseness of shape 
and vulgarity of features are united to freedom of hand. The 
drapery is more easy in fold, yet not altogether free from hard- 
ness ; the flesh tints in the portraits are of a pleasant warmth but 
slightly relieved with grey, and of a hard enamelled finish still 
recalling Palmezzano. 

In the same style, but Leonardesque in the regularity of the 
divisions and the modelling of the parts, is the fine bust of Christ 
by Zaganelli and his brother Bernardino, the property of Signer 
Mylius at Genoa, a panel which might give the artists a right to 
a good place amongst the second-rates of the Romagna were it 
not that the features are laboured down to a pinched smallness 
and the face worked up to an empty uniformity. 2 In the latest 
things of the master, which exist at Ravenna and Rimini, there 
are marks of haste or declining power. His chronology ceases 
after 1518. 3 

1 Parma, ch. of the Nunziata, outside the Porta Nuova. Panel, with life-size 
figures of the Virgin and Child between SS. John the Baptist, Bernardino, and 
John Evangelist ; inscribed, beneath the feet of an angel playing a viol, on the 

throne-step : " Xh 1518 Francescho da Cotignola mi dipinse." This 

part of the picture hangs in a bad state, being dimmed by age and dust, in a dark 
place to the right of the entrance. Two other panels with the old frame are in 
the choir. These contain bust portraits of Rolando Pallavicini and his daughter (?) 
reading a book, and a bust likeness of Pallavicini's wife Domicilla. The first 
is inscribed " Ro . . . Pall . . . dicavit," the second " Domicilla conjux." In a 
note to Vasari (v. 123) this work is given to Girolamo Marchesi of Cotignola. 

2 Genoa, Signor Federico Mylius. Wood, m. 0'28 broad by 0-33. Front face 
with long curly hair, ground dark ; inscribed : " Franciscus Bernardinus Bosii. 
Cotignolani f ." Well preserved, though slightly rubbed down. A crown of thorns 
is on the head, and copious tears fall down the cheeks ; the signature is on the 
tunic hem, which runs across the breast. [* Present whereabouts unknown.] 

3 (1) Ravenna, Galleria Rasponi, No. 8. [* Cf. antea, p. 303, n. 3.] Half-length 
of the Virgin with the Child erect, clinging to the hem of her bodice, and playing 
with a bird, a charming group better in thought than in handling. The pro- 
portions and masks recall Francia ; a highly finished piece with thin flesh colour 
(half -life). (2) Ravenna, Sant'Agata. In the choir an arched panel with eight 
figures, all but life-size, of the crucified Saviour, the Magdalen grasping the foot 
of the cross, the fainting Virgin, and the Marys, a friar, St. Francis, and another 
saint. This picture, much praised by Vasari (v. 255), is much injured, especially 
in the figure of Christ, by retouching ; there is much exaggeration in the move- 
ments of the lean saints, and in this we are reminded of Lotto. The colours are 


Of Bernardino Zaganelli we possess but one genuine pro- 
duction, a St. Sebastian belonging to Signor Frizzoni of Bellagio 
on the lake of Como, perhaps originally part of an altarpiece in 
the Carmine at Pavia dismembered at the close of the eighteenth 

sombre and sharply contrasted. [* This picture is now in the Eavenna Gallery, 
No. 13.] (3) Ravenna, San Girolamo, ex-Gesuiti. Arched panel, with life-size figures; 
subject, the Marriage of St. Catherine, with St. Sebastian, St. John Evangelist, a 
friar, and St. Roch. In a predella, St. Bartholomew, the Virgin's soul carried to 
heaven by two angels, cloth of St. Veronica, SS. Catherine and Paul This panel is 
high up above the chief portal and of a dull tinge ; the Infant Christ is blackened 
by restoring a poor piece, not unlike an early one by Girolamo Marchesi, which 
might of itself prove that Girolamo was of Zaganelli's school. This may be the 
altarpiece mentioned by Vasari (v. 255). (4) Ravenna, San Romualdo, or Classe, 
sacristy. Resurrection of Lazarus. Arched canvas, in oil, ill composed, worse 
drawn, and most affected. (Vasari, v. 255.) (5) Ravenna, San Niccold. Nativity, 
much injured and scaled, a school-piece. (Vasari, v. 255.) (6) In the same 
character and in the same place, but originally in Sant' Apollinare, two life-size 
figures (wood) of 88. Sebastian and Catherine. The exaggeration in the action 
of the figures in these works is not unlike that of the feeble disciples of 
Signorelli. [* These three paintings are now in the Ravenna Gallery, Nos. 10-12.] 
The Nativity seems to have been painted by Zaganelli for the Franciscans of 
Cremona. The Anonimo (ed. Morelli) notices such a subject done as a night- 
scene after the fashion of Correggio, the light emanating from the Infant 
Christ (Anon., p. 37). (7) Rome, Villa Albani. Lunette panel with the 
Saviour supported in his tomb by two angels, perhaps part of the Baptism 
of Christ, of 1515, originally in San Domenico of Faenza (Laderchi, ub. gup., 
p. 59). [* Cf., however, anted, p. 310, n. 3.] The figures are half the size of life ; 
the Christ, Bellinesque, with draperies in the fashion of Palmezzano. (8) Rimini 
Gallery. Same subject with four angels, assigned to Giovanni Bellini, recalls 
Rondinello and Coda, but is probably by Zaganelli. This, however, is a tempera, 
and perhaps a picture of Zaganelli's youth. (See anted?) [* This painting, 
which is far beyond Zaganelli's powers, is now universally accepted as a 
masterpiece by Giovanni Bellini. See antea, i. 147, n. 4.] (9) Ferrara, Costabili 
collection [* now dispersed]. Same subject, a school-piece. (10) Naples 
Museum, Room VI., No. 25, under the name of Cosimo Rosselli. [* Now under 
that of Francesco Zaganelli.] Marriage of the Virgin, figures all but life-size, 
in the manner of Francesco and Bernardino Zaganelli. [* In addition to those 
noticed by the authors we may also notice the following works by Zaganelli : 
(1) Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, No. 2741. The Entombment of Christ. From 
the Rasponi collection in Ravenna. (2) Bologna, Pinacoteca, No. 236. The 
Virgin and Child with two Saints. (3) London, Holford collection. The 
Virgin and Child with SS. Helen and Constantin. (4) London, late Abdy 
collection (sale at Christie's, May 5, 1911, No. 94). The Virgin and Child, signed 
" Fraciscus da Chodignola." (5) Milan, Brera, No. 456. Pieta. Originally in 
San Domenico in Lugo (6) Milan, Brera, No. 458. The Entombment of Christ. 
From the oratory of Santa Maria in Acumine at Rimini. (7) Verona, Museo 
Civico, No. 118. The Entombment of Christ.] 

The following are missing : Ravenna, Sant' Apollinare. (Vasari, v. 255.) 


century. 1 It is a figure alike defective in shape, in character, and 
in colour, the work of a patient but unskilful craftsman who 
might be a useful assistant in his brother's workshop, but has no 
claim to rank as an independent artist. 

With Girolamo Marchesi of Cotignola, the pupil, we think, 
of Zaganelli, art in the Romagnas enters upon its last phase. 2 
Girolamo began as a cold and diligent imitator of Zaganelli and 
Francia. His first altarpieces at San Marino are a feeble echo of 
those masters, with a germ of exaggeration in addition ; his 
Nativity of 1513 in Lord Ash burton's collection shows that he 
clung for a long series of years to this early style. 3 But having 
followed the young Bolognese, who had learnt to worship the 
latest creations of Sanzio and Buonarroti, he rapidly acquired 
the superficial breadth and freedom of the great schools, to which 
he added a peculiar weight and vulgarity essentially his own. 
in one form of his art he recalls Innocenzo da Imola and 
Bagnacavallo, as in a Marriage of the Virgin at Bologna; in 
another form, as in a Virgin and Child with Saints, he shows 
himself the precursor of the Caracci, aping the boldness of the 

Virgin, Child, SS. John the Baptist, Apollinare, Jerome, and others ; Virgin and 
Child, SS. Peter and Catherine. 

* Towards the end of 1513 Francesco Zaganelli settled in a house belonging 
to the Monastery of San Vitale at Eavenna. It is proved by contemporary 
records that the rent for this house was paid until 1531, and in 1533 and 1534 by 
his widow Cecilia. See Kicci, in Rassegna d'arte, iv. 49 ; Raccolte artistiche di 
Ravenna, p. 12. 

1 Pavia, Carmine and Bellagio. The altarpiece at the Carmine was in six 
parts ; the principal course representing St. Sebastian between SS. Nicholas and 
Catherine ; the upper course, Christ between two angels, the Virgin and the angel 
annunciate. It is so described by Francesco Bartoli in Notizie delle pitture e 
^culture cTiiese fy a di Pavia. MS. finished at Venice in 1777. [* See also the same 
author's Notizia delle pitture . . . d 'Italia, ii. Ssq."] The St. Sebastian, which we 
suppose to have belonged to the above, is now in the collection of Signer Frizzoni 
at Bellagio, and represents St. Sebastian in a hip-cloth at the column. Distance, 
a landscape with figures on horseback. Wood, oil ; inscribed : " S-nardinu 
Cotigloa p." [* This painting is now in the National Gallery (No. 1092). 
The altarpiece of which we may assume that it formed part was ordered in 1506 
by the foreign students of the University of Pavia for their chapel in the Carmine 
and was executed at Pavia. See Ffoulkes and Maiocchi, Vincenzo Foppa, p. 192.] 

2 For notices of this painter see Vasari, v. 182 sc[. 

* Yet another picture by Marchesi which is reminiscent of Zaganelli belongs 
to the Gallery at Budapest (No. 73, signed " Hieronymus de Marchesijs da Cotignola 
faciebat "). It is a free copy of Bellini's Piet in the Vatican Gallery. 


later Raphaelesques and Michelangelesques, almost reaching the 
level of the Veronese Francesco Oaroto. Specimens of his skill 
at this period are to be found with the dates of 1516, 1518, 
and 1526 at Berlin and Bologna. Vasari relates of him that he 
was chiefly known in Bologna as a portraitist, one of his studies 
of interest, if we could but discover it, being after Gaston de 
Foix, when he lay wounded at Ravenna in 1512. His will, 
dated Bologna, August 16, 1531, is still preserved. 1 His last 

1 Gualandi, Memorie, ub. sup., ii. 12. 

2 Here follows a notice of Girolamo's works as mentioned in the text or noticed 
by historians ; and first as to those of which we may speak with authority. (1) San 
Marino, San Francesco. 1, ^Virgin in prayer in a landscape, between St. Augustine 
and St. Anselmo, and receiving a benediction from the Eternal in the sky ; on a 
cartello : " Hieronimus cotignol. fac." ; figures almost life-size. 2, Virgin and Child 
enthroned between SS. Catherine, Francis, Marino, and another ; two angels on 
the throne-step play instruments ; wood, oil, figures of life-size. The last of these 
pictures is erroneously assigned to Giovanni Bellini ; both are feeble and careful, 
in the manner of a disciple of Francia. (2) London, Lord Ashburton, but originally 
in Santa Maria delle Grazie at Pesaro. Virgin adoring the Child, attended by four 
saints, a bishop, Jerome, and two females ; inscribed : " Jeronim Cottigol. junipera 
sfortia patria a marito recepto ex voto p. MCCCCCXIII." This altarpiece is said by 
Laderchi (Pitt. Ferrar., p. 103) to contain portraits of Ginevra Sforza and Con- 
stanzo II., her son. The figures are of life-size ; style, a mixture of Francia, 
Rondinello, and Zaganelli ; colour, rosy, clear, and empty ; the inscription is 
renewed or new altogether. [* This picture is now in the Brera Gallery at 
Milan.] (3) Louvre, No. 1381. Wood, m. 0'53 high by O50. Bust of the 
Saviour carrying his cross, inscribed : " Hieronymus Marchiegius Cotignola . . ." 
The date 1520 in the catalogue is doubtful, and the style of the picture 
shows it to be of an early time. This is a lean suffering Christ, with a 
rigid expression of pain ; the colour is dull without modulation and much rubbed 
down. The most remarkable thing is the execution, which is most minute and 
finished. (4) Bologna, Pinac., No. 108. Marriage of the Virgin. Arched panel 
with many figures nearly large as life imitation of Innocenzo da Imola and 
Bagnacavallo, free and bold, overcharged with people and heavy in tone. (5) Same 
gallery, No. 278. Panel, life-size, from the suppressed Company of San Bernardino. 
Virgin kissing the Infant Christ, the boy Baptist below, and at the sides SS. Fran- 
cis and Bernardino. This is still more freely treated than the last, the boy 
St. John in the Raphaelesque manner, the Virgin not unlike a creation of Caroto. 
The colouring is dull and purple in shadow. This piece is said to have been done 
in 1520 ; it looks more modern. In the same manner : (6) Berlin Museum, No. 290, 
dated 1516. Panel, 2 ft. 6 in. high by 1 ft. 11 in. Marriage of the Virgin. [* This 
picture is at present on loan to the Communal Gallery at Erfurt.] (7) No. 268. 
St. Bernard and his Disciples, inscribed : " Hieronymus Cottignol's F. MDXXVI." 
Wood, 6 ft. 5 in. high by 4ft. ll|in. (8) Bologna, Pinac., No. 288. The Angel appear- 
ing to St. Joseph, Nativity, and Flight into Egypt; three small panels in one 
predella, it is supposed of the Sposalizio, No. 108. This predella is boldly handled, 


days were spent in visiting the Roman States and Naples ; and, 
if we believe Vasari, he painted a portrait of Paul III. (1534-49). 
Having been entrapped into a marriage with a woman of ill fame, 
he is said to have died of a broken heart at Rome in the sixty- 
ninth year of his age. 2 

but heavy in the shape of the figures. (9) Bologna, Santa Maria in Vado, hospital 
Martyrdom of St. Sebastian ; much injured, with a signature of which the word 
" Hieronimus " alone is legible. Allegorical figures of Justice and Fortitude in 
the Cappella Varano of this church we have not seen. The same may be said of the 
Virgin giving the breast to the Child, attended by SS. John the Baptist, Anthony 
the Abbot, and a patron, once in San Tommaso of Forli ; of the Four Evangelists at 
San Michele in Bosco at Bologna (Laderchi, Pitt. Ferrar., p. 103). At Rome 
and Naples and Eimini nothing of this painter's hand is to be observed. 

* The paintings which Marches! executed in the Duomo of Rimini between 
1513 and 1516 were destroyed by an earthquake in 1672. See Grigioni, in UArte 
xiii. 291 sqq. 



rpHAT travellers should invariably, and almost exclusively, 
J- c